Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

25 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

Abstract:

Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

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24 A Translog Analysis of Insurance Economies in Nigeria

Authors: Prince Ayodeji Yusuph

Abstract:

Recapitalization process that has recently become an imperative process in the Nigerian Financial industry has implications for the survival of insurance sector, especially on their service delivery efficiency. This study therefore seeks to investigate the problem of inefficiency in the Nigerian Insurance market from the perspective of their cost structures. The study takes advantage of secondary data of financial reports of thirty randomly selected insurance firms which span over a period of ten years and applied transcendental logarithm model to evaluate their performance from the cost structures strategy. The results indicate that only large scale firms enjoy cost saving advantages. Twenty percent firms sampled belong to this category. The result suggests that premium income would contribute to insurance firm’s performance, only when a sound investment decisions are made.

Keywords: transcedental logarithm, cost structures, insurance firms and efficiency, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
23 Abating the Barriers to the Deployment of RFID for Construction Project Delivery in South Africa

Authors: Matthew O. Ikuabe, Ayodeji E. Oke, Clinton O. Aigbavboa, Douglas O. Aghimien

Abstract:

The use of technological innovations have been touted to be beneficial in the delivery of construction projects. Particularly, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is widely regarded to be of immense advantage for the management of construction projects. This study focused on evaluating the barriers to the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for the delivery of construction projects. Using Gauteng Provincein South Africa as the study area, questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from construction professionals, which made up the population of the study. Retrieved data was analysed using Mean Item Score and One-Sample t-test. Findings from the study showed that the most significant barriers to the deployment of RFID for construction project delivery are high cost and lack of awareness. Conclusively, the study made recommendations that would aid in the abatement of the barriers to the use of RFID technology for construction project delivery.

Keywords: barriers, construction, project delivery, RFID

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22 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: catalase-peroxidase, enzyme production, peroxidase, polymerase chain reaction, proteobacteria

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21 Rural Tourism Entrepreneurship as Strategy for Economic Development in Nigeria

Authors: Salami Ayobami Taofeek, Ajayi Adeola

Abstract:

Rural tourism entrepreurship is a tourist industry which revolutionizes businesses and prompting economic development across the globe. It encompasses huge range activities, natural or man-made attractions, amenities and facilities, transportation, marketing and information systems. It is also an important export for 83% of the developing countries and the main export for one third of them. In 2000, developing countries recorded 142.6 million international arrivals an increase of 95% compared to the figures of 1990. However, only developing countries with effective natural and man-made tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure have been able to develop their tourism sector and seize the attendance advantages. Rural areas of Nigeria possess some distinctive peculiarities which can be transformed into attractive tourist centers. In spite of all these, rural tourism areas are still faced with myriad problems which include poor finance inadequate awareness and education, lack of progress in developing the rural of progress in developing the rural tourism potentials inadequate legislation, insecurity, entrepreneurial inertness, over-dependent on oil among others. This paper focuses on the impact and challenges of rural tourism entrepreneurship as strategy for economic development in Nigeria. It reviews literature rural tourism, tourism entrepreneurship potentials and classifications of Nigerians tourism potential’s destinations. The paper concludes that Nigeria Government should encourage rural based tourism entrepreneurship development by addressing the challenges facing rural tourism entrepreneurship in the country.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, economic development, rural tourism, tourism destinations tourism potentials

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20 An Appraisal of the Attitude and Motivation of Almajiri (Teenage-Beggars) to Tsangaya Education System in Katsina and Zamfara States, Nigeria

Authors: Rasaq Ayodeji Iliyas

Abstract:

Almajiris are teenage beggars who under the guise of been enlisted in religious study beg perpetually on the streets and homes. A poorly attended bridge gap juvenile education system called Tsangaya was instituted for them. This study appraised the attitude and motivation of the over 9 million Almajiris largely domiciled in the Northern Nigeria to the Government’s efforts at getting them educated. The study, a survey research design, employed validated structured interview instrument that showed a high reliability index (Alpha Cronbach- 0.86) to gather data. 950 Almajiris sampled across the 50 Local Government Areas of Katsina (36) and Zamfara (14) States, Nigeria participated in the study. Outcomes of the study revealed a chronic attitudinal problem from the Almajiris; and a peculiarly low motivation to the Tsangaya School. It was, however, recommended that traditional rulers should be mandated by government to sensitize parents on the many risks involved in the inhuman cultural practice, and the grave consequences of unskilled adult life of the children; and state governments should legislate against the demeaning Almajiri practice, which already misrepresents Islam.

