Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 291

Search results for: isa brown chicks

291 Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Feed Intake and Average Weight of Pullets

Authors: Cajethan U. Ugwuoke, Hyginus O. Omeje, Emmanuel C. Osinem

Abstract:

The study was carried out to determine the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder additive on the feed intake and average weight of pullets. A completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted for the study. On the procedure of the experiment, 240 chicks were randomly selected from 252 Isa Brown day-old chicks. The chicks were equally randomly allotted to 12 pens with 20 chicks each. The pens were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups with three replicates each. T1 was fed with control feed while T2, T3, and T4 were fed with 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Moringa oleifera leaf powder fortified feed respectively. The chicks were fed with uniform feed up to week four. From week five, experimental feeds were given to the pullet up to 20 weeks of age. The birds were placed on the same treatment conditions except different experimental feeds given to different groups. Data on the feed intake were collected daily while the average weight of the pullets was collected weekly using weighing scale. Data collected were analyzed using mean, bar charts and Analysis of Variance. The layers fed with control feed consumed the highest amount of feed in most of the weeks under study. The average weights of all the treatment groups were equal from week 1 to week 4. Little variation in average weight started in week 5 with T2 topping the groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the feed intake and average weight of layers fed with different inclusion rates of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in feeds.

Keywords: average weight, feed intake, Moringa oleifera, pullets

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290 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

Abstract:

Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

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289 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: broiler, diet, dietary, potato leaves, wheat offal

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
288 Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Mariana Thimotheo, Gabriel Carvalho Ripamonte, Marina De Almeida Nogueira, Silvia Camila Da Costa Aguiar, Marcelo Henrique Santana Ulian, Euclides Braga Malheiros, Isabel Cristina Boleli

Abstract:

Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.

Keywords: beak dimensions, egg weight, hatching period, hatching window

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287 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils

Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seeds

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286 Combined Effect of Zinc Supplementation and Ascaridia galli Infection on Oxidative Status in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Veselin Nanev, Margarita Gabrashanska, Neli Tsocheva-Gaytandzieva

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Ascaridiasis in chicks is one of the major causes for the reduction in body weights, higher mortality, and reduction in egg production, worse meat quantity, pathological lesions, blood losses, and secondary infections. It is responsible for economic losses to the poultry. Despite being economically important parasite, little work has been carried out on the role of antioxidants in the pathogenesis of ascaridiasis. Zinc is a trace elements with multiple functions and one of them is its antioxidant ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of organic zinc compound (2Gly.ZnCl22H20) and Ascaridia galli infection on the antioxidant status of broiler chicks. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed by malonyl dialdexyde and plasma zinc in chicks experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli was investigated. Parasite burden was studied as well. The study was performed on 80 broiler chicks, Cobb 500 hybrids. They were divided into four groups – 1st group – control (non-treated and non-infected, 2nd group – infected with embryonated eggs of A. galli and without treatment, 3rd group- only treated with 2Gly.ZnCl22H20 compound and gr. 4 - infected and supplemented with Zn-compound. The chicks in gr. 2 and 4 were infected orally with 450 embryonated eggs of A.galli on day 14 post infection. The chicks from gr. 3 and 4 received 40 mg Zn compound /kg of feed after the 1st week of age during 10 days. All chicks were similarly fed, managed and killed at 60 day p.i. Helminthological, biochemical and statistical methods were applied. Reduced plasma Zn content was observed in the infected chicks compared to controls. Zinc supplementation did not restored the lower Zn content. Cu, Zn-SOD was decreased significantly in the infected chicks compared to controls. The GPx – activity was significantly increased in the infected chicks than the controls. Increased GPx activity together with decreased Cu/ZnSOD activity revealed unbalanced antioxidant defense capacity. The increased MDA level in chicks and changes in the activity of the enzymes showed a development of oxidative stress during the infection with A.galli. Zn compound supplementation has been shown to influence the activity of both antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx) and reduced MDA in the infected chicks. Organic zinc supplementation improved the antioxidant defense and protect hosts from oxidant destruction, but without any effect on the parasite burden. The number of helminths was similar in both groups. Zn supplementation did not changed the number of parasites. Administration of oral 2Gly.ZnCl22H20 compound has been shown to be useful in chicks infected with A. galli by its improvement of their antioxidant potential.

