Search results for: Matteo Lelli
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Matteo Lelli

26 The Application of Hellomac Rockfall Alert System in Rockfall Barriers: An Explainer

Authors: Kinjal Parmar, Matteo Lelli

Abstract:

The usage of IoT technology as a rockfall alert system is relatively new. This paper explains the potential of such an alert system called HelloMac from Maccaferri which provides transportation infrastructure asset owners the way to effectively utilize their resources in the detection of boulder impacts on rockfall barriers. This would ensure a faster assessment of the impacted barrier and subsequently facilitates the implementation of remedial works in an effective and timely manner. In addition, the HelloMac can also be integrated with another warning system to alert vehicle users of the unseen dangers ahead. HelloMac is developed to work also in remote areas, where cell coverage is not available. User gets notified when a rockfall even occurs via mobile app, SMS and email. Using such alarming systems effectively, we can reduce the risk of rockfall hazard.

Keywords: rockfall, barrier, HelloMac, rockfall alert system

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
25 Ground Improvement with Basal Reinforcement with High Strength Geogrids and PVDs for Embankment over Soft Soils

Authors: Ratnakar Mahajan, Matteo Lelli, Kinjal Parmar

Abstract:

Ground improvement is a very important aspect of infrastructure development, especially when it comes to deep-ground improvement. The use of various geosynthetic applications is very common these days for ground improvement. This paper presents a case study where the combination of two geosynthetic applications was used in order to optimize the design as well as to control the settlements through uniform load distribution. The Agartala-Akaura rail project was made to help increase railway connectivity between India and Bangladesh. Both countries have started the construction of the same. The project requires high railway embankments to be built for the rail link. However, the challenge was to design a proper ground improvement solution as the entire area comprises very soft soil for an average depth of 15m. After due diligence, a combination of two methods was worked out by Maccaferri. PVDs were provided for the consolidation, and on top of that, a layer of high-strength geogrids (Paralink) was proposed as a basal reinforcement. The design approach was followed as described in Indian standards as well as British standards. By introducing a basal reinforcement, the spacing of PVDs could be increased, which allowed quick installation and less material consumption while keeping the consolidation time within the project duration.

Keywords: ground improvement, basal reinforcement, PVDs, high strength geogrids, Paralink

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
24 Electric Vehicles Charging Stations: Strategies and Algorithms Integrated in a Power-Sharing Model

Authors: Riccardo Loggia, Francesca Pizzimenti, Francesco Lelli, Luigi Martirano

Abstract:

Recent air emission regulations point toward the complete electrification of road vehicles. An increasing number of users are beginning to prefer full electric or hybrid, plug-in vehicle solutions, incentivized by government subsidies and the lower cost of electricity compared to gasoline or diesel. However, it is necessary to optimize charging stations so that they can simultaneously satisfy as many users as possible. The purpose of this paper is to present optimization algorithms that enable simultaneous charging of multiple electric vehicles while ensuring maximum performance in relation to the type of charging station.

Keywords: electric vehicles, charging stations, sharing model, fast charging, car park, power profiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
23 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Bernasconi Matteo, Grothkopp Mark, Friedli Thomas

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and human resource management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices

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22 Social Business Models: When Profits and Impacts Are Not at Odds

Authors: Elisa Pautasso, Matteo Castagno, Michele Osella

Abstract:

In the last decade, the emergence of new social needs as an effect of the economic crisis has stimulated the flourishing of business endeavours characterised by explicit social goals. Social start-ups, social enterprises or Corporate Social Responsibility operations carried out by traditional companies are quintessential examples in this regard. This paper analyses these kinds of initiatives in order to discover the main characteristics of social business models and to provide insights to social entrepreneurs for developing or improving their strategies. The research is conducted through the integration of literature review and case study analysis and, thanks to the recognition of the importance of both profits and social impacts as the key success factors for a social business model, proposes a framework for identifying indicators suitable for measuring the social impacts generated.

Keywords: business model, case study, impacts, social business

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
21 Study of Nanocrystalline Scintillator for Alpha Particles Detection

Authors: Azadeh Farzaneh, Mohammad Reza Abdi, A. Quaranta, Matteo Dalla Palma, Seyedshahram Mortazavi

Abstract:

We report on the synthesis of cesium-iodide nanoparticles using sol-gel technique. The structural properties of CsI nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Also, optical properties were followed by optical absorption and UV–vis fluorescence. Intense photoluminescence is also observed, with some spectral tuning possible with ripening time getting a range of emission photon wavelength approximately from 366 to 350 nm. The size effect on CsI luminescence leads to an increase in scintillation light yield, a redshift of the emission bands of the on_center and off_center self_trapped excitons (STEs) and an increase in the contribution of the off_center STEs to the net intrinsic emission yield. The energy transfer from the matrix to CsI nanoparticles is a key characteristic for scintillation detectors. So the scintillation spectra to alpha particles of sample were monitored.

