Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Evelyn Obioma

21 Obioma's 'The Fishermen' and the Redefinition of African Postcolonial Narrative Tragedy

Authors: Ezechi Onyerionwu

Abstract:

If there is a modern world literary culture that has so tremendously patronized the tragic mode, it has to be that of Africa, and this has been largely true to the extent that the African socio-historical process has been given strong projection by its literature and other art forms. From the three-century-long transatlantic slave trade which brutally translocated millions of Africans to the ‘outermost parts of the earth’, to the vicious partitioning of Africa among European powers and the subsequent imposition of colonial authority on a pulverized people, Africa has really been at the receiving end of the big negatives of global transactions. The African tale has largely been one long tragic narrative. However, the postcolonial African tragic saga has presented an interesting variety of forms and approaches, which have seen to the production of some of the most thought-provoking and acclaimed African novels of the late 20th and early 21st century. Some of the defining characteristics of the African tragic prose has been: the exploration of the many neocolonial implications of the African contemporary existence; the significance of the robust interplay between the essentially foreign, and the originally indigenous elements of the modern African society; and the implosive aftermaths of the individual modern African’s attempt to rationalize his position at the centre of a very complex society. Obioma’s incredible novel, The Fishermen, is in many ways, a classic of the African postcolonial narrative tragedy. The reasons for this bold categorization would occupy the present paper.

Keywords: Postcolonial literature, African narrative tragedy, neocolonialism, twenty first century African literature

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20 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi

Abstract:

The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: Manure, effects, cucumber, growth and yield

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19 A Strategy for the Application of Second-Order Monte Carlo Algorithms to Petroleum Exploration and Production Projects

Authors: Obioma Uche

Abstract:

Due to the recent volatility in oil & gas prices as well as increased development of non-conventional resources, it has become even more essential to critically evaluate the profitability of petroleum prospects prior to making any investment decisions. Traditionally, simple Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms have been used to randomly sample probability distributions of economic and geological factors (e.g. price, OPEX, CAPEX, reserves, productive life, etc.) in order to obtain probability distributions for profitability metrics such as Net Present Value (NPV). In recent years, second-order MC algorithms have been shown to offer an advantage over simple MC techniques due to the added consideration of uncertainties associated with the probability distributions of the relevant variables. Here, a strategy for the application of the second-order MC technique to a case study is demonstrated to analyze its effectiveness as a tool for portfolio management.

Keywords: risk analysis, Profitability, Portfolio Management, Monte Carlo Algorithms

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18 Investigating Water-Oxidation Using a Ru(III) Carboxamide Water Coordinated Complex

Authors: Yosra M. Badiei, Evelyn Ortiz, Marisa Portenti, David Szalda

Abstract:

Water-oxidation half-reaction is a critical reaction that can be driven by a sustainable energy source (e.g., solar or wind) and be coupled with a chemical fuel making reaction which stores the released electrons and protons from water (e.g., H₂ or methanol). The use of molecular water-oxidation catalysts (WOC) allow the rationale design of redox active metal centers and provides a better understanding of their structure-activity-relationship. Herein, the structure of a Ru(III) complex bearing a doubly deprotonated N,N'-bis(aryl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide ligand which contains a water molecule in its primary coordination sphere was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Further spectroscopic experimental data and pH-dependent electrochemical studies reveal its water-oxidation reactivity. Emphasis on mechanistic details for O₂ formation of this complex will be addressed.

Keywords: Catalysis, Artificial Photosynthesis, ruthenium, water-oxidation

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17 Lean: A Sustainable Approach to Design and Construction for Environmental Sustainability

Authors: Evelyn Lami Ashelo Allu, Fidelis A. Emuze

Abstract:

This study aims to contribute to the pursuit of environmental sustainability through the built environment practices of design and construction. Activities within the built environment and particularly within the construction industry have a significant role in ensuring environmental sustainability. The adoption of Lean principles and approaches would ensure that project deliverables are sustainable. This is because the processes that integrate lean principles reduce waste, add value to productivity, ensures customer satisfaction and are mindful of future productivity. Additionally, the lean principles for development are sustainable in themselves and thus promotes environmental sustainability. The study encourages further research with other methodologies and recommends the development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in order to promote the global concern for environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Design, Construction, Built Environment, Sustainability, Lean