Keywords: Ascaridia galli, antioxidants, broiler chicks, zinc supplementation

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285 The Effect of Different Levels of Seed and Extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on Immune Responses of Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. Toghyani, A. Ghasemi, S. A. Tabeidian

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of dietary seed and extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on immunity of broiler chicks. A total of 350 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates pen of 14 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of control, 1 and 2 g/kg Harmal seed in diet, 100 and 200 mg/L Harmal seed extract in water. Broilers received dietary treatments from 1 to 42 d. Two birds from each pen were randomly weighed and sacrificed at 42 d of age, the relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabercius and spleen) to live weight were calculated. Antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell were measured at 30 d of age. Results showed that the relative weights of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments. Furthermore, antibody titer against Newcastle and influenza viruses as well as sheep red blood cell antigen were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by feeding Harmal seed and extract. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary inclusion of Harmal seed and extract enhanced immunological responses in broiler chicks.

Keywords: broiler chicks, Harmal, immunity, Peganum harmala

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284 Biosafety Study of Genetically Modified CEMB Sugarcane on Animals for Glyphosate Tolerance

Authors: Aminah Salim, Idrees Ahmed Nasir, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Ayesha Hameed, Bushra Tabassum, Anwar Khan, Arfan Ali, Mariyam Zameer, Tayyab Husnain

Abstract:

Risk assessment of transgenic herbicide tolerant sugarcane having CEMB codon optimized cp4EPSPS gene was done in present study. Fifteen days old chicks taken from K&Ns Company were randomly assorted into four groups with eight chicks in each group namely control chicken group fed with commercial diet, non-transgenic group fed with non-experimental sugarcane and transgenic group fed with transgenic sugarcane with minimum and maximum level. Body weights, biochemical analysis for Urea, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, creatinine and bilirubin determination and histological examination of chicks fed with four types of feed was taken at fifteen days interval and no significant difference was observed in body weight biochemical and histological studies of all four groups. Protein isolated from the serum sample was analyzed through dipstick and SDS-PAGE, showing the absence of transgene protein in the serum sample of control and experimental groups. Moreover the amplification of cp4EPSPS gene with gene specific primers of DNA isolated from chicks blood and also from commercial diet was done to determine the presence and mobility of any nucleotide fragment of the transgene in/from feed and no amplification was obtained in feed as well as in blood extracted DNA of any group. Also no mRNA expression of cp4EPSPS gene was obtained in any tissue of four groups of chicks. From the results it is clear that there is no deleterious or harmful effect of the CEMB codon optimized transgenic cp4EPSPS sugarcane on the chicks health.

Keywords: chicks, cp4EPSPS, glyphosate, sugarcane

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283 Development of the Analysis and Pretreatment of Brown HT in Foods

Authors: Hee-Jae Suh, Mi-Na Hong, Min-Ji Kim, Yeon-Seong Jeong, Ok-Hwan Lee, Jae-Wook Shin, Hyang-Sook Chun, Chan Lee

Abstract:

Brown HT is a bis-azo dye which is permitted in EU as a food colorant. So far, many studies have focused on HPLC using diode array detection (DAD) analysis for detection of this food colorant with different columns and mobile phases. Even though these methods make it possible to detect Brown HT, low recovery, reproducibility, and linearity are still the major limitations for the application in foods. The purpose of this study was to compare various methods for the analysis of Brown HT and to develop an improved analytical methods including pretreatment. Among tested analysis methods, best resolution of Brown HT was observed when the following solvent was applied as a eluent; solvent A of mobile phase was 0.575g NH4H2PO4, and 0.7g Na2HPO4 in 500mL water added with 500mL methanol. The pH was adjusted using phosphoric acid to pH 6.9 and solvent B was methanol. Major peak for Brown HT appeared at the end of separation, 13.4min after injection. This method exhibited relatively high recovery and reproducibility compared with other methods. LOD (0.284 ppm), LOQ (0.861 ppm), resolution (6.143), and selectivity (1.3) of this method were better than those of ammonium acetate solution method which was most frequently used. Precision and accuracy were verified through inter-day test and intra-day test. Various methods for sample pretreatments were developed for different foods and relatively high recovery over 80% was observed in all case. This method exhibited high resolution and reproducibility of Brown HT compared with other previously reported official methods from FSA and, EU regulation.

Keywords: analytic method, Brown HT, food colorants, pretreatment method

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282 Counteract Heat Stress on Broiler Chicks by Adding Anti-Heat Stress Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) with Organic Zinc

Authors: Omnia Y. Shawky, Asmaa M. Megahed, Alaa E. ElKomy, A. E. Abd-El-Hamid, Y. A. Attia

Abstract:

This study was carried out to elevate the broilers physiological response against heat stress and reduce this impact by adding vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) alone/or with organic zinc (Zn) to chicks’ rations. A total of 192, 26-day-old Arbor Acers male chicks were randomly divided into equal 8 groups (4 replicates for each). All experimental groups were treated as follow: Group 2 was served as a heat stress control that reared at 37ºC with relative humidity 53 ± 8% for 6 hours/day for three successive days/week and fed the basal diet only. Groups 3-8 were heat stressed in a like manner to group 2 and fed basal diet inclusion 200mg VC (group 3), 200mg VE (group 4), 200mg VC+200mg VE (group 5), 200mg VC+30mg Zn (group 6), 200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 7) and 200mg VC+200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 8) /kg feed, while Group 1 was served as a positive control that reared on a neutral temperature (NT) (approximately 21ºC) and fed the basal diet only. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were boosted of HS chicks (80.8 breath/min and 41.97ºC) compared to NT group (60.12 breath/min and 40.9ºC), while, adding VC alone and with VE or Zn resulted in decrease these measurements. Heat stress had a significantly negative effect on chicks body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio compared to the NT group, this harmful effect could be overcome by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. Chicks exposed to heat stress showed slightly increase hemoglobin concentration compared to NT group, while, adding VC, VE individually or with Zn alleviated this effect. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in HS group than the NT group, but adding VC, VE individually or with Zn resulted in a reduction plasma glucose level, which it was still higher than the NT group. Heat stress caused an increase in plasma total lipids and cholesterol concentration compared to the NT group and inclusion VC or VE alone or with Zn was not able to reduce this effect. The increased liver enzymes activities (AST and ALT) that observed in HS group compared to NT group were removed by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. As well, exposure of broiler chicks to heat stress resulted in a slightly decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity level (TAC) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes activities, while inclusion VC and VE individually or with Zn in chicks rations caused an increased in these measurements. Broiler chicks that exposed to HS revealed a significant increase in heat shock protein (Hsp 70) compared to the NT group, while, adding VC or VE individually or with Zn resulted in a significant decrease in Hsp70 than the HS group and VE alone or with VC had the greatest effect. In conclusion, it could be overcome the harmful and the negative effect of heat stress on broiler chicks’ productive performance and physiological status by inclusion VC (200mg) or VE (200mg) individual or in a combination with organic zinc (30 mg) in chicks’ rations.

Keywords: heat stress, broiler, vitamin C, vitamin E, organic zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
281 Multivariate Analysis of Spectroscopic Data for Agriculture Applications

Authors: Asmaa M. Hussein, Amr Wassal, Ahmed Farouk Al-Sadek, A. F. Abd El-Rahman

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In this study, a multivariate analysis of potato spectroscopic data was presented to detect the presence of brown rot disease or not. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (1,350-2,500 nm) combined with multivariate analysis was used as a rapid, non-destructive technique for the detection of brown rot disease in potatoes. Spectral measurements were performed in 565 samples, which were chosen randomly at the infection place in the potato slice. In this study, 254 infected and 311 uninfected (brown rot-free) samples were analyzed using different advanced statistical analysis techniques. The discrimination performance of different multivariate analysis techniques, including classification, pre-processing, and dimension reduction, were compared. Applying a random forest algorithm classifier with different pre-processing techniques to raw spectra had the best performance as the total classification accuracy of 98.7% was achieved in discriminating infected potatoes from control.

Keywords: Brown rot disease, NIR spectroscopy, potato, random forest

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280 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

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κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: dairy cows, κ-casein, milk productivity, polymorphism

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279 Numerical Study on the Performance of Upgraded Victorian Brown Coal in an Ironmaking Blast Furnace

Authors: Junhai Liao, Yansong Shen, Aibing Yu

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A 3D numerical model is developed to simulate the complicated in-furnace combustion phenomena in the lower part of an ironmaking blast furnace (BF) while using pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology to reduce the consumption of relatively expensive coke. The computational domain covers blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed in the BF. The model is validated against experimental data in terms of gaseous compositions and coal burnout. Parameters, such as coal properties and some key operational variables, play an important role on the performance of coal combustion. Their diverse effects on different combustion characteristics are examined in the domain, in terms of gas compositions, temperature, and burnout. The heat generated by the combustion of upgraded Victorian brown coal is able to meet the heating requirement of a BF, hence making upgraded brown coal injected into BF possible. It is evidenced that the model is suitable to investigate the mechanism of the PCI operation in a BF. Prediction results provide scientific insights to optimize and control of the PCI operation. This model cuts the cost to investigate and understand the comprehensive combustion phenomena of upgraded Victorian brown coal in a full-scale BF.