Keywords: nanoparticles, luminescence, sol gel, scintillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 578
20 A Combinatorial Representation for the Invariant Measure of Diffusion Processes on Metric Graphs

Authors: Michele Aleandri, Matteo Colangeli, Davide Gabrielli

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We study a generalization to a continuous setting of the classical Markov chain tree theorem. In particular, we consider an irreducible diffusion process on a metric graph. The unique invariant measure has an atomic component on the vertices and an absolutely continuous part on the edges. We show that the corresponding density at x can be represented by a normalized superposition of the weights associated to metric arborescences oriented toward the point x. A metric arborescence is a metric tree oriented towards its root. The weight of each oriented metric arborescence is obtained by the product of the exponential of integrals of the form ∫a/b², where b is the drift and σ² is the diffusion coefficient, along the oriented edges, for a weight for each node determined by the local orientation of the arborescence around the node and for the inverse of the diffusion coefficient at x. The metric arborescences are obtained by cutting the original metric graph along some edges.

Keywords: diffusion processes, metric graphs, invariant measure, reversibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
19 Predicting Machine-Down of Woodworking Industrial Machines

Authors: Matteo Calabrese, Martin Cimmino, Dimos Kapetis, Martina Manfrin, Donato Concilio, Giuseppe Toscano, Giovanni Ciandrini, Giancarlo Paccapeli, Gianluca Giarratana, Marco Siciliano, Andrea Forlani, Alberto Carrotta

Abstract:

In this paper we describe a machine learning methodology for Predictive Maintenance (PdM) applied on woodworking industrial machines. PdM is a prominent strategy consisting of all the operational techniques and actions required to ensure machine availability and to prevent a machine-down failure. One of the challenges with PdM approach is to design and develop of an embedded smart system to enable the health status of the machine. The proposed approach allows screening simultaneously multiple connected machines, thus providing real-time monitoring that can be adopted with maintenance management. This is achieved by applying temporal feature engineering techniques and training an ensemble of classification algorithms to predict Remaining Useful Lifetime of woodworking machines. The effectiveness of the methodology is demonstrated by testing an independent sample of additional woodworking machines without presenting machine down event.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, machine learning, connected machines, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
18 The Evaluation of Current Pile Driving Prediction Methods for Driven Monopile Foundations in London Clay

Authors: John Davidson, Matteo Castelletti, Ismael Torres, Victor Terente, Jamie Irvine, Sylvie Raymackers

Abstract:

The current industry approach to pile driving predictions consists of developing a model of the hammer-pile-soil system which simulates the relationship between soil resistance to driving (SRD) and blow counts (or pile penetration per blow). The SRD methods traditionally used are broadly based on static pile capacity calculations. The SRD is used in combination with the one-dimensional wave equation model to indicate the anticipated blowcounts with depth for specific hammer energy settings. This approach has predominantly been calibrated on relatively long slender piles used in the oil and gas industry but is now being extended to allow calculations to be undertaken for relatively short rigid large diameter monopile foundations. This paper evaluates the accuracy of current industry practice when applied to a site where large diameter monopiles were installed in predominantly stiff fissured clay. Actual geotechnical and pile installation data, including pile driving records and signal matching analysis (based upon pile driving monitoring techniques), were used for the assessment on the case study site.

Keywords: driven piles, fissured clay, London clay, monopiles, offshore foundations

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
17 IPO Valuation and Profitability Expectations: Evidence from the Italian Exchange

Authors: Matteo Bonaventura, Giancarlo Giudici

Abstract:

This paper analyses the valuation process of companies listed on the Italian Exchange in the period 2000-2009 at their Initial Public Offering (IPO). One the most common valuation techniques declared in the IPO prospectus to determine the offer price is the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method. We develop a ‘reverse engineering’ model to discover the short term profitability implied in the offer prices. We show that there is a significant optimistic bias in the estimation of future profitability compared to ex-post actual realization and the mean forecast error is substantially large. Yet we show that such error characterizes also the estimations carried out by analysts evaluating non-IPO companies. The forecast error is larger the faster has been the recent growth of the company, the higher is the leverage of the IPO firm, the more companies issued equity on the market. IPO companies generally exhibit better operating performance before the listing, with respect to comparable listed companies, while after the flotation they do not perform significantly different in term of return on invested capital. Pre-IPO book building activity plays a significant role in partially reducing the forecast error and revising expectations, while the market price of the first day of trading does not contain information for further reducing forecast errors.

