Search results for: Ratnakar Mahajan
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Ratnakar Mahajan

40 Ground Improvement with Basal Reinforcement with High Strength Geogrids and PVDs for Embankment over Soft Soils

Authors: Ratnakar Mahajan, Matteo Lelli, Kinjal Parmar


Ground improvement is a very important aspect of infrastructure development, especially when it comes to deep-ground improvement. The use of various geosynthetic applications is very common these days for ground improvement. This paper presents a case study where the combination of two geosynthetic applications was used in order to optimize the design as well as to control the settlements through uniform load distribution. The Agartala-Akaura rail project was made to help increase railway connectivity between India and Bangladesh. Both countries have started the construction of the same. The project requires high railway embankments to be built for the rail link. However, the challenge was to design a proper ground improvement solution as the entire area comprises very soft soil for an average depth of 15m. After due diligence, a combination of two methods was worked out by Maccaferri. PVDs were provided for the consolidation, and on top of that, a layer of high-strength geogrids (Paralink) was proposed as a basal reinforcement. The design approach was followed as described in Indian standards as well as British standards. By introducing a basal reinforcement, the spacing of PVDs could be increased, which allowed quick installation and less material consumption while keeping the consolidation time within the project duration.

Keywords: ground improvement, basal reinforcement, PVDs, high strength geogrids, Paralink

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
39 Use of Triclosan-Coated Sutures Led to Cost Saving in Public and Private Setting in India across Five Surgical Categories: An Economical Model Assessment

Authors: Anish Desai, Reshmi Pillai, Nilesh Mahajan, Hitesh Chopra, Vishal Mahajan, Ajay Grover, Ashish Kohli


Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is hospital acquired infection of growing concern. This study presents the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of triclosan-coated suture, in reducing the burden of SSI in India. Methodology: A systematic literature search was conducted for economic burden (1998-2018) of SSI and efficacy of triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) vs. non-coated sutures (NCS) (2000-2018). PubMed Medline and EMBASE indexed articles were searched using Mesh terms or Emtree. Decision tree analysis was used to calculate, the cost difference between TCS and NCS at private and public hospitals, respectively for 7 surgical procedures. Results: The SSI range from low to high for Caesarean section (C-section), Laparoscopic hysterectomy (L-hysterectomy), Open Hernia (O-Hernia), Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (L-Cholecystectomy), Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), Total knee replacement (TKR), and Mastectomy were (3.77 to 24.2%), (2.28 to 11.7%), (1.75 to 60%), (1.71 to 25.58%), (1.6 to 18.86%), (1.74 to 12.5%), and (5.56 to 25%), respectively. The incremental cost (%) of TCS ranged 0.1%-0.01% in private and from 0.9%-0.09% at public hospitals across all surgical procedures. Cost savings at median efficacy & SSI risk was 6.52%, 5.07 %, 11.39%, 9.63%, 3.62%, 2.71%, 9.41% for C-section, L-hysterectomy, O-Hernia, L-Cholecystectomy, CABG, TKR, and Mastectomy in private and 8.79%, 4.99%, 12.67%, 10.58%, 3.32%, 2.35%, 11.83% in public hospital, respectively. Efficacy of TCS and SSI incidence in a particular surgical procedure were important determinants of cost savings using one-way sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: TCS suture led to cost savings across all 7 surgeries in both private and public hospitals in India.

Keywords: cost Savings, non-coated sutures, surgical site infection, triclosan-coated sutures

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
38 Degree of Approximation by the (T.E^1) Means of Conjugate Fourier Series in the Hölder Metric

Authors: Kejal Khatri, Vishnu Narayan Mishra


We compute the degree of approximation of functions\tilde{f}\in H_w, a new Banach space using (T.E^1) summability means of conjugate Fourier series. In this paper, we extend the results of Singh and Mahajan which in turn generalizes the result of Lal and Yadav. Some corollaries have also been deduced from our main theorem and particular cases.

Keywords: conjugate Fourier series, degree of approximation, Hölder metric, matrix summability, product summability

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
37 Study and Analysis of the Factors Affecting Road Safety Using Decision Tree Algorithms

Authors: Naina Mahajan, Bikram Pal Kaur


The purpose of traffic accident analysis is to find the possible causes of an accident. Road accidents cannot be totally prevented but by suitable traffic engineering and management the accident rate can be reduced to a certain extent. This paper discusses the classification techniques C4.5 and ID3 using the WEKA Data mining tool. These techniques use on the NH (National highway) dataset. With the C4.5 and ID3 technique it gives best results and high accuracy with less computation time and error rate.