Keywords: blast furnace, numerical study, pulverized coal injection, Victorian brown coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
278 The Efferent of Different Levels of Recycled Soybean Oil(RSO) on Growth and Performance of Broilers

Authors: Seyed Babak Asadi

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In this experiment the effect of recycled soybean oil (RSO) on the growth and performance carcass of broiler was investigated. The percentages of recycled soybean oil (RSO) used in this experiment were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In this regard, 300 one-day-old broilers were selected randomly consisting of five treatments and three replicates(20 chickens per replicate). The chicks were kept in an accumulated manner for the first week, then divided between treatments and kept until they reached the age of 42 days. Body weight at 21 and 42, weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio in starter (0-21 d), finisher (21-42 d) and overall were measured. At the end of the experiment (42 days-old) 2 chicks from each replicate which had the nearest weight to the average group in their group were selected, slaughtered and different parts of their carcass were weight separately. The result showed that the rate of feed intake and feed conversion coefficient have significantly increased with higher levels of recycled soybean oil. There was not a significant different between experimental groups for liver, heart, intestine and the weight of carcass. Results from this experiment showed that it is possible to use recycled soybean oil for up to 8 percent of food ration for broiler chicks without any significant effects on carcass quality.

Keywords: broiler, recycled soybean oil (RSO), growth, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
277 Effect of Gender on Carcass Parameters in Japanese Quail

Authors: M. Bolacali

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This study was conducted to determine the effects of and sex on the carcass characteristics in Japanese quails. A total of 320 (160 for each sex groups) one-day-old quail chicks were randomly allocated to the sex groups, each containing 160 chicks according to a completely randomized design. Each gender was then divided into five replicate groups of 32 chicks. According to sex groups, the chicks of all replicate groups were housed in cages. The normality of distribution for all data was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test at 95% confidence interval. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was interpreted as different. The statistical analysis for normal distribution data of the dietary groups was carried out with the general linear model procedure of SPSS software. The results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of five replications. Duncan’s multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons in important groups. Data points bearing different letters are significantly different P ≤ 0.05. For the distribution of data that was different from normal, Kruskal Wallis H-Test was applied as a nonparametric test, and the results were expressed as median, minimum and maximum values. Pairwise comparisons of groups were made when Kruskal Wallis H-Test was significant. The study period lasted 42 days. Hot carcass, cold carcass, heart, and leg percentages in male quails was higher than female quails (P < 0.05), but liver, and breast percentages in female quails was higher than male quails (P > 0.05). The highest slaughter and carcass weight values were determined in the female quails in the cage. As a conclusion, it may be recommended to quail meat producers, who would like to obtain higher carcass weight to make more economic profit, to raise female quails in cage.

Keywords: carcass yield, chick, gender, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
276 Efficacy of a Zeolite as a Detoxifier in Broiler Feed Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Authors: R. Stevens, W.L. Bryden

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The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of zeolite in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broilers. A total of 540 one-day-old Ross chicks were randomly divided into nine treatments, with four replicate pens per treatment and 15 chicks per pen. The treatments included 3 Levels of AFB1 (0,1and 2 mg/kg diet) and 3 levels of zeolite (0, 1.5 and 3 %) in a 3 ×3 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments commenced on d 7 post-hatch. A starter diet was provided from d 1 to 14, a grower diet from d 15 to 28 and a finisher diet from d 29 to d 49. Diets were based on corn and soybeans and formulated to meet the bird's requirements. The evaluated parameters were as follows: Bodyweight, daily gain, feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC), relative weights of organs (carcass, liver, heart and abdominal fat) and clinical biochemistry parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Bodyweight, daily gain and FC were significantly (P<0.05) impaired by aflatoxin. Relative weights of the liver and heart were also affected. The addition of zeolite (1.5 and 3 %) to the contaminated diets ameliorated the effects of aflatoxin, especially at the higher level of inclusion. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent (zeolite) can protect against the toxicity of AFB1in young broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, toxicity, zeolite

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275 Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Paddy Husker by Medium Brown Rice Peeling Machine 6 Rubber Type

Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, C. Ketsombun, T. Sammana

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Optimization of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of three factor (rubber of clearance, spindle of speed, and rice of moisture) in brown rice peeling machine of the optimal good rice yield (99.67, average of three repeats). The optimized composition derived from RSM regression was analyzed using Regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). At a significant level α=0.05, the values of Regression coefficient, R2 adjust were 96.55% and standard deviation were 1.05056. The independent variables are initial rubber of clearance, spindle of speed and rice of moisture parameters namely. The investigating responses are final rubber clearance, spindle of speed and moisture of rice.