Keywords: Almajiri, apraissal, Tsangaya education, motivation, attitude, motivation

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19 Factors Influencing the Choice of Food Intake of Students of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Adekunle Ayodeji Folorunso, Aisha S. Habeeb

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the student’s choice of food intake, a case study of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. A review of the past work was done, and many key points were noted. A sample population of 1000 students was selected randomly (i.e. 200 students from each school) who were in the 2011/2012 academic session. The factor influencing the students' foods intake ranges from economic factors (food cost, income, availability of food), physical factors (easy to cook, shortest time), social factors (cultural, family and meal pattern) attitudes, belief and knowledge about food were discovered. The data collected were tabulated in frequency and percentages. It was revealed that ‘easy method of cooking and preparation’ influenced students’ choice of food intake more (34%) and the food frequency questionnaire shows that the students eat more of carbohydrates foods compared to other classes of food. The cooking skills of students were low (1%) which may be responsible for the limitations in the food choices. It is, therefore, recommended that students should be equipped with sound cooking skills to increase their range of food intake. Variety is needed in diet/meal because the required nutrients are scattered among many different foods.

Keywords: factors, food intake, influencing, choice, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
18 Enhanced Peroxidase Production by Raoultella Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Given the high-utility of peroxidase, its production in large amount is of utmost importance. Over the years, actinomycetes have been the major peroxidase-producing bacteria. Consequently, other classes of bacteria with peroxidase production potentials are underexplored. This study, therefore, sought to enhance peroxidase production by a Raoultella species, a new ligninolytic proteobacteria strain, by determining the optimum culture conditions (initial pH, incubation temperature and agitation speed) for peroxidase production under submerged fermentation using the classical process of one variable at a time and supplementing the fermentation medium with some lignin model and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Subsequently, the time-course assay was carried out under optimized conditions. Then, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimal at initial pH 5, incubation temperature of 35 °C and agitation speed of 150 rpm with guaiacol and ammonium chloride as the best inducer and nitrogen supplement respectively. Peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was optimal at 72 h with specific productivity of 16.48 ± 0.89 U mg⁻¹. A simultaneous production of a non-peroxide dependent extracellular enzyme which suggests probable laccase production was observed with specific productivity of 13.63 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ while sawdust gave the best peroxidase yield under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was increased by 3.40-fold.

Keywords: enzyme production, ligninolytic bacteria, peroxidase, proteobacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
17 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede

Abstract:

Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy, psychological well-being, job performance

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16 Change in Value System: The Way Forward for Africa

Authors: Awe Ayodeji Samson, Adeuja Yetunde Omowunmi

Abstract:

Corruption is a ‘monster’ that can consume a whole nation, continent and even the world if it is not destroyed while it is still immature; It grows in the mind of the people, takes over their thinking and guides their decision-making process. Corruption snowballs into socio-economic catastrophe that might be difficult to deal with. Corruption which is a disease of the mind can be alleviated in Africa and the world at large by transforming a Corruption-Prone Mind to a Corruption-Immune Mind and to achieve this, we have to change our value system because the use of anti-graft agencies alone is not enough. Therefore, we have to fight corruption from the inside and the outside. Value System is the principle of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group; the reviewing and reordering of our value system is the solution to the problem of corruption as proposed by this research because the African society has become a ‘Money and Power Driven Society’ where the ‘I am worth concept’ which is a problematic concept has created an ‘Aggressive Society’ with grasping and money-grabbing individuals. We place more priority on money and the display of opulence. Hence, this has led to a ‘Triangular Society’ where minority is lavishing in plenty and majority is gasping for little. The get rich quick syndrome, the ethnicity syndrome, weakened educational system are signs of the prevalence of corruption in Africa This research has analyzed role and impact of the change in our value system in the fight against corruption in Africa and has therefore proposed the change in our value system as the way forward in the fight against corruption in Africa.