Keywords: C4.5, ID3, NH(National highway), WEKA data mining tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
36 Axiomatic Design of Laser Beam Machining Process

Authors: Nikhil Deshpande, Rahul Mahajan


Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is a non-traditional machining process that has inherent problems like dross, striation, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) which reduce the quality of machining. In the present day scenario, these problems are controlled only by iteratively adjusting a large number of process parameters. This paper applies Axiomatic Design principles to design LBM process so as to eliminate the problem of dross and striation and minimize the effect of HAZ. Process parameters and their ranges are proposed to set-up the LBM process, execute the cut and finish the workpiece so as to obtain the best quality cut.

Keywords: laser beam machining, dross, striation, heat affected zone, axiomatic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
35 Automated Server Configuration Management using Ansible

Authors: Kartik Mahajan


DevOps methodologies streamline software development and operations, promoting collaboration and automation. Traditional server management often relies on manual, repetitive tasks, leading to inefficiencies, potential errors, and increased operational costs. Ansible, as a configuration management tool, presents a compelling solution for automating infrastructure management processes. This review paper explores the implementation and testing of Ansible for server management, specifically focusing on automated user account configuration. By replacing manual procedures with Ansible playbooks, we aim to optimize server management, reduce human error, and potentially mitigate operational expenses. This study offers insights into Ansible’s efficacy within a DevOps context, highlighting its potential to transform server administration practices.

Keywords: cloud, Devops, automation, ansible

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
34 Integrated Finishing of Textiles

Authors: Geetal Mahajan, R. V. Adivarekar


In this research, an attempt has been made to develop integrated finish on textile fabrics. The demand for mosquito repellent, flame retardant, and water repellent finished fabric has increased. Integrated finishing was done using commercially available products. These finishing agents were first assessed individually for their functional properties and then used in combination with other agents. Dip-air dry and pad-dry-cure (PDC) were two different methods used for fabric finishing. The finished fabric was assessed using spray test, limiting oxygen index and mosquito repellence test. Integrated finished fabric is in great demand by the customers as it increases the aesthetic as well as the functional properties of the fabric with added benefit of water and energy conservation.

Keywords: flame retardant, integrated finishing, mosquito repellent, textiles, water repellent

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
33 RSU Aggregated Message Delivery for VANET

Authors: Auxeeliya Jesudoss, Ashraph Sulaiman, Ratnakar Kotnana


V2V communication brings up several questions of scalability issues although message sharing in vehicular ad-hoc networks comprises of both Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication (V2I). It is not an easy task for a vehicle to verify all signatures of the messages sent by its neighboring vehicles in a timely manner, without resulting in message loss. Moreover, the communication overhead of a vehicle to authenticate another vehicle would increase together with the security of the system. Another issue to be addressed is the continuous mobility of vehicles which requires at least some information on the node’s own position to be revealed to the neighboring vehicles. This may facilitate the attacker to congregate information on a node’s position or its mobility patterns. In order to tackle these issues, this paper introduces a RSU aggregated message deliverance scheme called RAMeD. With RAMeD, roadside units (RSUs) are responsible for verifying the identity of the vehicles entering in its range, collect messages from genuine vehicles and to aggregate similar messages into groups before sending them to all the vehicles in its communication range. This aggregation will tremendously improve the rate of message delivery and reduce the message lose ratio by avoiding similar messages being sent to the vehicles redundantly. The proposed protocol is analyzed extensively to evaluate its merits and efficiency for vehicular communication.

Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc networks, V2V, V2I, VANET communication, scalability, message aggregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
32 A Probability Analysis of Construction Project Schedule Using Risk Management Tool

Authors: A. L. Agarwal, D. A. Mahajan


Construction industry tumbled along with other industry/sectors during recent economic crash. Construction business could not regain thereafter and still pass through slowdown phase, resulted many real estate as well as infrastructure projects not completed on schedule and within budget. There are many theories, tools, techniques with software packages available in the market to analyze construction schedule. This study focuses on the construction project schedule and uncertainties associated with construction activities. The infrastructure construction project has been considered for the analysis of uncertainty on project activities affecting project duration and analysis is done using @RISK software. Different simulation results arising from three probability distribution functions are compiled to benefit construction project managers to plan more realistic schedule of various construction activities as well as project completion to document in the contract and avoid compensations or claims arising out of missing the planned schedule.