Keywords: brown rice, response surface methodology (RSM), peeling machine, optimization, paddy husker

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274 Post-Hatching Development of the Cloacal Bursa in Chicken

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid

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A total of 40 one day-old LSL chicks (Lohman Selected Loghorn) were used in this study. In 20 days-old chicks, the bursa was formed of mucosa, musculosa and serosa. Its lamina propria was lymphoid in nature. After hatching, the bursa continued to grow and became fully developed at the 30th day post- hatching. It appeared as a blind sac. Its lumen was occupied by 12-13 mucosal folds. Each fold was lined by tall columnar or pseudo- stratified columnar epithelium. Its core was made of lamina propria infiltrated by a large number of lymphoid follicles. Most follicles possessed an outer corona surrounding a germinal center. At the age of 6 weeks physiological regression of the bursa was observed. The lymphoid follicles were decreased in size, the lymphocytes were depleted and the interfollicular stroma became obvious, thicker and more fibrous. Fibrosis of the lymphoid follicles was frequently seen in some sections at the age of 30 weeks.

Keywords: Bursa of fabricius, lymphocytes, cloacal Bursa

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
273 Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul, Supitcha Boonchai, Nawapat Pengpengpit

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The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

Keywords: ice cream, germinated brown rice, coconut pulp, milk, cream

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
272 Water Intake and Influence of Ambient Temperature on Carcass Characteristics of Savannah Brown Goats Fed Graded Levels of Maize Cob Diets Supplemented with Cowpea Husk

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N. Tsado, T. Z. Adama, Y. M. Ishiaku, S. U. Oyibo

Abstract:

This study investigated water intake and influence of ambient temperature on carcass characteristics of Savannah Brown goats fed graded levels of maize cob diets. A total of sixteen (16) Savannah Brown goats aged between 8-12 weeks with an average body weight of 10.19+0.19 kg were used. The goats were randomly allotted to four (4) dietary treatments, T1 (0 % maize cob diet), T2 (10% maize cob diet), T3 (20% maize cob diet) and T4 (30% maize cob diet) respectively. The goats were also fed cowpea husk as supplement. A complete randomized design was used. Each treatment was allotted four (4) goats and replicated twice with two (2) goats per replicate. The goats were kept under feedlot management and were allowed 7 days adjustment period during which the animals were dewormed using albendzole and treated with antibiotics against any sign of disease(s). The goats were each offered 500 g of experimental diet between 7.00 am-8.00 am daily and the supplement was given to them between 4.00 pm-5.00 pm daily. The goats were offered three (3) litters of water daily without restriction. The experiment lasted for nine (9) weeks. Two (2) goats were randomly selected from each treatment and slaughtered for carcass characteristic and sensory evaluation. The result showed that ambient temperature had significant (P<0.05) correlations with water intake and feed intake among the treatment groups. There was a strongly positive significant (P<0.01) correlations between feed intake, water intake and ambient temperatures. The result on carcass characteristics showed significant (P<0.05) differences among all the treatment groups. The goats fed 20% maize cob performed significantly (P<0.05) better in most carcass cuts than those fed 0% inclusion level. Also, the result on sensory evaluation showed that colour, tenderness, juiciness and flavor for both cooked and fried meat were significantly (P<0.05) different among all the treatment groups. It can be concluded that 20 % inclusion of maize cob in the diet of Savanna Brown goats will improve meat yield and water intake. Therefore, inclusion of maize cob into the diet of Savanna Brown goats up to 20% is here by recommended.

Keywords: water intake, ambient temperature, savannah brown goats, carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
271 Influence of Canola Oil and Lysine Supplementation Diets on Growth Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Meat in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Ali Kiani, Seyed Davod. Sharifi, Shokoufeh Ghazanfari

Abstract:

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing different levels of lysine and canola oil on growth performance and fatty acid composition of meat of broilers chicks. 240-day old Ross broiler chicks were used in a 3×2 factorial arrangement with canola oil (1, 3, and 5%) and lysine (recommended, and 25% more than recommended by Ross broiler manual) in completely randomized design with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The experimental diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded at the end of starter (10 d), grower (24 d) and finisher (42 d) periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. The results showed that the weight gain of chickens fed diets containing 5% canola oil were greater than those of birds fed on other diets (P<0.05). The dietary lysine had significant effect on feed intake and diets with 25% more than recommended, increased feed intake significantly (P<0.05). The canola oil×lysine interaction effects on performance were not significant. Among all treatment birds, those fed diets containing 5% canola oil had the highest meristic acid and oleic acid content in their meat. Broilers fed diets containing 3 or 5% canola oil possessed the higher content of linolenic acid and lower content of arachidonic acid in their meat (P<0.05). The results of the present experiment indicated that the diets containing canola oil (5%) and lysine at 25% higher than requirement, improve the growth performance, carcass and breast yield of broiler, and increase the accumulation of Omega-3 fatty acids in breast meat.