Keywords: corruption-prone mind, corruption-immune mind, triangular society, aggressive society, money and power-driven society

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15 Construction 4.0: The Future of the Construction Industry in South Africa

Authors: Temidayo. O. Osunsanmi, Clinton Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Oke

Abstract:

The construction industry is a renowned latecomer to the efficiency offered by the adoption of information technology. Whereas, the banking, manufacturing, retailing industries have keyed into the future by using digitization and information technology as a new approach for ensuring competitive gain and efficiency. The construction industry has yet to fully realize similar benefits because the adoption of ICT is still at the infancy stage with a major concentration on the use of software. Thus, this study evaluates the awareness and readiness of construction professionals towards embracing a full digitalization of the construction industry using construction 4.0. The term ‘construction 4.0’ was coined from the industry 4.0 concept which is regarded as the fourth industrial revolution that originated from Germany. A questionnaire was utilized for sourcing data distributed to practicing construction professionals through a convenience sampling method. Using SPSS v24, the hypotheses posed were tested with the Mann Whitney test. The result revealed that there are no differences between the consulting and contracting organizations on the readiness for adopting construction 4.0 concepts in the construction industry. Using factor analysis, the study discovers that adopting construction 4.0 will improve the performance of the construction industry regarding cost and time savings and also create sustainable buildings. In conclusion, the study determined that construction professionals have a low awareness towards construction 4.0 concepts. The study recommends an increase in awareness of construction 4.0 concepts through seminars, workshops and training, while construction professionals should take hold of the benefits of adopting construction 4.0 concepts. The study contributes to the roadmap for the implementation of construction industry 4.0 concepts in the South African construction industry.

Keywords: building information technology, Construction 4.0, Industry 4.0, smart site

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
14 Diversities, Antibiogram and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat from a Research Farm

Authors: Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro, Thor Axel Stenstrom

Abstract:

A study to investigate the species diversities, antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus species from raw meat and dairy products collected from an abattoir and a farm shop of a research institute in Irene, South Africa over a six-month period was conducted. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to speciate the bacteria and to detect the presence and otherwise of resistance genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. A total of twenty-six (26) antibiotics were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. S. xylosus was the predominant isolate with 30% total occurrence, followed by S. epidermis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus with 25%, 15%, 15%, and 10% abundance respectively. The isolates were resistant to ceftezidime, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, nortrafuration, ampicillin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin and lincomycin. mecA genes was detected among the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species (MRSS) but no vancomycin resistance genes (van A and van B) were detected in these isolates. The presence of MRSS and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus species in meat affirms the need to avoid consumption of partially cooked meat currently rampant in South Africa, to avoid the spread of difficult to control pathogens in epidemiological proportion.

Keywords: Staphylococcus species, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, food products, methicillin resistance, mecA gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
13 Vertical Structure and Frequencies of Deep Convection during Active Periods of the West African Monsoon Season

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

Abstract:

Deep convective systems during active periods of the West African monsoon season have not been properly investigated over better temporal and spatial resolution in West Africa. Deep convective systems are investigated over seven climatic zones of the West African sub-region, which are; west-coast rainforest, dry rainforest, Nigeria-Cameroon rainforest, Nigeria savannah, Central African and South Sudan (CASS) Savannah, Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, using data from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database. The vertical structure of the convective systems indicated by the presence of at least one 40 dBZ and reaching (attaining) at least 1km in the atmosphere showed strong core (highest frequency (%)) of reflectivity values around 2 km which is below the freezing level (4-5km) for all the zones. Echoes are detected above the 15km altitude much more frequently in the rainforest and Savannah zones than the Sudano and Sahel zones during active periods in March-May (MAM), whereas during active periods in June-September (JJAS) the savannahs, Sudano and Sahel zones convections tend to reach higher altitude more frequently than the rainforest zones. The percentage frequencies of deep convection indicated that the occurrences of the systems are within the range of 2.3-2.8% during both March-May (MAM) and June-September (JJAS) active periods in the rainforest and savannah zones. On the contrary, the percentage frequencies were found to be less than 2% in the Sudano and Sahel zones, except during the active-JJAS period in the Sudano zone.