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16 Emerging Issues in Early Childhood Care and Development in Nigeria

Authors: Evelyn Fabian

Abstract:

The focus of this discussion centres on the emerging issues in Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Early childhood care is the bedrock of Nigeria’s educational system. However, there are critical issues that had not been addressed and it is frustrating the entire educational process. Thus, this paper will show the inter-connectedness between these issues such as poor funding, trained skillful teachers that would supervise the learning process of the kids, unconducive learning environment and lack of relevant facilities. For a clear grasp of these issues, the researcher visited 36 early childhood centres distributed across the 36 spates of Nigeria. The findings which were expressed in simple percentages revealed a near total absence or government neglect of these critical areas. The findings equally showed a misplaced priority in the government allocation of funds to early child care education and development. The study concludes that this mismatch in the training of these categories of pupils, government should expedite action in addressing these emerging issues in early childhood care and development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Early Childhood, ECCE, emerging issues

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15 The Juxtaposition of Home in Toni Morrison's Home: Ironic Functions as Trauma and Healing

Authors: Imas Istiani

Abstract:

The concept of home is usually closely related to the place of safety and security. For people who have travelled far and long, they long to be united with home to feel safe, secure and comfortable. However, for some people, especially for veterans, home cannot offer them those feelings, on the contrary, it can give them the sense of insecurity as well as guilty. Thus, its juxtaposed concept can also put home as an uncanny place that represses and haunt its occupant. As for veterans, 'survivor guilt' overpowers them in the way that it will be hard for them to embrace the comfort that home offers. In Home, Toni Morrison poignantly depicts Frank’s life upon returning from the war. Burdened with his traumatic experiences, Frank finds home full with terror, guilt, fear, grief, and loss. Using Dominick laCapra’s 'Trauma Theory,' the study finds that Frank works through his trauma by being able to distinguish between past and present so that he can overcome those repressed feelings. Aside from his inner healing power, Frank digests the process of working through with the help of home and community, as proposed by Evelyn Jaffe Schreiber claiming that community can help survivors to heal from traumatic experiences. Thus, Home has two juxtaposed functions; both as traumatizing and healing place.

Keywords: Trauma, Healing, trauma theory, home

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14 Effect of Vermicompost and Vermitea on the Growth and Yield of Selected Vegetable Crops

Authors: Josephine R. Migalbin, Jurhamid C. Imlan, Evelyn P. Esteban

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost and vermitea as organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of selected vegetable crops specifically eggplant, tomatoes and sweet pepper. The study was laid-out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 treatments replicated 4 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment I (control), Treatment II (vermitea), Treatment III (vermicompost with buffalo manure), and Treatment IV (vermicompost with goat and sheep manure). In all the vegetable crops, almost all parameters significantly increased compared with the control except for number of fruits in eggplant and plant height in tomatoes where no significant difference was observed among treatments. The highest marketable fruit yield (tons/ha) was obtained from plants applied with vermicompost with goat and sheep manure but comparable with plants applied with vermicompost with buffalo manure and vermitea while the control plots received the lowest yield. The 28 spotted beetle (Epilachna philippinensis), and shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) were the serious pests observed in the study on eggplant.