Keywords: broiler, canola oil. lysine, fatty acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
270 Colour Characteristics of Dried Cocoa Using Shallow Box Fermentation Technique

Authors: Khairul Bariah Sulaiman, Tajul Aris Yang

Abstract:

Fermentation is well known as an essential process in cocoa beans. Besides to develop the precursor of cocoa flavour, it also induce the colour changes in the beans.The fermentation process is reported to be influenced by duration of pod storage and fermentation. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate colour of Malaysian cocoa beans and how the pods storage and fermentation duration using shallow box technique will effect on it characteristics. There are two factors being studied ie duration of cocoa pod storage (0, 2, 4, and 6 days) and duration of cocoa fermentation (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). The experiment is arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with 24 treatments and arrangement is in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The produced beans is inspected for colour changes under artificial light during cut test and divided into four groups of colour namely fully brown, purple brown, fully purple and slaty. Cut tests indicated that cocoa beans which are directly dried without undergone fermentation has the highest slaty percentage. However, application of pods storage before fermentation process is found to decrease the slaty percentage. In contrast, the percentages of fully brown beans start to dominate after two days of fermentation, especially from four and six days of pods storage batch. Whereas, almost all batch have percentage of fully purple less than 20%. Interestingly, the percentage of purple brown beans are scattered in the entire beans batch regardless any specific trend. Meanwhile, statistical analysis using General Linear Model showed that the pods storage has a significant effect on the colour characteristic of the Malaysian dried beans compared to fermentation duration.

Keywords: cocoa beans, colour, fermentation, shallow box

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
269 Effect of Synthetic L-Lysine and DL-Methionine Amino Acids on Performance of Broiler Chickens

Authors: S. M. Ali, S. I. Mohamed

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Reduction of feed cost for broiler production is at most importance in decreasing the cost of production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of synthetic amino acids (L-lysine – DL-methionine) instead of super concentrate and groundnut cake versus meat powder as protein sources. A total of 180 male broiler chicks (Cobb – strain) at 15 day of age (DOA) were selected according to their average body weight (380 g) from a broiler chicks flock at Elbashair Farm. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups of 30 chicks. Each group was further sub divided into three replicates with 10 birds. Six experimental diets were formulated. The first diet contained groundnut cake and super concentrate as the control (GNC + C); in the second diet, meat powder and super concentrate (MP + C) were used. The third diet contained groundnut cake and amino acids (GNC + AA); the forth diet contained meat powder and amino acids (MP + AA). The fifth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and super concentrate (GNC + MP + C) and the sixth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and amino acids (GNC + MP + AA). The formulated rations were randomly assigned for the different sub groups in a completely randomized design of six treatments and three replicates. Weekly feed intake, body weight and mortality were recorded and body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment (49 DOA), nine birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Live body weight, carcass weight, head, shank, and some internal organs (gizzard, heart, liver, small intestine, and abdominal fat pad) weights were taken. For the overall experimental period the (GNC + C +MP) consumed significantly (P≤0.01) the highest cumulative feed while the (MP + AA) group consumed the lowest amount of feed. The (GNC + C) and the (GNC + AA) groups had the heaviest live body weight while (MP + AA) had the lowest live body weight. The overall FCR was significantly (P≤0.01) the best for (GNC + AA) group while the (MP + AA) reported the worst FCR. However, the (GNC + AA) had significantly (P≤0.01) the lowest AFP. The (GNC + MP + Con) group had the highest dressing % while the (MP + AA) group had the lowest dressing %. It is concluded that amino acids can be used instead of super concentrate in broiler feeding with perfect performance and less cost and that meat powder is not advisable to be used with amino acids.

Keywords: broiler chickens, DL-lysine, methionine, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
268 The Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Brown Iranian Propolis Extracts on Ruminal Nitrogen Ammonia Concentration in in Vitro

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Mahdi Paktinat

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The goal of this study is to determine the chemical compounds of brown Iranian propolis(BIP) extracts and to show flavonoids and phenol effects on nitrogen ammonia (NH3-N) in in vitro. Experimental samples were including two diets with different concentrate: forage ratio (80:20 and 60:40) with eight treatments (1:Control diet 60:40 without BIP,2: 60:40 diet with 25% BIP, 3:60:40 diet with 50% BIP, 4: 60:40 diet with 75% BIP,5: Control diet 80:20 without BIP,6: 80:20 diet with 25% BIP,7: 80:20 diet with 50% BIP and 8: 80:20 diet with 75% BIP) and eight repeats. The trial was analyzed considering a completely randomized design by the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatment were compared by Tukey test. The results of this study showed that in food with 80:20 (concentrate: forage), adding BIP 25% did not statistically change NH3-N (p > 0.05) compared to the control treatment but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the effect of BIP 50% on NH3-N compared to the BIP 25% and the control. In diet with 60:40 (concentrate: forage), there was no significant difference between the effect of BIP 25% on NH3-N and the control, nor was there a significant difference between the effect of BIP 50% and 75%, while a significant difference (p < 0.05) between BIP 50% and 75% and the rest was observed. The propolis extract makes nitrogen ammonia decrease. This may help the nitrogen retain longer in ruminants.