Keywords: active periods, convective system, frequency, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
12 Vocational Education: A Synergy for Skills Acquisition and Global Learning in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Raimi, Kehinde Olawuyi, Omoare Ayodeji Motunrayo

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In the last two decades, there has been rising youth unemployment, restiveness, and social vices in Nigeria. The relevance of Vocational Education for skills acquisition, global learning, and national development to address these problems cannot be underestimated. Thus, the need to economically empower Nigerian youths to be able to develop the nation and meet up in the ever-changing global learning and economy led to the assessment of Vocational Education as Synergy for the Skills Acquisition and Global Learning in Ogun State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty out of 1,500 students were randomly selected for this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire and were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Chi-square. The results of the study showed that 59.2% of the respondents were between 20 – 24 years of age, 60.8% were male, and 65.8% had a keen interest in Vocational Education. Also, 90% of the respondents acquired skills in extension/advisory, 78.3% acquired skills in poultry production, and 69.1% acquired skills in fisheries/aquaculture. The major constraints to Vocational Education are inadequate resource personnel (χ² = 10.25, p = 0.02), inadequate training facilities (x̅ = 2.46) and unstable power supply (x̅ = 2.38). Results of Chi-square showed significance association between constraints and Skills Acquisition (χ² = 12.54, p = 0.00) at p < 0.05 level of significance. It was established that Vocational Education significantly contributed to students’ skills acquisition and global learning. This study, therefore, recommends that inadequate personnel should be looked into by the school authority in order not to over-stretch the available staff of the institution while the provision of alternative stable power supply (solar power) is also essential for effective teaching and learning process.

Keywords: vocational education, skills acquisition, national development, global learning

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11 Women in Violent Conflicts and the Challenges of Food Security in Northeast Nigeria: The Case of Boko Haram Insurgency

Authors: Grace Modupe Adebo, Ayodeji Oluwamuyiwa Adedapo

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Women are key actors in ensuring food security in terms of food availability, food access, and food utilization in the developing economy, however, they suffer mostly during violent conflicts due to their feminist nature of rearing and caring for their children and relatives. The study was embarked upon to access the effects of violent conflicts posed by Boko Haram insurgency on women and food security in the Northeast of Nigeria. The study made use of secondary data. A time series data collected over a 22 years period were used. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and t-test analysis. The findings of the study established a significant difference in food production (availability) before and after the Boko Haram insurgency at the 1% level of significance. The high level of Internally Displaced Person (IDP) with a high proportion of women depicts a very low level of food accessibility as the men and women has fled and uninhabited their place of abode for over a period of four to five years, thus diminishing their economic power, and the means of acquiring food which invariably endanger food stability and utilization. The study confirmed the abduction and changing roles of women as cooks, porters, spies, partners, and sex slaves to Boko Haram troop members, thus affecting their livelihoods and food security. The study recommends hands-on interventions by the governmental, non-governmental and international agencies to terminate the activities of Boko Haram in the area and restore the food production for enhanced food security.

Keywords: Boko Haram insurgency, food accessibility, food production, food utilization, women’s livelihoods

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
10 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

Abstract:

Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

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9 Profitability Analysis of Investment in Oil Palm Value Chain in Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Moyosooore A. Babalola, Ayodeji S. Ogunleye