Keywords: construction project, distributions, project schedule, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
31 Proposal for Sustainable Construction of a New College Hostel Building

Authors: Reshma Raskar-Phule, Abhay Shinde, Manesh Konkani, Rohit Nighot, Shrirang Mahajan, Viraj Thorat


Sustainability in construction projects can be considered from three dimensions - environment, economy and society. Key concepts of sustainable construction include the protection of the natural environment, choice of non-toxic materials, reduction and reuse of resources, waste minimization, and life cycle analysis. The present paper attempts to identify and analyze the use of sustainable construction materials for a new college hostel building in terms of sustainability development indices (SDIs). Low SDI materials, say as composite fiberglass reinforcement (SDI 4074.96), compressed earth blocks (SDI 0.47), and fiber-reinforced doors (SDI 0.13) are the proposed sustainable materials for the hostel building. Indian Green Building Certification (IGBC) is applied for the hostel building and it earns 5 points out of total 16 points for criterion 5 – Building Materials and Resources of IGBC.

Keywords: sustainable development, construction materials, IGBC, hostel building

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
30 Sliver Nanoparticles Enhanced Visible and Near Infrared Emission of Er³+ Ions Doped Lithium Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Sachin Mahajan, Ghizal Ansari


TeO2-WO3-Li2O glass doped erbium ions (1mol %) and embedded silver nanoparticles( Ag NPs) has successfully been prepared by melt quenching technique and increasing the heat-treatment duration. The amorphous nature of the glass is determined by X-ray diffraction method, and the presences of silver nanoparticles are confirmed using Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis. TEM image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with average size 18 nm. From the UV-Vis absorption spectra, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks are detected at 550 and 578 nm. Under 980 nm excitation wavelengths, enhancement of red upconversion fluorescence and near-infrared broadband emission around 1550nm of Er3+ ions doped tellurite glasses containing Ag NPs have been observed. The observed enhancement of Er3+ emission is mainly attributed to the local field effects of Ag NPs causes an intensified electromagnetic field around NPs. For observed enhancement involved mechanisms are discussed.

Keywords: erbium ions, silver nanoparticle, surface plasmon resonance, upconversion emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
29 Real Time Acquisition and Psychoacoustic Analysis of Brain Wave

Authors: Shweta Singh, Dipali Bansal, Rashima Mahajan


Psychoacoustics has become a potential area of research due to the growing interest of both laypersons and medical and mental health professionals. Non-invasive brain computer interface like Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely being used in this field. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the response of EEG signals to acoustic stimuli further analysing the brain electrical activity. The real time EEG is acquired for 6 participants using a cost effective and portable EMOTIV EEG neuron headset. EEG data analysis is further done using EMOTIV test bench, EDF browser and EEGLAB (MATLAB Tool) application software platforms. Spectral analysis of acquired neural signals (AF3 channel) using these software platforms are clearly indicative of increased brain activity in various bands. The inferences drawn from such an analysis have significant correlation with subject’s subjective reporting of the experiences. The results suggest that the methodology adopted can further be used to assist patients with sleeping and depressive disorders.

Keywords: OM chant, spectral analysis, EDF browser, EEGLAB, EMOTIV, real time acquisition

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
28 Dengue Death Review: A Tool to Adjudge the Cause of Dengue Mortality and Use of the Tool for Prevention of Dengue Deaths

Authors: Gagandeep Singh Grover, Vini Mahajan, Bhagmal, Priti Thaware, Jaspreet Takkar


Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. The state of Punjab in India shows cyclical and seasonal variation in dengue cases. The Case Fatality Rate of Dengue has ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 in the past years. The department has initiated a review of the cases that have died due to dengue in order to know the exact cause of the death in a case of dengue. The study has been undertaken to know the other associated co-morbidities and factors causing death in a case of dengue. The study used the predesigned proforma on which the records (medical and Lab) were recorded and reviewed by the expert committee of the doctors. This study has revealed that cases of dengue having co-morbidities have a longer stay in the hospital. Fluid overload and co-morbidities have been found as major factors leading to death, however, in a confirmed case of dengue hepatorenal shutdown was found to be a major cause of mortality. The data obtained will help in sensitizing the treating physicians in order to decrease the mortality due to dengue in future.