Keywords: initial public offerings, DCF, book building, post-IPO profitability drop

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16 Adoption and Diffusion of Valuation Standards in the Forensic Accounting Community and in Courts: Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors

Authors: Matteo Manera, Mariateresa Torchia, Gregory Moscato

Abstract:

Forensic accounting is a hot subject of research in accounting. Valuation remains one of the major topics for practitioners. Valuation standards are a powerful instrument that can contribute to a fair process: their use aims at reducing subjectivity and arbitrary decisions in courts. In most jurisdictions, valuation standards are not the law: forensic accountants are not obliged to use valuation standards when they perform valuation works for judges. To date, as far as we know, no literature work has investigated adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in the forensic accounting space. In this paper, we analyze the spread of valuation standards through the lenses of isomorphism and -as corollaries- of Agency Theory and Signaling Theory. Because of lack of research in the particular area of valuation standards adoption, the present work relies on qualitative, exploratory research, based on semi-structured interviews conducted (up to saturation) with expert forensic accountants. Our work digs into motivations behind adoption and diffusion, as well into perceptions of forensic accountants around benefits of valuation standards and into barriers to their diffusion: the result is that, while the vast majority of forensic accountants praise the great work of the standards setters in introducing valuation standards, it might be that less than 50% of forensic accountants actually use valuation standards, in courts. Our preliminary findings, to be supported or refuted by future research, lead us to address a “trilogy” of recommendations to the stakeholders involved in the process of adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in courts.

Keywords: forensic accounting, valuation standards, adoption of standards, motivations, benefits, barriers, Isomorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
15 Simulation of Lean Principles Impact in a Multi-Product Supply Chain

Authors: Matteo Rossini, Alberto Portioli Staudacher

Abstract:

The market competition is moving from the single firm to the whole supply chain one because of increasing competition and growing need for operational efficiencies and customer orientation. Supply chain management allows companies to look beyond their organizational boundaries to develop and leverage resources and capabilities of their supply chain partners. This leads to create competitive advantages in the marketplace and because of this SCM has acquired strategic importance. Lean Approach is a management strategy that focuses on reducing every type of waste present in an organization. This approach is becoming more and more popular among supply chain managers. The supply chain application of lean approach is low diffused. It is not well studied which are the impacts of lean approach principles in a supply chain context. In literature there are only few studies simulating the lean approach performance in single products supply chain. This research work studies the impacts of lean principles implementation along a supply chain. To achieve this, a simulation model of a three-echelon multiproduct product supply chain has been built. Kanban system (and several priority policies) and setup time reduction degrees are implemented in the lean-configured supply chain to apply pull and lot-sizing decrease principles respectively. To evaluate the benefits of lean approach, lean supply chain is compared with an EOQ-configured supply chain. The simulation results show that Kanban system and setup-time reduction improve inventory stock level. They also show that logistics efforts are affected to lean implementation degree. The paper concludes describing performances of lean supply chain in different contexts.

Keywords: inventory policy, Kanban, lean supply chain, simulation study, supply chain management, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
14 Path-Tracking Controller for Tracked Mobile Robot on Rough Terrain

Authors: Toshifumi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Morita, Manuel Pencelli, Marta Niccolini, Matteo Ragaglia, Alfredo Argiolas

Abstract:

Automation technologies for agriculture field are needed to promote labor-saving. One of the most relevant problems in automated agriculture is represented by controlling the robot along a predetermined path in presence of rough terrain or incline ground. Unfortunately, disturbances originating from interaction with the ground, such as slipping, make it quite difficult to achieve the required accuracy. In general, it is required to move within 5-10 cm accuracy with respect to the predetermined path. Moreover, lateral velocity caused by gravity on the incline field also affects slipping. In this paper, a path-tracking controller for tracked mobile robots moving on rough terrains of incline field such as vineyard is presented. The controller is composed of a disturbance observer and an adaptive controller based on the kinematic model of the robot. The disturbance observer measures the difference between the measured and the reference yaw rate and linear velocity in order to estimate slip. Then, the adaptive controller adapts “virtual” parameter of the kinematics model: Instantaneous Centers of Rotation (ICRs). Finally, target angular velocity reference is computed according to the adapted parameter. This solution allows estimating the effects of slip without making the model too complex. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed solution is tested in a simulation environment.

Keywords: the agricultural robot, autonomous control, path-tracking control, tracked mobile robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
13 Electrospun Membrane doped with Gold Nanorods for Surface-Enhanced Raman Sepctroscopy

Authors: Ziwei Wang, Andrea Lucotti, Luigi Brambilla, Matteo Tommasini, Chiara Bertarelli

Abstract:

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive detection that provides abundant information on low concentration analytes from various researching areas. Based on localized surface plasmon resonance, metal nanostructures including gold, silver and copper have been investigated as SERS substrate during recent decades. There has been increasing more attention of exploring good performance, homogenous, repeatable SERS substrates. Here, we show that electrospinning, which is an inexpensive technique to fabricate large-scale, self-standing and repeatable membranes, can be effectively used for producing SERS substrates. Nanoparticles and nanorods are added to the feed electrospinning solution to collect functionalized polymer fibrous mats. We report stable electrospun membranes as SERS substrate using gold nanorods (AuNRs) and poly(vinyl alcohol). Particularly, a post-processing crosslinking step using glutaraldehyde under acetone environment was carried out to the electrospun membrane. It allows for using the membrane in any liquid environment, including water, which is of interest both for sensing of contaminant in wastewater, as well as for biosensing. This crosslinked AuNRs/PVA membrane has demonstrated excellent performance as SERS substrate for low concentration 10-6 M Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) aqueous solution. This post-processing for fabricating SERS substrate is the first time reported and proved through Raman imaging of excellent stability and outstanding performance. Finally, SERS tests have been applied to several analytes, and the application of AuNRs/PVA membrane is broadened by removing the detected analyte by rinsing. Therefore, this crosslinked AuNRs/PVA membrane is re-usable.