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The main focus of the study was to determine the profitability of investment in the Oil Palm value chain of Osun State, Nigeria in 2015. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of Oil Palm investors (producers, processors and marketers), to determine the profitability of the investment to investors in the Oil Palm value chain, and to determine the factors affecting the profitability of the investment of the oil palm investors in Osun state. A sample of 100 respondents was selected in this cross-sectional survey. Multiple stage sampling procedure was used for data collection of producers and processors while purposive sampling was used for marketers. Data collected was analyzed using the following analytical tools: descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and regression analysis. The results of the gross margin showed that the producers and processors were more profitable than the marketers in the oil palm value chain with their benefit-cost ratios as 1.93, 1.82 and 1.11 respectively. The multiple regression analysis showed that education and years of experience were significant among marketers and producers while age and years of experience had significant influence on the gross margin of processors. Based on these findings, improvement on the level of education of oil palm investors is recommended in order to address the relatively low access to post-primary education among the oil palm investors in Osun State. In addition to this, it is important that training be made available to oil palm investors. This will improve the quality of their years of experience, ensuring that it has a positive influence on their gross margin. Low access to credit among processors and producer could be corrected by making extension services available to them. Marketers would also greatly benefit from subsidized prices on oil palm products to increase their gross margin, as the huge percentage of their total cost comes from acquiring palm oil.

Keywords: oil palm, profitability analysis, regression analysis, value chain

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8 Using Time Series NDVI to Model Land Cover Change: A Case Study in the Berg River Catchment Area, Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adesuyi Ayodeji Steve, Zahn Munch

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This study investigates the use of MODIS NDVI to identify agricultural land cover change areas on an annual time step (2007 - 2012) and characterize the trend in the study area. An ISODATA classification was performed on the MODIS imagery to select only the agricultural class producing 3 class groups namely: agriculture, agriculture/semi-natural, and semi-natural. NDVI signatures were created for the time series to identify areas dominated by cereals and vineyards with the aid of ancillary, pictometry and field sample data. The NDVI signature curve and training samples aided in creating a decision tree model in WEKA 3.6.9. From the training samples two classification models were built in WEKA using decision tree classifier (J48) algorithm; Model 1 included ISODATA classification and Model 2 without, both having accuracies of 90.7% and 88.3% respectively. The two models were used to classify the whole study area, thus producing two land cover maps with Model 1 and 2 having classification accuracies of 77% and 80% respectively. Model 2 was used to create change detection maps for all the other years. Subtle changes and areas of consistency (unchanged) were observed in the agricultural classes and crop practices over the years as predicted by the land cover classification. 41% of the catchment comprises of cereals with 35% possibly following a crop rotation system. Vineyard largely remained constant over the years, with some conversion to vineyard (1%) from other land cover classes. Some of the changes might be as a result of misclassification and crop rotation system.

Keywords: change detection, land cover, modis, NDVI

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7 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku

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Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental health, reproductive age group, women

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6 Correlates of Income Generation of Small-Scale Fish Processors in Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Motunrayo Omoare

Abstract:

Economically fish provides an important source of food and income for both men and women especially many households in the developing world and fishing has an important social and cultural position in river-rine communities. However, fish is highly susceptible to deterioration. Consequently, this study was carried out to correlate income generation of small-scale women fish processors in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. Eighty small-scale women fish processors were randomly selected from five communities as the sample size for this study. Collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.75 years with average household size of 4 people while 47.5% of the respondents had primary education. Most (86.3%) of the respondents were married and had spent more than 11 years in fish processing. The respondents were predominantly Yoruba tribe (91.2%). Majority (71.3%) of the respondents used traditional kiln for processing their fish while 23.7% of the respondents used hot vegetable oil to fry their fish. Also, the result revealed that respondents sourced capital from Personal Savings (48.8%), Cooperatives (27.5%), Friends and Family (17.5%) and Microfinance Banks (6.2%) for fish processing activities. The respondents generated an average income of ₦7,000.00 from roasted fish, ₦3,500.00 from dried fish, and ₦5,200.00 from fried fish daily. However, inadequate processing equipment (95.0%), non-availability of credit facility from microfinance banks (85.0%), poor electricity supply (77.5%), inadequate extension service support (70.0%), and fuel scarcity (68.7%) were major constraints to fish processing in the study area. Results of chi-square analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between personal characteristics (χ2 = 36.83, df = 9), processing methods (χ2 = 15.88, df = 3) and income generated at p < 0.05 level of significance. It can be concluded that significant relationship existed between processing methods and income generated. The study, therefore, recommends that modern processing equipment should be made available to the respondents at a subsidized price by the agro-allied companies.