Keywords: vegetable crops, vermicompost, marketable fruit yield, vermitea

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13 Survey of Selected Pathogenic Bacteria in Chickens from Rural Households in Limpopo Province

Authors: Ignatious Ncube, M. Lizzy Madiwani, Evelyn Madoroba

Abstract:

This study was designed to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in household raised chickens and study their virulence and antibiotic profiles. For this purpose, 40 chickens were purchased from families in the Capricorn district and sacrificed for sampling. Tissues were cultured on different bacteriological media followed by biotyping using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). Disk diffusion test was performed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria. Out of a total of 160 tissue samples evaluated, E. coli and Salmonella were detected in these tissues. Furthermore, determination of the pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains at species level using primer sets that target selected genes of interest in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed. The invA gene, a confirmatory gene of Salmonella was detected in all the Salmonella isolates. The study revealed that there is a high distribution of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli in these chickens. Therefore, further studies on identification at the species level are highly recommended to provide management and sanitation practices to lower this prevalence. The antimicrobial susceptibly data generated from this study can be a valuable reference to veterinarians for treating bacterial diseases in poultry.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Pathogens, Escherichia coli, salmonella

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12 Enhancement of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Teacher Trainers by Fun Game Learning Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananathan M. Nadarajah, Saraswathy Vellasamy, Evelyn Gnanam William George

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore how the fun game-learning approach enhances teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills. Two-day fun filled fun game learning-approach was introduced to teacher trainers as a Continuous Professional Development Program (CPD). 26 teacher trainers participated in this Transformation of Teaching and Learning Fun Way Program, organized by Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia. Qualitative research technique was adopted as the researchers observed the participants’ higher order thinking skills developed during the program. Data were collected from observational checklist; interview transcriptions of four participants and participants’ reflection notes. All the data were later analyzed with NVivo data analysis process. The finding of this study presented five main themes, which are critical thinking, hands on activities, creating, application and use of technology. The studies showed that the teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills were enhanced after the two-day CPD program. Therefore, Institute of Teacher Education will have more success using the fun way game-learning approach to develop higher order thinking skills among its teacher trainers who can implement these skills to their trainee teachers in future. This study also added knowledge to Constructivism learning theory, which will further highlight the prominence of the fun way learning approach to enhance higher order thinking skills.

Keywords: constructivism, teacher trainer, game-learning approach, higher order thinking skill

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11 The Application and Relevance of Costing Techniques in Service-Oriented Business Organizations a Review of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Technique

Authors: Udeh Nneka Evelyn

Abstract:

The shortcoming of traditional costing system in terms of validity, accuracy, consistency, and Relevance increased the need for modern management accounting system. Activity –Based Costing (ABC) can be used as a modern tool for planning, Control and decision making for management. Past studies on ABC system have focused on manufacturing firms thereby making the studies on service firms scanty to some extent. This paper reviewed the application and relevance of activity-based costing technique in service oriented business organizations by employing a qualitative research method which relied heavily on literature review of past and current relevant articles focusing on ABC. Findings suggest that ABC is not only appropriate for use in a manufacturing environment; it is also most appropriate for service organizations such as financial institutions, the healthcare industry and government organization. In fact, some banking and financial institutions have been applying the concept for years under other names. One of them is unit costing, which is used to calculate the cost of banking services by determining the cost and consumption of each unit of output of functions required to deliver the service. ABC in very basic terms may provide very good payback for businesses. Some of the benefits that relate directly to the financial services industry are: identification the most profitable customers: more accurate product and service pricing: increase product profitability: Well organized process costs.

Keywords: Business, Planning, Techniques, Organizations, costing

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10 Analysis to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of Students in Eulogio 'Amang' Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology: A Foundation of Conceptualizing Substantial Plan of Action

Authors: Eriberto R. Astorga Jr., Herbert D. Vertucio, Evelyn M. Polison

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to determine the analysis with regards to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of EARIST Students according to their origin of self-esteem and low self-esteem as well as its causes. The respondents of this study are three thousand three hundred twenty three (3,323) randomly selected students from eight colleges of EARIST such as Arts and Sciences, Education, Public Administration and Criminology, Business Administration, Hospitality Management, Architecture and Fine Arts, Engineering, and Industrial Technology. A survey was conducted by using a validated questionnaire for information gathering about respondents profile and different factors relating to self-esteem of students such as self-origin, familial and social relationship, financial situation and education. Frequency, percentage, ranking and standards deviation, standard t-test and ANOVA were applied to investigate the differences of the answers of the respondents to the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons for low self-esteem. The results revealed that there are no significant differences in the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons of low esteem as to the eight group of respondent’s. Moreover, most causes of low esteem are caused by hearing a comment or experiencing an incident that has a negative impact student mentally and emotionally, poor health, being bullied, lack of support from family, friends, and job loss, experiencing verbal and sexual abuse and are in a violent relationship, feelings of isolation, divorce, dysfunctional family, death and lack of achievement at work and at school, trying to conform to stereotypes and prove our independence from our parents.