Keywords: SERS spectroscopy, electrospinning, crosslinking, composite materials

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12 Exposure Assessment to Heavy Metals and Flame Retardants Among Moroccan Children and Their Impact on the Epigenetic Profile

Authors: Kaoutar Chbihi, Aziza Menouni, Emilie Hardy, Matteo Creta, Nathalie Grova, An Van Nieuwenhuyse, Lode Godderis, Samir El Jaafari, Radu-Corneliu Duca

Abstract:

Industrial products and materials are often treated with additional compounds like brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and heavy metals in order to prevent their ignition, increase their functionality and improve their performance like electrical conductivity. Consequently, this could potentially expose children to harmful chemicals through indoor dust and through hand-to-mouth or toy-chewing behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of Moroccan children aged 5-11 years to BFRs and heavy metal elements and investigate their impacts on the epigenetic profile, namely through global DNA methylation modifications. First, parents were asked to answer a questionnaire on children’s lifestyle, then blood and urine samples were collected from (n= 93) children, following the ethical guidelines, for biomonitoring and DNA methylation analysis, using a set of solid phase extraction (SPE), LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS and ICP/MS techniques. BFRs were detected in 54.84% of samples with a median concentration of 0.01 nmol/mL (range: 0.004-0.051 nmol/mL), while metal elements were detected in more than 90% of samples. No association was found between BFRs and global DNA methylation, unlike metal element levels that showed significant variations with global DNA methylation biomarkers, namely 5-mdC, 5-OH-mdC and N⁶-mA levels. To conclude, Moroccan children could be significantly exposed to flame retardant compounds and heavy metal elements through several routes, such as dust or equipment usage and are therefore susceptible to the adverse health effects that could be linked with such chemicals. Further research is required to assess the exposure to environmental pollutants among the Moroccan population in order to protect Moroccan health and prevent the incidence of diseases.

Keywords: biomonitoring, children, DNA methylation, epigenetics, flame retardants, heavy metals, Morocco

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11 Scenario Analysis to Assess the Competitiveness of Hydrogen in Securing the Italian Energy System

Authors: Gianvito Colucci, Valeria Di Cosmo, Matteo Nicoli, Orsola Maria Robasto, Laura Savoldi

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The hydrogen value chain deployment is likely to be boosted in the near term by the energy security measures planned by European countries to face the recent energy crisis. In this context, some countries are recognized to have a crucial role in the geopolitics of hydrogen as importers, consumers and exporters. According to the European Hydrogen Backbone Initiative, Italy would be part of one of the 5 corridors that will shape the European hydrogen market. However, the set targets are very ambitious and require large investments to rapidly develop effective hydrogen policies: in this regard, scenario analysis is becoming increasingly important to support energy planning, and energy system optimization models appear to be suitable tools to quantitively carry on that kind of analysis. The work aims to assess the competitiveness of hydrogen in contributing to the Italian energy security in the coming years, under different price and import conditions, using the energy system model TEMOA-Italy. A wide spectrum of hydrogen technologies is included in the analysis, covering the production, storage, delivery, and end-uses stages. National production from fossil fuels with and without CCS, as well as electrolysis and import of low-carbon hydrogen from North Africa, are the supply solutions that would compete with other ones, such as natural gas, biomethane and electricity value chains, to satisfy sectoral energy needs (transport, industry, buildings, agriculture). Scenario analysis is then used to study the competition under different price and import conditions. The use of TEMOA-Italy allows the work to catch the interaction between the economy and technological detail, which is much needed in the energy policies assessment, while the transparency of the analysis and of the results is ensured by the full accessibility of the TEMOA open-source modeling framework.