Keywords: correlates, income, fish processors, women, small-scale

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5 Microbiological Assessment of Soft Cheese (Wara), Raw Milk and Dairy Drinking Water from Selected Farms in Ido, Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Blessing C. Nwachukwu, Michael O. Taiwo, Wasiu A. Abibu, Isaac O. Ayodeji

Abstract:

Milk is an important source of micro and macronutrients for humans. Soft Cheese (Wara) is an example of a by-product of milk. In addition, water is considered as one of the most vital resources in cattle farms. Due to the high consumption rate of milk and soft cheese and the traditional techniques involved in their production in Nigeria, there was a need for a microbiological assessment which will be of utmost public health importance. The study thus investigated microbial risk assessments associated with consumption of milk and soft cheese (Wara). It also investigated common pathogens present in dairy water in farms and antibiotic sensitivity profiling for implicated pathogens were conducted. Samples were collected from three different Fulani dairy herds in Ido local government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and subjected to microbiological evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Aspergillus flavus was the only isolated fungal isolate from Wara while Staphylococcus aureus, Vibro cholera, Hafnia alvei, Proteus mirabilis, Escherishia coli, Psuedomonas aeuroginosa, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumonia were the bacteria genera isolated from Wara, dairy milk and dairy drinking water. Bacterial counts from Wara from the three selected farms A, B and C were 3.5×105 CFU/ml, 4.0×105 CFU/ml and 5.3×105 CFU/ml respectively while the fungal count was 3CFU/100µl. The total bacteria count from dairy milk from the three selected farms A, B and C were Farms 2.0 ×105 CFU/ml, 3.5 × 105 CFU/ml and 6.5 × 105 CFU/ml respectively. 1.4×105 CFU/ml, 1.9×105 CFU/ml and 4.9×105 CFU/ml were the recorded bacterial counts from dairy water from farms A, B and C respectively. The highest antimicrobial resistance of 100% was recorded in Wara with Enrofloxacin, Gentamycin, Cefatriaxone and Colistin. The highest antimicrobial susceptibility of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin. Highest antimicrobial intermediate response of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Streptomycin. The study revealed that most of the cheeses sold at Ido local Government are contaminated with pathogens. Further research is needed on standardizing the production method to prevent pathogens from gaining access. The presence of bacteria in raw milk indicated contamination due to poor handling and unhygienic practices. Thus, drinking unpasteurized milk is hazardous as it increases the risk of zoonoses. Also, the Provision of quality drinking water is crucial for optimum productivity of dairy. Health education programs aiming at increasing awareness of the importance of clean water for animal health will be helpful.

Keywords: dairy, raw milk, soft cheese, Wara

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4 Improving the Utilization of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf Meal with Cellulase-Glucanase-Xylanase Combination and Selected Probiotic in Broiler Diets

Authors: Ayodeji Fasuyi

Abstract:

Telfairia occidentalis is a leafy vegetable commonly grown in the tropics for nutritional benefits. The use of enzymes and probiotics is becoming prominent due to the ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in many parts of the world. It is conceived that with enzymes and probiotics additives, fibrous leafy vegetables can be incorporated into poultry feeds as protein source. However, certain antinutrients were also found in the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis. Four broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated for the two phases of the broiler experiments. A mixture of fiber degrading enzymes, Roxazyme G2 (combination of cellulase, glucanase and xylanase) and probiotics (Turbotox), a growth promoter, were used in broiler diets at 1:1. The Roxazyme G2/Turbotox mixtures were used in diets containing four varying levels of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal (TOLM) at 0, 10, 20 and 30%. Diets 1 were standard broiler diets without TOLM and Roxazyme G2 and Turbotox additives. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had enzymes and probiotics additives. Certain mineral elements such as Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in notable quantities viz. 2.6 g/100 g, 1.2 g/100 g, 6.2 g/100 g, 5.1 g/100 g, 4.7 g/100 g, 5875 ppm, 182 ppm, 136 ppm and 1036 ppm, respectively. Phytin, phytin-P, oxalate, tannin and HCN were also found in ample quantities viz. 189.2 mg/100 g, 120.1 mg/100 g, 80.7 mg/100 g, 43.1 mg/100 g and 61.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The average weight gain was highest at 46.3 g/bird/day for birds on 10% TOLM diet but similar (P > 0.05) to 46.2 g/bird/day for birds on 20% TOLM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.27 was the lowest and optimum for birds on 10% TOLM although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 obtained for birds on 20% TOLM. FCR of 2.61 was the highest at 2.61 for birds on 30% TOLM diet. The lowest FCR of 2.27 was obtained for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 for birds on 20% TOLM diet. Most carcass characteristics and organ weights were similar (P > 0.05) for the experimental birds on the different diets except for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length. The values for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds on the TOLM diets. The nitrogen retention had the highest value of 72.37 ± 0.10% for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 71.54 ± 1.89 obtained for birds on the control diet without TOLM and enzymes/probiotics mixture. There was evidence of a better utilization of TOLM as a plant protein source. The carcass characteristics and organ weights all showed evidence of uniform tissue buildup and muscles development particularly in diets containing 10% of TOLM level. There was also better nitrogen utilization in birds on the 10% TOLM diet. Considering the cheap cost of TOLM, it is envisaged that its introduction into poultry feeds as a plant protein source will ultimately reduce the cost of poultry feeds.

Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal, enzymes, probiotics, additives

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3 Influence of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns on Dust Pollution Transport during the Harmattan Period over West Africa

Authors: Ayodeji Oluleye

Abstract:

This study used Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) and reanalysis dataset of thirty years (1983-2012) to investigate the influence of the atmospheric circulation on dust transport during the Harmattan period over WestAfrica using TOMS data. The Harmattan dust mobilization and atmospheric circulation pattern were evaluated using a kernel density estimate which shows the areas where most points are concentrated between the variables. The evolution of the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD), Sea surface Temperature (SST) over the Gulf of Guinea, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during the Harmattan period (November-March) was also analyzed and graphs of the average ITD positions, SST and the NAO were observed on daily basis. The Pearson moment correlation analysis was also employed to assess the effect of atmospheric circulation on Harmattan dust transport. The results show that the departure (increased) of TOMS AI values from the long-term mean (1.64) occurred from around 21st of December, which signifies the rich dust days during winter period. Strong TOMS AI signal were observed from January to March with the maximum occurring in the latter months (February and March). The inter-annual variability of TOMSAI revealed that the rich dust years were found between 1984-1985, 1987-1988, 1997-1998, 1999-2000, and 2002-2004. Significantly, poor dust year was found between 2005 and 2006 in all the periods. The study has found strong north-easterly (NE) trade winds were over most of the Sahelianregion of West Africa during the winter months with the maximum wind speed reaching 8.61m/s inJanuary.The strength of NE winds determines the extent of dust transport to the coast of Gulf of Guinea during winter. This study has confirmed that the presence of the Harmattan is strongly dependent on theSST over Atlantic Ocean and ITD position. The locus of the average SST and ITD positions over West Africa could be described by polynomial functions. The study concludes that the evolution of near surface wind field at 925 hpa, and the variations of SST and ITD positions are the major large scale atmospheric circulation systems driving the emission, distribution, and transport of Harmattan dust aerosols over West Africa. However, the influence of NAO was shown to have fewer significance effects on the Harmattan dust transport over the region.

Keywords: atmospheric circulation, dust aerosols, Harmattan, West Africa

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2 Diurnal Circle of Rainfall and Convective Properties over West and Central Africa

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

Abstract:

The need to investigate diurnal weather circles in West Africa is coined in the fact that complex interactions often results from diurnal weather patterns. This study investigates diurnal circles of wind, rainfall and convective properties using six (6) hour interval data from the ERA-Interim and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The seven distinct zones, used in this work and classified as rainforest (west-coast, dry, Nigeria-Cameroon), Savannah (Nigeria, and Central Africa and South Sudan (CASS)), Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, were clearly indicated by the rainfall pattern in each zones. Results showed that the land‐ocean warming contrast was more strongly sensitive to seasonal cycle and has been very weak during March-May (MAM) but clearly spelt out during June-September (JJAS). Dipoles of wind convergence/divergence and wet/dry precipitation, between CASS and Nigeria Savannah zones, were identified in morning and evening hours of MAM, whereas distinct night and day anomaly, in the same location of CASS, were found to be consistent during the JJAS season. Diurnal variation of convective properties showed that stratiform precipitation, due to the extremely low occurrence of flashcount climatology, was dominant during morning hours for both MAM and JJAS than other periods of the day. On the other hand, diurnal variation of the system sizes showed that small system sizes were most dominant during the day time periods for both MAM and JJAS, whereas larger system sizes were frequent during the evening, night, and morning hours. The locations of flashcount and system sizes agreed with earlier results that morning and day-time hours were dominated by stratiform precipitation and small system sizes respectively. Most results clearly showed that the eastern locations of Sudano and Sahel were consistently dry because rainfall and precipitation features were predominantly few. System sizes greater than or equal to 800 km² were found in the western axis of the Sudano and Sahel zones, whereas the eastern axis, particularly in the Sahel zone, had minimal occurrences of small/large system sizes. From the results of locations of extreme systems, flashcount greater than 275 in one single system was never observed during the morning (6Z) diurnal, whereas, the evening (18Z) diurnal had the most frequent cases (at least 8) of flashcount exceeding 275 in one single system. Results presented had shown the importance of diurnal variation in understanding precipitation, flashcount, system sizes patterns at diurnal scales, and understanding land-ocean contrast, precipitation, and wind field anomaly at diurnal scales.

Keywords: convective properties, diurnal circle, flashcount, system sizes

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1 Impact of Youth Corners and Knowledge about Human Sexuality among Young Adults and Adolescents of Nigerian Population in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Gabriel I. Oke, Faremi O. Ayodeji

Abstract:

Background: Access to youth Friendly Health Corners is vital for ensuring sexual reproductive health and total well being of young Adults since human sexuality has been widely misunderstood. Meanwhile, behavior of young people towards it remains at variance with the alarm. This study attempt to access the impact of youth corners also called Adolescent Friendly Health Corners on manifestation of human sexual behavior among Nigerian adolescent and young adults. Description: Hundred young adults and adolescents of both sex between the Age range of 12-25years were randomly selected from 5 secondary schools and 3 prominent universities in Southwestern Nigeria and focal group discussions (FGD) were conducted among them. Fifty secondary and primary health facilities were visited between February and June 2017 to conduct interviews for health workers and to ascertain the presence or absence of youth corners. Results: 95% of the health facilities visited lack Youth Corners section neither are they willing to make provision for it due to lack of workmanship and sponsorship. However, 5% with Youth corners does not have well-trained Counselors or a Health Educator but health professionals from nursing profession. 90% of the respondents of which 16-17 years of Age is the mean age had their first sexual exposure with no use of protection even before been introduced to what Sexuality is all about. Virtually, none of the respondents had ever visited a Youth Corner before or heard the term before. 86% have heard about the term STI before of which 60% are using protection, 10% care less about any information attached to the term STI, 4% have not heard of the term STI before even when translated to their local dialect. 20% are abstaining as at the time the study was conducted and they attribute their sexual decision to religion and parental influence. Of the age group 20-25, 45% claimed they have had symptoms of one STI or the other and 40% claimed they have been tested positive for an STI before of which 12% have positive HIV status. Promiscuous behaviors were found among them before they reach the age 16years with pornography ranking the highest, followed by masturbation. Respondents blame this on peer pressure, the lack of Youth Friendly Centers in their locality and lack of proper Sexual Orientation on time. About half of the respondents make use of contraceptives while others have varying views. We found out that inability to access Youth Friendly Centers amongst the respondents might be one of the singular reasons of their early experimentation of their sex life and lack of healthy sexual lifestyle. (95% CI, P=0.922) Conclusion: The study reveals that a connection between youth Friendly Centers and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, therefore more sustainable Friendly Youth Corners with well-trained educators are needed in various Health facilities to checkmate the numerous risks of Young People along the path of adulthood.

Keywords: adolescents, sexually transmitted infections, reproductive health, youth corners

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