Keywords: dengue, death, morbidities, DHF, DSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
27 Design and Parametric Analysis of Pentaband Meander Line Antenna for Mobile Handset Applications

Authors: Shrinivas P. Mahajan, Aarti C. Kshirsagar


Wireless communication technology is rapidly changing with recent developments in portable devices and communication protocols. This has generated demand for more advanced and compact antenna structures and therefore, proposed work focuses on Meander Line Antenna (MLA) design. Here, Pentaband MLA is designed on a FR4 substrate (85 mm x 40 mm) with dielectric constant (ϵr) 4.4, loss tangent (tan ) 0.018 and height 1.6 mm with coplanar feed and open stub structure. It can be operated in LTE (0.670 GHz-0.696 GHz) GPS (1.564 GHz-1.579 GHz), WCDMA (1.920 GHz-2.135 GHz), LTE UL frequency band 23 (2-2.020 GHz) and 5G (3.10 GHz-3.550 GHz) application bands. Also, it gives good performance in terms of Return Loss (RL) which is < -10 dB, impedance bandwidth with maximum Bandwidth (BW) up to 0.21 GHz and realized gains with maximum gain up to 3.28 dBi. Antenna is simulated with open stub and without open stub structures to see the effect on impedance BW coverage. In addition to this, it is checked with human hand and head phantoms to assure that it falls within specified Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limits.

Keywords: coplanar feed, L shaped ground, Meander Line Antenna, MLA, Phantom, Specific Absorption Rate, SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
26 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni


Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
25 Differences in Motivations for the Use of Facebook between Males and Females

Authors: Arti Bakhshi, Remia Mahajan


Social networking sites have evolved with great pace and India has been no exception. Facebook is the top most rated social networking site (SNS) in India. Though this site is mostly used by younger generations, the popularity of this site is increasing among all masses and classes. The current paper explores gender differences in motivations for the use of Facebook. Of the sample (N=556), 229 male and 327 female Facebook users from India were asked to rate the motivations for the use of Facebook from ‘most preferred’ to ‘least preferred’. The five motivations studied were- time passing, information, relationship development, relationship maintenance and trend following. The cross tab chi square analyses revealed significant differences in three out of five motivations between male and female Facebook users, namely time passing, relationship development and trend following. Female Facebook users rated ‘time passing’ as a more preferred motivation in comparison to male Facebook users, while male users rated ‘relationship development’ and ‘trend following’ motivations as more preferred in comparison to female Facebook users. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: facebook, gender, motivations, social networking sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
24 Role of Endotherapy vs Surgery in the Management of Traumatic Pancreatic Injury: A Tertiary Center Experience

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Ratnakar S. Kini, Bharat Narasimhan, Venkateswaran A. R, Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Mohammed Ali, Prem Kumar K., Kani Sheikh M., Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal


Introduction: Pancreatic injury remains a complicated condition requiring an individualized case by case approach to management. In this study, we aim to analyze the varied presentations and treatment outcomes of traumatic pancreatic injury in a tertiary care center. Methods: All consecutive patients hospitalized at our center with traumatic pancreatic injury between 2013 and 2017 were included. The American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification was used to stratify patients into five grades of severity. Outcome parameters were then analyzed based on the treatment modality employed. Results: Of the 35 patients analyzed, 26 had an underlying blunt trauma with the remaining nine presenting due to penetrating injury. Overall in-hospital mortality was 28%. 19 of these patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with the remaining 16 managed nonoperatively. Nine patients had a severe injury ( > grade 3) – of which four underwent endotherapy, three had stents placed and one underwent an endoscopic pseudocyst drainage. Among those managed nonoperatively, three underwent a radiological drainage procedure. Conclusion: Mortality rates were clearly higher in patients managed operatively. This is likely a result of significantly higher degrees of major associated non-pancreatic injuries and not just a reflection of surgical morbidity. Despite this, surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, especially in higher grades of pancreatic injury. However we would like to emphasize that endoscopic intervention definitely remains the preferred treatment modality when the clinical setting permits. This is especially applicable in cases of main pancreatic duct injury with ascites as well as pseudocysts.