Keywords: brown Iranian propolis, in vitro, nitrogen ammonia, ruminant

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
267 Effects of Plumage Colour on Measurable Attributes of Indigenous Chickens in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Joseph J. Okoh, Samuel T. Mbap, Tahir Ibrahim, Yusuf P. Mancha

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The influence of plumage colour on measurable attributes of 6176 adult indigenous chickens of mixed-sex from four states of the North Central Zone of Nigeria namely; Nasarawa, Niger, Benue, Kogi and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja were assessed. The overall average body weight of the chickens was 1.95 ± 0.03kg. The body weights of black, white, black/white, brown, black/brown, grey and mottled chicken however were 1.87 ± 0.04, 1.94 ± 0.04, 1.95 ± 0.03, 1.93 ± 0.03, 2.01 ± 0.04, 1.96 ± 0.04 and 1.94±0.14kg respectively. Only body length did not vary by plumage colour. The others; body weight and width, shank, comb and breast length, breast height (p < 0.001), beak and wing lengths (p < 0.001) varied significantly. Generally, no colour was outrightly superior to others in all body measurements. However, body weight and breast height were both highest in black/brown chickens which also had the second highest breast length. Body width, shank, beak, comb and wing lengths were highest in grey chickens but lowest in those with white colour and combinations. Egg quality was on the other hand mostly lowest in grey chickens. In selection for genetic improvement in body measurements, black/brown and grey chickens should be favoured. However, in view of the known negative relationship between body weight and egg attributes, selection in favour of grey plumage may result in chickens of poor egg attributes. Therefore, grey chickens should be selected against egg quality.

Keywords: body weight, indigenous chicken, measurements, plumage colour

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
266 Effect of Gamma Radiation, Age of Paddy, Rice Variety and Packaging Materials on the Surface Free Fatty Acid Content of Brown Rice

Authors: Zenaida M. De Guzman, Davison T. Baldos, Gilberto T. Diano, Jeff Darren G. Valdez, Levelyn Mitos Tolentino, Gina B. Abrera, Ma. Lucia Cobar, Cristina Gragasin

Abstract:

One of the factors affecting the quality of brown rice is the free fatty acid produced from surface lipids. It is the purpose of the study to determine the effect of gamma radiation, packaging materials and age and variety of paddy on the surface free fatty acid content using two different brown rice variety, namely, RC-160 and SL-7, packed in two different packaging materials, namely, regular polyethylene bag and Super bag irradiated at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Brown rice was produced from 2-week old (Lot 1) and two months old paddy (Lot 2) and irradiated at the Co-60 Multipurpose Irradiation Facility, PNRI. The surface Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content was obtained following the AOCS Official Method (1982) with some modifications. The experiment was laid out using Split-Plot Randomized Control Block Design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the effects of variety, age of paddy and interactions of both were both significant. The surface FFA of SL-7 variety was found to be significantly higher than the RC-160 variety for all radiation doses. Likewise, Lot 2 was observed to have higher surface FFA than Lot 1 regardless of packaging material and radiation dose. It was observed that the surface FFA of both varieties packed in both packaging materials increased significantly up to the 2nd or 3rd month of storage and remains the same until the 5th month. On the other hand, radiation dose did not significantly affect the surface free fatty acid content for all storage/sampling time while the packaging material significantly interacts with the type of variety and radiation dose. Gamma radiation was proven to have no significant effect on the surface free fatty acid at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy and further analyses are needed to determine the action of gamma radiation to the activity of enzyme (lipase-induced and microbial) responsible for the production of other lipolytic products and the effect of gamma radiation on the integrity of the packaging materials.

Keywords: brown rice, free fatty acid, gamma radiation, polyethylene bag

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
265 Dyeing with Natural Dye from Pterocarpus indicus Extract Using Eco-Friendly Mordants

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nuttawadee Hanchengchai, Thiva Saksri

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Natural dye extracted from Pterocarpus indicus was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing processing different eco-friendly mordants. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordants had a shade of greenish-brown, while those post-mordanted with selected eco-friendly mordants such as alum, lemon juice and limewater result in a variety of brown and darker color shade of fabric.

