Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: footfall

6 Urban Vitality: Methods for Measuring Vitality in Egypt's Commercial Streets

Authors: Alaa Eldien Sarhaan, Rania A. Galil, Yasmina Youssef

Abstract:

Vital streets transfer a totally different message from the lifeless streets; vitality is considered as the mobility dynamism for the city’s streets. The quality of a street is integral to the vitality. However, most efforts have focused on the requirements of cars resulting in the loss many qualities. A successful street is related to the needs and expectations of pedestrians. The amount of activity held in a place is one of the measures of vitality; hence the meaning of a vital street may be the result of a number of people engaged in various activities meeting their needs and expectations. Consequently, it varies from one city to another. This research focuses on vitality in commercial streets. It studies commercial streets in the Egyptian context, which have developed into a chaotic environment due to inefficiency and high-density activities. The first part identifies the meaning of vitality in the frame of its physical, social and economic dimensions, then determines the methods used in measuring vitality across commercial streets. Secondly, an application on one of the most important commercial streets in Alexandria ‘El-Attareen’ street is chosen as a case study to measure its vitality. The study contributes to a greater understanding of how theories on vital urban life contribute to the development of vital commercial streets in the Egyptian and similar contexts.

Keywords: footfall measurement, vitality, urban commercial streets, yield factor

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5 Reducing Waiting Time in Outpatient Services: Six Sigma and Technological Approach

Authors: Omkar More, Isha Saini, Gracy Mathai

Abstract:

To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of the tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂ 10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected by dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P < 0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film instability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing a risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight-threatening complications.

Keywords: footfall, nursing assessment, quality improvement, six sigma

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4 The Bespoke ‘Hybrid Virtual Fracture Clinic’ during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Paradigm Shift?

Authors: Anirudh Sharma

Abstract:

Introduction: The Covid-19 pandemic necessitated a change in the manner outpatient fracture clinics are conducted due to the need to reduce footfall in hospital. While studies regarding virtual fracture clinics have shown these to be useful and effective, they focus exclusively on remote consultations. However, our service was bespoke to the patient – either a face-to-face or telephone consultation depending on patient need – a ‘hybrid virtual clinic (HVC).’ We report patient satisfaction and outcomes with this novel service. Methods: Patients booked onto our fracture clinics during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown were retrospectively contacted to assess the mode of consultations (virtual, face-to-face, or hybrid), patient experience, and outcome. Patient experience was assessed using the net promoter (NPS), customer effort (CES) and customer satisfaction scores (CSS), and their likelihood of using the HVC in the absence of a pandemic. Patient outcomes were assessed using the components of the EQ5D score. Results: Of 269 possible patients, 140 patients responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 66.4% had ‘hybrid’ consultations, 27.1% had only virtual consultations, and 6.4% had only face-to-face consultations. The mean overall NPS, CES, and CSS (on a scale of 1-10) were 7.27, 7.25, and 7.37, respectively. The mean likelihood of patients using the HVC in the absence of a pandemic was 6.5/10. Patients who had ‘hybrid’ consultations showed better effort scores and greater overall satisfaction than those with virtual consultations only and also reported superior EQ5D outcomes (mean 79.27 vs. 72.7). Patients who did not require surgery reported increased satisfaction (mean 7.51 vs. 7.08) and were more likely to use the HVC in the absence of a pandemic. Conclusion: Our study indicates that a bespoke HVC has good overall patient satisfaction and outcomes and is a better format of fracture clinic service than virtual consultations alone. It may be the preferred mode for fracture clinics in similar situations in the future. Further analysis needs to be conducted in order to explore the impact on resources and clinician experience of HVC in order to appreciate this new paradigm shift.

Keywords: hybrid virtual clinic, coronavirus, COVID-19, fracture clinic, remote consultation

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3 Spirituality, Sense of Community and Economic Welfare: A Case of Mawlynnong Village, India

Authors: Ricky A. J. Syngkon, Santi Gopal Maji

Abstract:

Decent work and inclusive economic growth, social development, environmental protection, eradication of poverty and hunger as well as clean water and sanitation are the rudiments of 2030 agenda of sustainable development goals of the United Nations. On the other hand, spirituality is deeply entwined in the fabric of daily lives that helps in shaping attitudes, opinions, and behaviors of common people and ensuring quality of lives and overall sustainable development through protection of environment and natural resources. Mawlynnong, a small village in North-Eastern part of India, is a vivid example of how spirituality influences the development of sense of community leading to upliftment of the economic conditions of the people. Mawlynnong as a small hamlet has been in existence for a couple of centuries and it was acknowledged as the cleanest village of Asia in 2004 by BBC and National Geographic and subsequently endorsed by UNESCO in 2006. Consequently, it has attracted large number of tourists over the years from India and other parts of the world. This paper tries to explore how spirituality leads to a sense of community and the economic benefits for the people. Further, this paper also tries to find out the answer whether such an informal collective effort is sustainable or not for achieving solidarity economy. The study is based on both primary and secondary data collected from the local people and the State Government records. The findings of the study indicate that over the last one and a half decade the tourist footfall has increased to a great extent in Mawlynnong and this has brought about a paradigm shift in the occupational structure of its inhabitants from plantation to service sector particularly tourism and tourism related activities. As a result, from the economic standpoint, it is observed that life is much better off now as compared to before. But from the socio-cultural standpoint, the study finds a drift in terms of the cohesiveness and community bonding which was the hallmark of this village. This drift puts a question mark about the sustainability of such practices and consequently the development of solidarity economy.

