Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Aigerim Jaxybayeva

6 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

Abstract:

In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, poultry manure, ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery

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5 Climate Physical Processes Mathematical Modeling for Dome-Like Traditional Residential Building

Authors: Aigerim Uyzbayeva, Valeriya Tyo, Artem Sedov

Abstract:

The presented article is showing results of dynamic modeling with Mathlab software of optimal automatic room climate control system for two experimental houses in Astana, one of which has circle plan and the other one has square plan. These results are showing that building geometry doesn't influence on climate system PID-controls configuring. This confirms theoretical implication that optimal automatic climate control system parameters configuring should depend on building's internal space volume, envelope heat transfer, number of people inside, supply ventilation air flow and outdoor temperature.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, climate control system, climate physics, dome-like building

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4 Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan

Authors: Aigerim Uyzbayeva, Valeriya Tyo, Nurlan Ibrayev

Abstract:

Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption. Thus, country consumes a significant amount of energy due to the high level of industralisation and the presence of energy-intensive manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of renewable energy sources is summarised, followed by the description of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of energy efficiency are described.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development, Greenhouse gases, energy efficiency in Kazakhstan

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3 Development of Strategy for Enhanced Production of Industrial Enzymes by Microscopic Fungi in Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Zhanara Suleimenova, Raushan Blieva, Aigerim Zhakipbekova, Inkar Tapenbayeva, Zhanar Narmuratova

Abstract:

Green processes are based on innovative technologies that do not negatively affect the environment. Industrial enzymes originated from biological systems can effectively contribute to sustainable development through being isolated from microorganisms which are fermented using primarily renewable resources. Many widespread microorganisms secrete a significant amount of biocatalysts into the environment, which greatly facilitates the task of their isolation and purification. The ability to control the enzyme production through the regulation of their biosynthesis and the selection of nutrient media and cultivation conditions allows not only to increase the yield of enzymes but also to obtain enzymes with certain properties. In this regard, large potentialities are embedded in immobilized cells. Enzyme production technology in a secreted active form enabling industrial application on an economically feasible scale has been developed. This method is based on the immobilization of enzyme producers on a solid career. Immobilizing has a range of advantages: decreasing the price of the final product, absence of foreign substances, controlled process of enzyme-genesis, the ability of various enzymes' simultaneous production, etc. Design of proposed equipment gives the opportunity to increase the activity of immobilized cell culture filtrate comparing to free cells, growing in periodic culture conditions. Such technology allows giving a 10-times raise in culture productivity, to prolong the process of fungi cultivation and periods of active culture liquid generation. Also, it gives the way to improve the quality of filtrates (to make them more clear) and exclude time-consuming processes of recharging fermentative vials, that require manual removing of mycelium.

Keywords: microscopic fungi, immobilization, submerged fermentation, industrial enzymes

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2 Catalytic Alkylation of C2-C4 Hydrocarbons

Authors: Bolysbek Utelbayev, Tasmagambetova Aigerim, Toktasyn Raila, Markayev Yergali, Myrzakhanov Maxat

Abstract:

Intensive development of secondary processes of destructive processing of crude oil has led to the occurrence of oil refining factories resources of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. Except for oil gases also contain basically C2-C4 hydrocarbon gases where some of the amounts are burned. All these data has induced interest to the study of producing alkylate from hydrocarbons С2-С4 which being as components of motor fuels. The purpose of this work was studying transformation propane-propene, butane-butene fractions at the presence of the ruthenium-chromic support catalyst whereas the carrier is served pillar - structural montmorillonite containing in native bentonite clay. In this work is considered condition and structure of the bentonite clay from the South-Kazakhstan area of the Republic Kazakhstan. For preparation rhodium support catalyst (0,5-1,0 mass. % Rh) was used chloride of rhodium-RhCl3∙3H2O, as a carrier was used modified bentonite clay. For modifying natural clay to pillar structural form were used polyhydroxy complexes of chromium. To aqueous solution of chloride chromium gradually flowed the solution of sodium hydroxide at gradual hashing up to pH~3-4. The concentration of chloride chromium was paid off proceeding from calculation 5-30 mmole Cr3+ per gram clay. Suspension bentonite (~1,0 mass. %) received by intensive washing it in water during 4 h, pH-water extract of clay makes -8-9. The acidity of environment supervised by means of digital pH meter OP-208/1. In order to prevent coagulation of a solution polyhydroxy complexes of chromium, it was slowly added to a suspension of clay. "Reserve of basicity" Cr3+:/OH-allowing to prevent coagulation chloride of rhodium made 1/3. After endurance processed suspensions of clay during 24 h, a deposit was washed by water and condensed. The sample, after separate from a liquid phase, dried at first at the room temperature, and then at 110°C (2h) with the subsequent rise the temperature up to 180°C (4h). After cooling the firm mass was pounded to a powder, it was shifted infractions with the certain sizes of particles. Fractions of particles modifying clay in the further were impregnated with an aqueous solution with rhodium-RhCl3∙3H2O (0,5-1,0 mаss % Rh ). Obtained pillar structural bentonite approaches heat resistance and its porous structure above the 773K. Pillar structural bentonite was used for preparation 1.0% Ru/Carrier (modifying bentonite) support catalysts where is realised alkylation of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. The process of alkylation is carried out at a partial pressure of hydrogen 0.5-1.0MPa. Outcome 2.2.4 three methyl pentane and 2.2.3 trimethylpentane achieved 40%. At alkylation butane-butene mixture outcome of the isooctane is achieved 60%. In this condition of studying the ethene is not undergoing to alkylation.

Keywords: butene, alkylation, pillar structure, ruthenium catalyst

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1 The Inverse Problem in the Process of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Multilayer Walling

Authors: Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Nazerke Rysbayeva, Aigerim Rysbayeva

Abstract:

Relevance: Energy saving elevated to public policy in almost all developed countries. One of the areas for energy efficiency is improving and tightening design standards. In the tie with the state standards, make high demands for thermal protection of buildings. Constructive arrangement of layers should ensure normal operation in which the humidity of materials of construction should not exceed a certain level. Elevated levels of moisture in the walls can be attributed to a defective condition, as moisture significantly reduces the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of materials. Absence at the design stage of modeling the processes occurring in the construction and predict the behavior of structures during their work in the real world leads to an increase in heat loss and premature aging structures. Method: To solve this problem, widely used method of mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer in materials. The mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer are taken into the equation interconnected layer [1]. In winter, the thermal and hydraulic conductivity characteristics of the materials are nonlinear and depends on the temperature and moisture in the material. In this case, the experimental method of determining the coefficient of the freezing or thawing of the material becomes much more difficult. Therefore, in this paper we propose an approximate method for calculating the thermal conductivity and moisture permeability characteristics of freezing or thawing material. Questions. Following the development of methods for solving the inverse problem of mathematical modeling allows us to answer questions that are closely related to the rational design of fences: Where the zone of condensation in the body of the multi-layer fencing; How and where to apply insulation rationally his place; Any constructive activities necessary to provide for the removal of moisture from the structure; What should be the temperature and humidity conditions for the normal operation of the premises enclosing structure; What is the longevity of the structure in terms of its components frost materials. Tasks: The proposed mathematical model to solve the following problems: To assess the condition of the thermo-physical designed structures at different operating conditions and select appropriate material layers; Calculate the temperature field in a structurally complex multilayer structures; When measuring temperature and moisture in the characteristic points to determine the thermal characteristics of the materials constituting the surveyed construction; Laboratory testing to significantly reduce test time, and eliminates the climatic chamber and expensive instrumentation experiments and research; Allows you to simulate real-life situations that arise in multilayer enclosing structures associated with freezing, thawing, drying and cooling of any layer of the building material.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Energy Saving, Inverse problem, multilayer walling

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