Keywords: Characterization, profile, self-esteem, plan of action

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9 The Application and Relevance of Costing Techniques in Service Oriented Business Organisations: A Review of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Technique

Authors: Udeh Nneka Evelyn

Abstract:

The shortcomings of traditional costing system, in terms of validity, accuracy, consistency and relevance increased the need for modern management accounting system. ABC (Activity-Based Costing) can be used as a modern tool for planning, control and decision making for management. Past studies on activity-based costing (ABC) system have focused on manufacturing firms thereby making the studies on service firms scanty to some extent. This paper reviewed the application and relevance of activity-based costing techniques in service oriented business organisations by employing a qualitative research method which relied heavily on literature review of past and current relevant articles focusing on activity-based costing (ABC). Findings suggest that ABC is not only appropriate for use in a manufacturing environment; it is also most appropriate for service organizations such as financial institutions, the healthcare industry, and government organizations. In fact, some banking and financial institutions have been applying the concept for years under other names. One of them is unit costing, which is used to calculate the cost of banking services by determining the cost and consumption of each unit of output of functions required to deliver the service. ABC in very basic terms may provide very good payback for businesses. Some of the benefits that relate directly to the financial services industry are: Identification of the most profitable customers; more accurate product and service pricing; increase product profitability; well-organized process costs.

Keywords: Management Accounting, Manufacture, Profitability, activity-based costing (ABC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
8 [Keynote Talk]: Uptake of Co(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Biopolymers and Their Hybrid

Authors: Abel E. Navarro, Kateryna Zhdanova, Evelyn Szeinbaum, Michelle Lo, Yeonjae Jo

Abstract:

Alginate hydrogel beads (AB), spent peppermint leaf (PM), and a hybrid adsorbent of these two materials (ABPM) were studied as potential biosorbents of Cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Cobalt ion is a commonly underestimated pollutant that is responsible for several health problems. Discontinuous batch experiments were conducted at room temperature to evaluate the effect of solution acidity, mass of adsorbent on the adsorption of Co(II) ions. The interfering effect of salinity, the presence of surfactants, an organic dye, and Pb(II) ions were also studied to resemble the application of these adsorbents in real wastewater. Equilibrium results indicate that Co(II) uptake is maximized at pH values higher than 5, with adsorbent doses of 200 mg, 200 mg, and 120 mg for AB, PM, and ABPM, respectively. Co(II) adsorption followed the trend AB > ABPM > PM with Adsorption percentages of 77%, 71% and 64%, respectively. Salts had a strong negative effect on the adsorption due to the increase of the ionic strength and the competition for adsorption sites. The presence of Pb(II) ions, surfactant, and dye BY57 had a slightly negative effect on the adsorption, apparently due to their interaction with different adsorption sites that do not interfere with the removal of Co(II). A polar-electrostatic adsorption mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that adsorbent has appropriate morphological and textural properties, and also that ABPM encapsulated most of the PM inside of the hydrogel beads. These experimental results revealed that AB, PM, and ABPM are promising adsorbents for the elimination of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. These biopolymers are proposed as eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal ions at lower costs than the conventional techniques.