Keywords: natural dyes, plant materials, dyeing, mordant

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
264 Hyper-Production of Lysine through Fermentation and Its Biological Evaluation on Broiler Chicks

Authors: Shagufta Gulraiz, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Mohsin Javed

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Lysine required for poultry feed is imported in Pakistan to fulfil the desired dietary needs. Present study was designed to produce maximum lysine by utilizing cheap sources to save the foreign exchange. To achieve the goal of lysine production through fermentation, large scale production of lysine was carried out in 7.5 L stirred glass vessel fermenter with wild and mutant Brevibacterium flavum (B. flavum) using all pre-optimized conditions. The identification of produced lysine was carried out by TLC and amino acid analyzer. Toxicity evaluation of produced lysine was performed before feeding to broiler chicks. During biological trial concentrated fermented broth having 8% lysine was used in poultry rations as a source of Lysine for test birds. Fermenter scale studies showed that the maximum lysine (20.8 g/L) was produced at 250 rpm, 1.5 vvm aeration, 6.0% inoculum under controlled pH conditions after 56 h of fermentation with wild culture but mutant (BFENU2) gave maximum yield of lysine 36.3 g/L under optimized condition after 48 h. Amino acid profiling showed 1.826% Lysine in fermented broth by wild B. flavum and 2.644% by mutant strain (BFENU2). Toxicity evaluation report showed that the produced lysine is safe for consumption by broilers. Biological evaluation results showed that produced lysine was equally good as commercial lysine in terms of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. A cheap and practical bioprocess of Lysine production was concluded, that can be exploited commercially in Pakistan to save foreign exchange.

Keywords: lysine, fermentation, broiler chicks, biological evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
263 Effect of Roasting Treatment on Milling Quality, Physicochemical, and Bioactive Compounds of Dough Stage Rice Grains

Authors: Chularat Leewuttanakul, Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol, Sasivimon Chittrakorn

Abstract:

Rice during grain development stage is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. Dough stage rice contains high amounts of photochemical and can be used for rice milling industries. However, rice grain at dough stage had low milling quality due to high moisture content. Thermal processing can be applied to rice grain for improving milled rice yield. This experiment was conducted to study the chemical and physic properties of dough stage rice grain after roasting treatment. Rice were roasted with two different methods including traditional pan roasting at 140 °C for 60 minutes and using the electrical roasting machine at 140 °C for 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The chemical, physical properties, and bioactive compounds of brown rice and milled rice were evaluated. The result of this experiment showed that moisture content of brown and milled rice was less than 10 % and amylose contents were in the range of 26-28 %. Rice grains roasting for 30 min using electrical roasting machine had high head rice yield and length and breadth of grain after milling were close to traditional pan roasting (p > 0.05). The lightness (L*) of rice did not affect by roasting treatment (p > 0.05) and the a* indicated the yellowness of milled rice was lower than brown rice. The bioactive compounds of brown and milled rice significantly decreased with increasing of drying time. Brown rice roasted for 30 minutes had the highest of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, α-tocopherol, and ɤ-oryzanol content. Volume expansion and elongation of cooked rice decreased as roasting time increased and quality of cooked rice roasted for 30 min was comparable to traditional pan roasting. Hardness of cooked rice as measured by texture analyzer increased with increasing roasting time. The results indicated that rice grains at dough stage, containing a high amount of bioactive compounds, have a great potential for rice milling industries and the electrical roasting machine can be used as an alternative to pan roasting which decreases processing time and labor costs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, cooked rice, dough stage rice grain, grain development, roasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
262 Rice Bran Material Enrichment of Granulated Cane Brown Sugar to Increase Policosanol Contents

Authors: Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Hajime Tamaki, Yonathan Asikin, Koji Wada, Makoto Takahashi, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan

Abstract:

Rice bran and sugarcane are significant sources of wax containing policosanol (PC), the cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical available in the market. The processing of rice bran oil causes the loss of PC content into various waste products. Therefore, we hypothesise that defatted rice bran (DRB) as agricultural waste product and rice bran oil (RBO) retain a varying but significant amount of PC wax. Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) or cane brown sugar has been consumed worldwide and possesses various health benefits. Since PC wax is mainly in the outer layer rinds of cane, PC contents of the granulated sugar are reduced due to the peeling step. The study aimed to increase PC contents of the granular brown sugar by adding wax extracted from DRB and RBO and to investigate the toxicity of the developed products. The results showed that the total PC contents including long chain aldehyde of products were increased to the maximum level of 147.97 mg/100 g and 40.14 mg/100 g for extracted wax and rice bran oil addition, respectively. PC content of RBO was found to be 96.93 mg/100 g. DRB is promising source of policosanol (6,044.7 mg/100 g). The 28-day toxicity evaluations of the developed sugar revealed no adverse effects on the liver, spleen or kidney.

Keywords: enrichment, sugarcane, policosanol, defatted rice bran, wax

Procedia PDF Downloads 195