Keywords: energy security, energy system optimization models, hydrogen, natural gas, open-source modeling, scenario analysis, TEMOA

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10 Everyday Interactions among Imprisoned Sex Offenders: A Qualitative Study within the 'Due Palazzi' Prison in Padua

Authors: Matteo Mazzucato, Elena Faccio, Antonio Iudici

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Prison is a social reality constructed by everyday interactions between an inmate, other social actors (cellmates, prison officers, educationalists and psychologists or other detainees) and the external world which participates in this complex construction through the social discourses on prison reality and its problems. Being a detainee means performing a self dealing with processes of stereotypization, attribution of a social role and prejudices assigned by various interlocutors and depending on what kind of crime one has been convicted of. Among all inmates, sex offenders are the ones who risk more to be socially condemned beyond a legal sentence since they have committed one of the most hated and disapproved crime. Regarding this, prison has to be considered as a critical context in which all community expectations and beliefs are converged: for common sense, rapists and child molesters are dangerous people who have to be stigmatized, punished and isolated. Furthermore, other detainees share a code of conduct by which the ‘sex offender’ is collocated at the lowest level of the social hierarchy of the prison. The penitentiary administration too defines this kind of detainee as a ‘vulnerable person to protect’ while prison staff considers him as a particular inmate who has to be treated and definitely changed. Considering all the complexities connected with being imprisoned as a sex offender, our research aimed at exploring how people convicted of sex crimes are called upon to manage all these hetero-narrations about their selves. Set this goal, textual data retrieved from this qualitative research show that sex offenders tend to not face the stigma assigned to them. They are rather used to minimize the story telling about their selves and costruct alternative biographies to be shared with other inmates. Managing narrations about their selves in this way permits to distance them from all the threats perceived living together with other detainees but it blocks sex offenders’ ri-signification of their offences during prison treatment. Given these results, prison administration should develop activities in order to create fields of interaction between detainees where experiencing new versions of their selves spendable even in external social situations. Regarding this it’s important to re-consider prison as part of the community and the sex offenders as a member of it.

Keywords: interactions, qualitative research, prison reality, sex offender

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9 West Nile Virus in North-Eastern Italy: Overview of Integrated Surveillance Activities

Authors: Laura Amato, Paolo Mulatti, Fabrizio Montarsi, Matteo Mazzucato, Laura Gagliazzo, Michele Brichese, Manlio Palei, Gioia Capelli, Lebana Bonfanti

Abstract:

West Nile virus (WNV) re-emerged in north-eastern Italy in 2008, after ten years from its first appearance in Tuscany. In 2009, a national surveillance programme was implemented, and re-modulated in north-eastern Italy in 2011. Hereby, we present the results of surveillance activities in 2008-2016 in the north-eastern Italian regions, with inferences on WNV epidemiological trend in the area. The re-modulated surveillance programmes aimed at early detecting WNV seasonal reactivation by searching IgM antibodies in horses. In 2013, the surveillance plans were further modified including a risk-based approach. Spatial analysis techniques, including Bernoulli space-time scan-statistics, were applied to the results of 2010–2012 surveillance on mosquitoes, equines, and humans to identify areas where WNV reactivation was more likely to occur. From 2008 to 2016, residential horses tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies on a yearly basis (503 cases), also in areas where WNV circulation was not detected in mosquito populations. Surveillance activities detected 26 syndromic cases in horses, 102 infected mosquito pools and WNV in 18 dead wild birds. Human cases were also recurrently detected in the study area during the surveillance period (68 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease). The recurrent identification of WNV in animals, mosquitoes, and humans indicates the virus has likely become endemic in the area. In 2016, findings of WNV positives in horses or mosquitoes were included as triggers for enhancing screening activities in humans. The evolution of the epidemiological situation prompts for continuous and accurate surveillance measures. The results of the 2013-2016 surveillance indicate that the risk-based approach was effective in early detecting seasonal reactivation of WNV, key factor of the integrated surveillance strategy in endemic areas.

Keywords: arboviruses, horses, Italy, surveillance, west nile virus, zoonoses

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8 Comparison of Hydrogen and Electrification Perspectives in Decarbonizing the Transport Sector

Authors: Matteo Nicoli, Gianvito Colucci, Valeria Di Cosmo, Daniele Lerede, Laura Savoldi

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The transport sector is currently responsible for approximately 1/3 of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In the wider context of achieving carbon neutrality of the global energy system, different alternatives are available to decarbonizethe transport sector. In particular, while electricity is already the most consumed energy commodity in rail transport, battery electric vehicles are one of the zero-emissions options on the market for road transportation. On the other hand, hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles are available for road and non-road vehicles. The European Commission is strongly pushing toward the integration of hydrogen in the energy systems of European countries and its widespread adoption as an energy vector to achieve the Green Deal targets. Furthermore, the Italian government is defining hydrogen-related objectives with the publication of a dedicated Hydrogen Strategy. The adoption of energy system optimization models to study the possible penetration of alternative zero-emitting transport technologies gives the opportunity to perform an overall analysis of the effects that the development of innovative technologies has on the entire energy system and on the supply-side, devoted to the production of energy carriers such as hydrogen and electricity. Using an open-source modeling framework such as TEMOA, this work aims to compare the role of hydrogen and electric vehicles in the decarbonization of the transport sector. The analysis investigates the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the two options, from the economic point of view (costs associated with the two options) and the environmental one (looking at the emissions reduction perspectives). Moreover, an analysis on the profitability of the investments in hydrogen and electric vehicles will be performed. The study investigates the evolution of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in different transportation modes (road, rail, navigation, and aviation) by detailed analysis of the full range of vehicles included in the techno-economic database used in the TEMOA model instance adopted for this work. The transparency of the analysis is guaranteed by the accessibility of the TEMOA models, based on an open-access source code and databases.