Keywords: Adsorption, spent peppermint leaf, Co(II) ions, alginate hydrogel beads

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7 Egg Yolk and Serum Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Garlic and Natural Cocoa Powder Using Laying Birds as Model

Authors: Onyimonyi Anselm Ego, Obi-Keguna Christy, Dim Emmanuel Chinonso, Ugwuanyi Evelyn, Uzochukwu Ifeanyi Emmanuel

Abstract:

A total of 144 Shaver Brown Layers in their sixteenth week of lay were used in a twelve weeks study to evaluate the egg yolk and serum cholesterol of the birds when fed varying dietary combinations of garlic and natural cocoa powder. The birds were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments with 16 birds per treatment. Each bird was housed separately in a cage measuring 45 cm x 35 cm in an open sided battery cage house typical of the tropics. A standard poultry mash diet with 16.5% CP and 2800 KcalME/kg was formulated as the basal ration which also served as the control diet. Garlic and natural cocoa powder were incorporated in varying combinations (50 g or 100 g/100 kg of feed) in the remaining eight treatments. Weekly data of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight and hen day egg production were kept. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol levels were determined using a Randox kit. Results showed that birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder had significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg and albumen weight as compared to control birds. Hen day production of the birds was also significantly higher than control birds. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol of birds receiving the garlic and natural cocoa powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Serum cholesterol levels showed decline in the birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder. The least yolk cholesterol level of 160 mg/dl was observed in birds receiving 50g garlic and 50 g natural cocoa powder (Treatment 5). Control birds had an egg cholesterol level of 245.45 mg/dl. It was concluded that incorporating garlic and natural cocoa powder in the diets of laying hens can result in a significant reduction in the egg and serum cholesterol levels.

Keywords: cholesterol, serum, garlic, egg

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6 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann

Abstract:

Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.

Keywords: raspberry, freeze drying, foam drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying

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5 Healthy Feeding and Drinking Troughs for Profitable Intensive Deep-Litter Poultry Farming

Authors: Godwin Ojochogu Adejo, Evelyn UnekwuOjo Adejo, Sunday UnenwOjo Adejo

Abstract:

The mainstream contemporary approach to controlling the impact of diseases among poultry birds rely largely on curative measures through the administration of drugs to infected birds. Most times as observed in the deep liter poultry farming system, entire flocks including uninfected birds receive the treatment they do not need. As such, unguarded use of chemical drugs and antibiotics has led to wastage and accumulation of chemical residues in poultry products with associated health hazards to humans. However, wanton and frequent drug usage in poultry is avoidable if feeding and drinking equipment are designed to curb infection transmission among birds. Using toxicological assays as guide and with efficiency and simplicity in view, two newly field-tested and recently patented equipments called 'healthy liquid drinking trough (HDT)' and 'healthy feeding trough (HFT)' that systematically eliminate contamination of the feeding and drinking channels, thereby, curbing wide-spread infection and transmission of diseases in the (intensive) deep litter poultry farming system were designed. Upon combined usage, they automatically and drastically reduced both the amount and frequency of antibiotics use in poultry by over > 50%. Additionally, they conferred optimization of feed and water utilization/elimination of wastage by > 80%, reduced labour by > 70%, reduced production cost by about 15%, and reduced chemical residues in poultry meat or eggs by > 85%. These new and cheap technologies which require no energy input are likely to elevate safety of poultry products for consumers' health, increase marketability locally and for export, and increase output and profit especially among poultry farmers and poor people who keep poultry or inevitably utilize poultry products in developing countries.

Keywords: Healthy, Poultry, trough, toxicological, assay-guided

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4 Annual August Meetings as a Stimulator for Female Empowerment: Case Study Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka Evelyn Udeh

Abstract:

Women’s economic participation and empowerment are fundamental to strengthening women’s rights and enabling women to have control over their lives and exert influence in the society. The economic empowerment of women is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the achievement of all the millennium development Goals (MDGs). For women to be in development they need to be empowered morally, socially, economically, and financially and this is why women in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria meet every August, the eighth month of the year to discuss matters relating to the pursuit of women empowerment, community welfare, and national development. This exploratory study depicts how annual august meetings serve as a stimulator for female empowerment with a case study Udi Local Government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. The paper finds that ‘August Meeting’ is a regular annual occurrence in Udi Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria particularly for married women and is designed to better the lot of women, the child, family, the church, and the Community. Through this forum, with its seminars and workshops, women have the opportunity to learn everything about womanhood and how to chart new courses of action and sources of empowerment. The gathering gives women the opportunity to be integrated into their community development projects, and having women as stakeholders and not mere observers helps guarantee a speedy and steady community and overall national development progress. Funds are raised for community development projects through annual dues, levies, donations, fines, sales, income from money-yielding ventures, endowment and investiture. Annual August meeting also known as ‘Mothers Summit’ is indeed a powerful stimulator for female empowerment. Support and invigoration of this women initiative is essential for sustainable emancipation of female gender, not just in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria but globally.