Keywords: endotherapy, non-operative management, surgery, traumatic pancreatic injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
23 Evaluating Factors Influencing Information Quality in Large Firms

Authors: B. E. Narkhede, S. K. Mahajan, B. T. Patil, R. D. Raut


Information quality is a major performance measure for an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system of any firm. This study identifies various critical success factors of information quality. The effect of various critical success factors like project management, reengineering efforts and interdepartmental communications on information quality is analyzed using a multiple regression model. Here quantitative data are collected from respondents from various firms through structured questionnaire for assessment of the information quality, project management, reengineering efforts and interdepartmental communications. The validity and reliability of the data are ensured using techniques like factor analysis, computing of Cronbach’s alpha. This study gives relative importance of each of the critical success factors. The findings suggest that among the various factors influencing information quality careful reengineering efforts are the most influencing factor. This paper gives clear insight to managers and practitioners regarding the relative importance of critical success factors influencing information quality so that they can formulate a strategy at the beginning of ERP system implementation.

Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), information systems (IS), multiple regression, information quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
22 The Role of Trust in International Relations– Examining India’s Gujaral Doctrine and South Asian Politics

Authors: Bhavana Mahajan


International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, yet little attention has been accorded to why individual countries behave the way they do with the theoretical analysis dismissing the State as a reactionary monolith – thus States either play to “quest for power” or to “systemic” forces. However, States do behave as and are influenced by agents when interacting with international structures as well as with other states. While questions on “competitive power politics” and “trust” have been examined and developed to a fair extent by International Relations theorists in the post 1990s period, their application to the domain of South Asian politics is limited and little research, if any, examines the conduct of foreign policy beyond rational choice. This paper is an initial attempt to marry these theoretical insights with the foreign policy exercised by India especially the case of the “Gujral Doctrine, as one of “non-reciprocal accommodation”. Ignoring the view that such a policy move can be viewed as political “feinting” or deception, it is noteworthy that India even made the first move in terms of defining its role as one who “trusts” rather than one who “seeks” to trust, given the country’s geo-strategic context and threat perceptions.

Keywords: India’s foreign policy, South Asia, social constructivism, English school, trusting relationships, Gujral Doctrine, rationality

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
21 Arthroscopic Fixation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Avulsion Fracture through Posterior Trans Septal Portal Using Button Fixation Device: Mini Tight Rope

Authors: Ratnakar Rao, Subair Khan, Hari Haran


Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures is a rare condition and commonly mismanaged.Surgical reattachment has been shown to produce better result compared with conservative management.Only few techniques are reported in arthroscopic fixation of PCL Avulsion Fracture and they are complex.We describe a new technique in fixation of the PCL Avulsion fracture through a posterior trans septal portal using button fixation device (Mini Tight Rope). Eighteen patients with an isolated posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture were operated under arthroscopy. Standard Antero Medial Portal and Antero Lateral portals made and additional Postero Medial and Postero Lateral portals made and trans Septal portal established. Avulsion fracture identified, elevated, prepared. Reduction achieved using PCL Tibial guide (Arthrex) and fixation was achieved using Mini Tight Rope,Arthrex (2 buttons with a suture). Reduction confirmed using probe and Image intensifier. Postoperative assessment made clinically and radiologically. 15 patients had good to excellent results with no posterior sag or instability. The range of motion was normal. No complications were recorded per operatively. 2 patients had communition of the fragment while drilling, for one patient it was managed by suturing technique and the second patient PCL Reconstruction was done. One patient had persistent instability with poor outcome. Establishing trans septal portal helps in better visualization of the posterior compartment of the knee. Assessment of the bony fragment, preparation 0f the bone bed andit protects from injury to posterior neurovascular structures. Fixation using the button with suture (Mini Tight Rope) is stable and easily reproducible for PCL Avulsion fracture with single large fragment.

Keywords: PCL avulsion, arthroscopy, transeptal, minitight rope technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
20 Graphene-Reinforced Silicon Oxycarbide Composite with Lamellar Structures Prepared by the Phase Transfer Method

Authors: Min Yu, Olivier T. Picot, Theo Graves Saunders, Ivo Dlouhy, Amit Mahajan, Michael J. Reece