Keywords: battery electric vehicles, decarbonization, energy system optimization models, fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen, open-source modeling, TEMOA, transport

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7 Crowdsensing Project in the Brazilian Municipality of Florianópolis for the Number of Visitors Measurement

Authors: Carlos Roberto De Rolt, Julio da Silva Dias, Rafael Tezza, Luca Foschini, Matteo Mura

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The seasonal population fluctuation presents a challenge to touristic cities since the number of inhabitants can double according to the season. The aim of this work is to develop a model that correlates the waste collected with the population of the city and also allow cooperation between the inhabitants and the local government. The model allows public managers to evaluate the impact of the seasonal population fluctuation on waste generation and also to improve planning resource utilization throughout the year. The study uses data from the company that collects the garbage in Florianópolis, a Brazilian city that presents the profile of a city that attracts tourists due to numerous beaches and warm weather. The fluctuations are caused by the number of people that come to the city throughout the year for holidays, summer time vacations or business events. Crowdsensing will be accomplished through smartphones with access to an app for data collection, with voluntary participation of the population. Crowdsensing participants can access information collected in waves for this portal. Crowdsensing represents an innovative and participatory approach which involves the population in gathering information to improve the quality of life. The management of crowdsensing solutions plays an essential role given the complexity to foster collaboration, establish available sensors and collect and process the collected data. Practical implications of this tool described in this paper refer, for example, to the management of seasonal tourism in a large municipality, whose public services are impacted by the floating of the population. Crowdsensing and big data support managers in predicting the arrival, permanence, and movement of people in a given urban area. Also, by linking crowdsourced data to databases from other public service providers - e.g., water, garbage collection, electricity, public transport, telecommunications - it is possible to estimate the floating of the population of an urban area affected by seasonal tourism. This approach supports the municipality in increasing the effectiveness of resource allocation while, at the same time, increasing the quality of the service as perceived by citizens and tourists.

Keywords: big data, dashboards, floating population, smart city, urban management solutions

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6 Assessing the Feasibility of Italian Hydrogen Targets with the Open-Source Energy System Optimization Model TEMOA - Italy

Authors: Alessandro Balbo, Gianvito Colucci, Matteo Nicoli, Laura Savoldi

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Hydrogen is expected to become a game changer in the energy transition, especially enabling sector coupling possibilities and the decarbonization of hard-to-abate end-uses. The Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan identifies hydrogen as one of the key elements of the ecologic transition to meet international decarbonization objectives, also including it in several pilot projects for the early development in Italy. This matches the European energy strategy, which aims to make hydrogen a leading energy carrier of the future, setting ambitious goals to be accomplished by 2030. The huge efforts needed to achieve the announced targets require to carefully investigate of their feasibility in terms of economic expenditures and technical aspects. In order to quantitatively assess the hydrogen potential within the Italian context and the feasibility of the planned investments and projects, this work uses the TEMOA-Italy energy system model to study pathways to meet the strict objectives above cited. The possible hydrogen development has been studied both in the supply-side and demand-side of the energy system, also including storage options and distribution chains. The assessment comprehends alternative hydrogen production technologies involved in a competition market, reflecting the several possible investments declined by the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan to boost the development and spread of this infrastructure, including the sector coupling potential with natural gas through the currently existing infrastructure and CO2 capture for the production of synfuels. On the other hand, the hydrogen end-uses phase covers a wide range of consumption alternatives, from fuel-cell vehicles, for which both road and non-road transport categories are considered, to steel, and chemical industries uses and cogeneration for residential and commercial buildings. The model includes both high and low TRL technologies in order to provide a consistent outcome for the future decades as it does for the present day, and since it is developed through the use of an open-source code instance and database, transparency and accessibility are fully granted.

Keywords: decarbonization, energy system optimization models, hydrogen, open-source modeling, TEMOA

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5 Spatial Climate Changes in the Province of Macerata, Central Italy, Analyzed by GIS Software

Authors: Matteo Gentilucci, Marco Materazzi, Gilberto Pambianchi

Abstract:

Climate change is an increasingly central issue in the world, because it affects many of human activities. In this context regional studies are of great importance because they sometimes differ from the general trend. This research focuses on a small area of central Italy which overlooks the Adriatic Sea, the province of Macerata. The aim is to analyze space-based climate changes, for precipitation and temperatures, in the last 3 climatological standard normals (1961-1990; 1971-2000; 1981-2010) through GIS software. The data collected from 30 weather stations for temperature and 61 rain gauges for precipitation were subject to quality controls: validation and homogenization. These data were fundamental for the spatialization of the variables (temperature and precipitation) through geostatistical techniques. To assess the best geostatistical technique for interpolation, the results of cross correlation were used. The co-kriging method with altitude as independent variable produced the best cross validation results for all time periods, among the methods analysed, with 'root mean square error standardized' close to 1, 'mean standardized error' close to 0, 'average standard error' and 'root mean square error' with similar values. The maps resulting from the analysis were compared by subtraction between rasters, producing 3 maps of annual variation and three other maps for each month of the year (1961/1990-1971/2000; 1971/2000-1981/2010; 1961/1990-1981/2010). The results show an increase in average annual temperature of about 0.1°C between 1961-1990 and 1971-2000 and 0.6 °C between 1961-1990 and 1981-2010. Instead annual precipitation shows an opposite trend, with an average difference from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000 of about 35 mm and from 1961-1990 to 1981-2010 of about 60 mm. Furthermore, the differences in the areas have been highlighted with area graphs and summarized in several tables as descriptive analysis. In fact for temperature between 1961-1990 and 1971-2000 the most areally represented frequency is 0.08°C (77.04 Km² on a total of about 2800 km²) with a kurtosis of 3.95 and a skewness of 2.19. Instead, the differences for temperatures from 1961-1990 to 1981-2010 show a most areally represented frequency of 0.83 °C, with -0.45 as kurtosis and 0.92 as skewness (36.9 km²). Therefore it can be said that distribution is more pointed for 1961/1990-1971/2000 and smoother but more intense in the growth for 1961/1990-1981/2010. In contrast, precipitation shows a very similar shape of distribution, although with different intensities, for both variations periods (first period 1961/1990-1971/2000 and second one 1961/1990-1981/2010) with similar values of kurtosis (1st = 1.93; 2nd = 1.34), skewness (1st = 1.81; 2nd = 1.62 for the second) and area of the most represented frequency (1st = 60.72 km²; 2nd = 52.80 km²). In conclusion, this methodology of analysis allows the assessment of small scale climate change for each month of the year and could be further investigated in relation to regional atmospheric dynamics.

Keywords: climate change, GIS, interpolation, co-kriging

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4 Exploring the Role of Hydrogen to Achieve the Italian Decarbonization Targets using an OpenScience Energy System Optimization Model

Authors: Alessandro Balbo, Gianvito Colucci, Matteo Nicoli, Laura Savoldi

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Hydrogen is expected to become an undisputed player in the ecological transition throughout the next decades. The decarbonization potential offered by this energy vector provides various opportunities for the so-called “hard-to-abate” sectors, including industrial production of iron and steel, glass, refineries and the heavy-duty transport. In this regard, Italy, in the framework of decarbonization plans for the whole European Union, has been considering a wider use of hydrogen to provide an alternative to fossil fuels in hard-to-abate sectors. This work aims to assess and compare different options concerning the pathway to be followed in the development of the future Italian energy system in order to meet decarbonization targets as established by the Paris Agreement and by the European Green Deal, and to infer a techno-economic analysis of the required asset alternatives to be used in that perspective. To accomplish this objective, the Energy System Optimization Model TEMOA-Italy is used, based on the open-source platform TEMOA and developed at PoliTo as a tool to be used for technology assessment and energy scenario analysis. The adopted assessment strategy includes two different scenarios to be compared with a business-as-usual one, which considers the application of current policies in a time horizon up to 2050. The studied scenarios are based on the up-to-date hydrogen-related targets and planned investments included in the National Hydrogen Strategy and in the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan, with the purpose of providing a critical assessment of what they propose. One scenario imposes decarbonization objectives for the years 2030, 2040 and 2050, without any other specific target. The second one (inspired to the national objectives on the development of the sector) promotes the deployment of the hydrogen value-chain. These scenarios provide feedback about the applications hydrogen could have in the Italian energy system, including transport, industry and synfuels production. Furthermore, the decarbonization scenario where hydrogen production is not imposed, will make use of this energy vector as well, showing the necessity of its exploitation in order to meet pledged targets by 2050. The distance of the planned policies from the optimal conditions for the achievement of Italian objectives is be clarified, revealing possible improvements of various steps of the decarbonization pathway, which seems to have as a fundamental element Carbon Capture and Utilization technologies for its accomplishment. In line with the European Commission open science guidelines, the transparency and the robustness of the presented results is ensured by the adoption of the open-source open-data model such as the TEMOA-Italy.