Keywords: Sustainability, Emancipation, Women Empowerment, national development, annual august meeting, Udi Lga, mothers' summit, stimulator, community welfare, millennium development goal

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3 Safety Evaluation of Post-Consumer Recycled PET Materials in Chilean Industry by Overall Migration Tests

Authors: Evelyn Ilabaca, Ximena Valenzuela, Alejandra Torres, María José Galotto, Abel Guarda

Abstract:

One of the biggest problems in food packaging industry, especially with the plastic materials, is the fact that these materials are usually obtained from non-renewable resources and also remain as waste after its use, causing environmental issues. This is an international concern and particular attention is given to reduction, reuse and recycling strategies for decreasing the waste from plastic packaging industry. In general, polyethylenes represent most plastic waste and recycling process of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PCR-PET) has been studied. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) have generated different legislative documents to control the use of PCR-PET in the production of plastic packaging intended direct food contact in order to ensure the capacity of recycling process to remove possible contaminants that can migrate into food. Consequently, it is necessary to demonstrate by challenge test that the recycling process is able to remove specific contaminants, obtaining a safe recycled plastic to human health. These documents establish that the concentration limit for substitute contaminants in PET is 220 ppb (ug/kg) and the specific migration limit is 10 ppb (ug/kg) for each contaminant, in addition to assure the sensorial characteristics of food are not affected. Moreover, under the Commission Regulation (EU) N°10/2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, it is established that overall migration limit is 10 mg of substances per 1 dm2 of surface area of the plastic material. Thus, the aim of this work is to determine the safety of PCR-PET-containing food packaging materials in Chile by measuring their overall migration, and their comparison with the established limits at international level. This information will serve as a basis to provide a regulation to control and regulate the use of recycled plastic materials in the manufacture of plastic packaging intended to be in direct contact with food. The methodology used involves a procedure according to EN-1186:2002 with some modifications. The food simulants used were ethanol 10 % (v/v) and acetic acid 3 % (v/v) as aqueous food simulants, and ethanol 95 % (v/v) and isooctane as substitutes of fatty food simulants. In this study, preliminary results showed that Chilean food packaging plastics with different PCR-PET percentages agree with the European Legislation for food aqueous character.

Keywords: Contaminants, Recycling, polyethylene terephthalate, plastic food packaging

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2 Investigating Educator Perceptions of Body-Rich Language on Student Self-Image, Body-Consciousness and School Climate

Authors: Evelyn Bilias-Lolis, Emily Louise Winter

Abstract:

Schools have a responsibility to implement school-wide frameworks that actively prevent, detect, and support all aspects of child development and learning. Such efforts can range from individual or classroom-level supports to school-wide primary prevention practices for the school’s infrastructure or climate. This study assessed the perceptions of educators across a variety of disciplines in Connecticut (i.e., elementary and secondary education, special education, school psychology, and school social work) on the perceived impact of their beliefs, language, and behavior about food and body consciousness on student self-image and school climate. Participants (N=50) completed a short electronic questionnaire measuring perceptions of how their behavior can influence their students’ opinions about themselves, their emerging self-image, and the overall climate of the school community. Secondly, the beliefs that were directly assessed in the first portion of the survey were further measured through the use of applied social vignettes involving students directly or as bystanders. Preliminary findings are intriguing. When asked directly, 100% of the respondents reported that what they say to students directly could influence student opinions about themselves and 98% of participants further agreed that their behavior both to and in front of students could impact a student’s developing self-image. Likewise, 82% of the sample agreed that their personal language and behavior affect the overall climate of a school building. However, when the above beliefs were assessed via applied social vignettes depicting routine social exchanges, results were significantly more widespread (i.e., results were evenly dispersed among levels of agreement and disagreement across participants in all areas). These preliminary findings offer humble but critical implications for informing integrated school wellness frameworks that aim to create body-sensitive school communities. Research indicates that perceptions about body image, attitudes about eating, and the onset of disordered eating practices surface in school-aged years. Schools provide a natural setting for instilling foundations for child wellness as a natural extension of existing school climate reform efforts. These measures do not always need to be expansive or extreme. Rather, educators have a ripe opportunity to become champions for health and wellness through increased self-awareness and subtle shifts in language and behavior. Future psychological research needs to continue to explore this line of inquiry using larger and more varied samples of educators in order to identify needs in teacher training and development that can yield positive and preventative health outcomes for children.