Keywords: spirituality, sense of community, economic welfare, solidarity economy, Mawlynnong village

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2 Impact of Urban Densification on Travel Behaviour: Case of Surat and Udaipur, India

Authors: Darshini Mahadevia, Kanika Gounder, Saumya Lathia

Abstract:

Cities, an outcome of natural growth and migration, are ever-expanding due to urban sprawl. In the Global South, urban areas are experiencing a switch from public transport to private vehicles, coupled with intensified urban agglomeration, leading to frequent longer commutes by automobiles. This increase in travel distance and motorized vehicle kilometres lead to unsustainable cities. To achieve the nationally pledged GHG emission mitigation goal, the government is prioritizing a modal shift to low-carbon transport modes like mass transit and paratransit. Mixed land-use and urban densification are crucial for the economic viability of these projects. Informed by desktop assessment of mobility plans and in-person primary surveys, the paper explores the challenges around urban densification and travel patterns in two Indian cities of contrasting nature- Surat, a metropolitan industrial city with a 5.9 million population and a very compact urban form, and Udaipur, a heritage city attracting large international tourists’ footfall, with limited scope for further densification. Dense, mixed-use urban areas often improve access to basic services and economic opportunities by reducing distances and enabling people who don't own personal vehicles to reach them on foot/ cycle. But residents travelling on different modes end up contributing to similar trip lengths, highlighting the non-uniform distribution of land-uses and lack of planned transport infrastructure in the city and the urban-peri urban networks. Additionally, it is imperative to manage these densities to reduce negative externalities like congestion, air/noise pollution, lack of public spaces, loss of livelihood, etc. The study presents a comparison of the relationship between transport systems with the built form in both cities. The paper concludes with recommendations for managing densities in urban areas along with promoting low-carbon transport choices like improved non-motorized transport and public transport infrastructure and minimizing personal vehicle usage in the Global South.

Keywords: India, low-carbon transport, travel behaviour, trip length, urban densification

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1 Mapping the Urban Catalytic Trajectory for 'Convention and Exhibition' Projects: A Case of India International Convention and Expo Centre, New Delhi

Authors: Bhavana Gulaty, Arshia Chaudhri

Abstract:

Great civic projects contribute integrally to a city, and every city undergoes a recurring cycle of urban transformations and regeneration by their insertion. The M.I.C.E. (Meetings, Incentives, Convention and Exhibitions) industry is the forbearer of one category of such catalytic civic projects. Through a specific focus on M.I.C.E. destinations, this paper illustrates the multifarious dimensions that urban catalysts impact the city on S.P.U.R. (Seed. Profile. Urbane. Reflections), the theoretical framework of this paper aims to unearth these dimensions in the realm of the COEX (Convention & Exhibition) biosphere. The ‘COEX Biosphere’ is the filter of such catalysts being ecosystems unto themselves. Like a ripple in water, the impact of these strategic interventions focusing on art, culture, trade, and promotion expands right from the trigger; the immediate context to the region and subsequently impacts the global scale. These ripples are known to bring about significant economic, social, and political and network changes. The COEX inventory in the Asian context has one such prominent addition; the proposed India International Convention and Exhibition Centre (IICC) at New Delhi. It is envisioned to be the largest facility in Asia currently and would position India on the global M.I.C.E map. With the first phase of the project scheduled to open for use in the end of 2019, this flagship project of the Government of India is projected to cater to a peak daily footfall of 3,20,000 visitors and estimated to generate 5,00,000 jobs. While the economic benefits are yet to manifest in real time and ‘Good design is good business’ holds true, for the urban transformation to be meaningful, the benefits have to go beyond just a balance sheet for the city’s exchequer. This aspect has been found relatively unexplored in research on these developments. The methodology for investigation will comprise of two steps. The first will be establishing an inventory of the global success stories and associated benefits of COEX projects over the past decade. The rationale for capping the timeframe is the significant paradigm shift that has been observed in their recent conceptualization; for instance ‘Innovation Districts’ conceptualised in the city of Albuquerque that converges into the global economy. The second step would entail a comparative benchmarking of the projected transformations by IICC through a toolkit of parameters. This is posited to yield a matrix that can form the test bed for mapping the catalytic trajectory for projects in the pipeline globally. As a ready reckoner, it purports to be a catalyst to substantiate decision making in the planning stage itself for future projects in similar contexts.

Keywords: catalysts, COEX, M.I.C.E., urban transformations

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