Keywords: decarbonization, energy system optimization models, hydrogen, open-source modeling, TEMOA

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3 Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading

Authors: Federico Capra, Emanuele Martelli, Matteo Gazzani, Marco Mazzotti, Maurizio Notaro

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Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, biogas upgrading energetic cost, CO2 adsorption, VTSA process modelling

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2 Participatory Monitoring Strategy to Address Stakeholder Engagement Impact in Co-creation of NBS Related Project: The OPERANDUM Case

Authors: Teresa Carlone, Matteo Mannocchi

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In the last decade, a growing number of International Organizations are pushing toward green solutions for adaptation to climate change. This is particularly true in the field of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and land planning, where Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) had been sponsored through funding programs and planning tools. Stakeholder engagement and co-creation of NBS is growing as a practice and research field in environmental projects, fostering the consolidation of a multidisciplinary socio-ecological approach in addressing hydro-meteorological risk. Even thou research and financial interests are constantly spread, the NBS mainstreaming process is still at an early stage as innovative concepts and practices make it difficult to be fully accepted and adopted by a multitude of different actors to produce wide scale societal change. The monitoring and impact evaluation of stakeholders’ participation in these processes represent a crucial aspect and should be seen as a continuous and integral element of the co-creation approach. However, setting up a fit for purpose-monitoring strategy for different contexts is not an easy task, and multiple challenges emerge. In this scenario, the Horizon 2020 OPERANDUM project, designed to address the major hydro-meteorological risks that negatively affect European rural and natural territories through the co-design, co-deployment, and assessment of Nature-based Solution, represents a valid case study to test a monitoring strategy from which set a broader, general and scalable monitoring framework. Applying a participative monitoring methodology, based on selected indicators list that combines quantitative and qualitative data developed within the activity of the project, the paper proposes an experimental in-depth analysis of the stakeholder engagement impact in the co-creation process of NBS. The main focus will be to spot and analyze which factors increase knowledge, social acceptance, and mainstreaming of NBS, promoting also a base-experience guideline to could be integrated with the stakeholder engagement strategy in current and future similar strongly collaborative approach-based environmental projects, such as OPERANDUM. Measurement will be carried out through survey submitted at a different timescale to the same sample (stakeholder: policy makers, business, researchers, interest groups). Changes will be recorded and analyzed through focus groups in order to highlight causal explanation and to assess the proposed list of indicators to steer the conduction of similar activities in other projects and/or contexts. The idea of the paper is to contribute to the construction of a more structured and shared corpus of indicators that can support the evaluation of the activities of involvement and participation of various levels of stakeholders in the co-production, planning, and implementation of NBS to address climate change challenges.

Keywords: co-creation and collaborative planning, monitoring, nature-based solution, participation & inclusion, stakeholder engagement

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1 Implementation of Green Deal Policies and Targets in Energy System Optimization Models: The TEMOA-Europe Case

Authors: Daniele Lerede, Gianvito Colucci, Matteo Nicoli, Laura Savoldi

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The European Green Deal is the first internationally agreed set of measures to contrast climate change and environmental degradation. Besides the main target of reducing emissions by at least 55% by 2030, it sets the target of accompanying European countries through an energy transition to make the European Union into a modern, resource-efficient, and competitive net-zero emissions economy by 2050, decoupling growth from the use of resources and ensuring a fair adaptation of all social categories to the transformation process. While the general purpose to allow the realization of the purposes of the Green Deal already dates back to 2019, strategies and policies keep being developed coping with recent circumstances and achievements. However, general long-term measures like the Circular Economy Action Plan, the proposals to shift from fossil natural gas to renewable and low-carbon gases, in particular biomethane and hydrogen, and to end the sale of gasoline and diesel cars by 2035, will all have significant effects on energy supply and demand evolution across the next decades. The interactions between energy supply and demand over long-term time frames are usually assessed via energy system models to derive useful insights for policymaking and to address technological choices and research and development. TEMOA-Europe is a newly developed energy system optimization model instance based on the minimization of the total cost of the system under analysis, adopting a technologically integrated, detailed, and explicit formulation and considering the evolution of the system in partial equilibrium in competitive markets with perfect foresight. TEMOA-Europe is developed on the TEMOA platform, an open-source modeling framework totally implemented in Python, therefore ensuring third-party verification even on large and complex models. TEMOA-Europe is based on a single-region representation of the European Union and EFTA countries on a time scale between 2005 and 2100, relying on a set of assumptions for socio-economic developments based on projections by the International Energy Outlook and a large technological dataset including 7 sectors: the upstream and power sectors for the production of all energy commodities and the end-use sectors, including industry, transport, residential, commercial and agriculture. TEMOA-Europe also includes an updated hydrogen module considering its production, storage, transportation, and utilization. Besides, it can rely on a wide set of innovative technologies, ranging from nuclear fusion and electricity plants equipped with CCS in the power sector to electrolysis-based steel production processes and steel in the industrial sector – with a techno-economic characterization based on public literature – to produce insightful energy scenarios and especially to cope with the very long analyzed time scale. The aim of this work is to examine in detail the scheme of measures and policies for the realization of the purposes of the Green Deal and to transform them into a set of constraints and new socio-economic development pathways. Based on them, TEMOA-Europe will be used to produce and comparatively analyze scenarios to assess the consequences of Green Deal-related measures on the future evolution of the energy mix over the whole energy system in an economic optimization environment.

Keywords: European Green Deal, energy system optimization modeling, scenario analysis, TEMOA-Europe

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