Keywords: body-sensitive schools, integrated school health, school climate reform, teacher awareness

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1 Northern Nigeria Vaccine Direct Delivery System

Authors: Evelyn Castle, Adam Thompson

Abstract:

Background: In 2013, the Kano State Primary Health Care Management Board redesigned its Routine immunization supply chain from diffused pull to direct delivery push. It addressed issues around stockouts and reduced time spent by health facility staff collecting, and reporting on vaccine usage. The health care board sought the help of a 3PL for twice-monthly deliveries from its cold store to 484 facilities across 44 local governments. eHA’s Health Delivery Systems group formed a 3PL to serve 326 of these new facilities in partnership with the State. We focused on designing and implementing a technology system throughout. Basic methodologies: GIS Mapping: - Planning the delivery of vaccines to hundreds of health facilities requires detailed route planning for delivery vehicles. Mapping the road networks across Kano and Bauchi with a custom routing tool provided information for the optimization of deliveries. Reducing the number of kilometers driven each round by 20%, - reducing cost and delivery time. Direct Delivery Information System: - Vaccine Direct Deliveries are facilitated through pre-round planning (driven by health facility database, extensive GIS, and inventory workflow rules), manager and driver control panel customizing delivery routines and reporting, progress dashboard, schedules/routes, packing lists, delivery reports, and driver data collection applications. Move: Last Mile Logistics Management System: - MOVE has improved vaccine supply information management to be timely, accurate and actionable. Provides stock management workflow support, alerts management for cold chain exceptions/stock outs, and on-device analytics for health and supply chain staff. Software was built to be offline-first with user-validated interface and experience. Deployed to hundreds of vaccine storage site the improved information tools helps facilitate the process of system redesign and change management. Findings: - Stock-outs reduced from 90% to 33% - Redesigned current health systems and managing vaccine supply for 68% of Kano’s wards. - Near real time reporting and data availability to track stock. - Paperwork burdens of health staff have been dramatically reduced. - Medicine available when the community needs it. - Consistent vaccination dates for children under one to prevent polio, yellow fever, tetanus. - Higher immunization rates = Lower infection rates. - Hundreds of millions of Naira worth of vaccines successfully transported. - Fortnightly service to 326 facilities in 326 wards across 30 Local Government areas. - 6,031 cumulative deliveries. - Over 3.44 million doses transported. - Minimum travel distance covered in a round of delivery is 2000 kms & maximum of 6297 kms. - 153,409 kms travelled by 6 drivers. - 500 facilities in 326 wards. - Data captured and synchronized for the first time. - Data driven decision making now possible. Conclusion: eHA’s Vaccine Direct delivery has met challenges in Kano and Bauchi State and provided a reliable delivery service of vaccinations that ensure t health facilities can run vaccination clinics for children under one. eHA uses innovative technology that delivers vaccines from Northern Nigerian zonal stores straight to healthcare facilities. Helped healthcare workers spend less time managing supplies and more time delivering care, and will be rolled out nationally across Nigeria.

Keywords: Vaccines, Northern Nigeria, direct delivery information system, health delivery system, GIS mapping

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