Graphene was successfully introduced into a polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) matrix by phase transfer of graphene oxide (GO) from an aqueous (GO dispersed in water) to an organic phase (copolymer as SiOC precursor in diethyl ether). With GO concentrations increasing up to 2 vol%, graphene-containing flakes self-assembled into a lamellar structure in the matrix leading to composite with the anisotropic property. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to densify the composites with four different GO concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 vol%) up to ~2.3 g/cm3. The fracture toughness of SiOC-2 vol% GO composites was significantly increased by ~91% (from 0.70 to 1.34 MPa·m¹/²), at the expense of a decrease in the flexural strength (from 85MPa to 55MPa), compared to SiOC-0 vol% GO composites. Moreover, the electrical conductivity in the perpendicular direction (σ┴=3×10⁻¹ S/cm) in SiOC-2 vol% GO composite was two orders of magnitude higher than the parallel direction (σ║=4.7×10⁻³ S/cm) owing to the self-assembled lamellar structure of graphene in the SiOC matrix. The composites exhibited increased electrical conductivity (σ┴) from 8.4×10⁻³ to 3×10⁻¹ S/cm, with the increasing GO content from 0.5 to 2 vol%. The SiOC-2 vol% GO composites further showed the better electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than pure graphene, exhibiting a similar onset potential (~0.75V vs. RHE) and more positive half-wave potential (~0.6V vs. RHE).

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, flexural strength, electrical conductivity, electrochemical performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
19 Smartphone Addiction and Reaction Time in Geriatric Population

Authors: Anjali N. Shete, G. D. Mahajan, Nanda Somwanshi


Context: Smartphones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years. Technology has developed so much that it has become part of our life and mobile phones are one of them. These smartphones are equipped with the capabilities to display photos, play games, watch videos and navigation, etc. The advances have a huge impact on many walks of life. The adoption of new technology has been challenging for the elderly. But, the elder population is also moving towards digitally connected lives. As age advances, there is a decline in the motor and cognitive functions of the brain, and hence the reaction time is affected. The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of smartphones in improving cognitive functions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of smartphone addiction on reaction time in elderly population Material and Methods: This is an experimental study. 100 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study randomly from urban areas. They all were using smartphones for several hours a day. They were divided into two groups according to the scores of the mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS). Simple reaction time was estimated by the Ruler drop method. The reaction time was then calculated for each subject in both groups. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean reaction time in Group A is 0.27+ 0.040 and in Group B is 0.20 + 0.032. The values show a statistically significant change in reaction time. Conclusion: Group A with a high MPAS score has a low reaction time compared to Group B with a low MPAS score. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of smartphones in the elderly is useful, delaying the neurological decline, and smarten the brain.

Keywords: smartphones, MPAS, reaction time, elderly population

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
18 Apolipoprotein A1 -75 G to a Substitution and Its Relationship with Serum ApoA1 Levels among Indian Punjabi Population

Authors: Savjot Kaur, Mridula Mahajan, AJS Bhanwer, Santokh Singh, Kawaljit Matharoo


Background: Disorders of lipid metabolism and genetic predisposition are CAD risk factors. ApoA1 is the apolipoprotein component of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The protective action of HDL and ApoA1 is attributed to their central role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Aim: This study was aimed at identifying sequence variations in ApoA1 (-75G>A) and its association with serum ApoA1 levels. Methods: A total of 300 CAD patients and 300 Normal individuals (controls) were analyzed. PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the ApoA1 gene, PCR products digested with restriction enzyme MspI, followed by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Serum apolipoprotein A1 concentration was estimated with immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Deviation from Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was observed for this gene variant. The A- allele frequency was higher among Coronary Artery disease patients (53.8) compared to controls (45.5), p= 0.004, O.R= 1.38(1.11-1.75). Under recessive model analysis (AA vs. GG+GA) AA genotype of ApoA1 G>A substitution conferred ~1 fold increased risk towards CAD susceptibility (p= 0.002, OR= 1.72(1.2-2.43). With serum ApoA1 levels < 107 A allele frequency was higher among CAD cases (50) as compared to controls (43.4) [p=0.23, OR= 1.2(0.84-2)] and there was zero % occurrence of A allele frequency in individuals with ApoA1 levels > 177. Conclusion: Serum ApoA1 levels were associated with ApoA1 promoter region variation and influence CAD risk. The individuals with the APOA1 -75 A allele confer excess hazard of developing CAD as a result of its effect on low serum concentrations of ApoA1.

Keywords: apolipoprotein A1 (G>A) gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease (CAD), reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
17 Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes of Elective Versus Emergency Cesarean Deliveries

Authors: Poonam Chouhan, Rama Thakur, R. J. Mahajan, Kushla Pathania, Mehnaz Kumar


Background: Cesarean sections are associated with short- and long-term risks and affect the health of the woman, her child, and future pregnancies. We conducted a study to compare Maternal, fetal, and neonatal elective versus emergency cesarean deliveries in a tertiary care center. Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative hospital-based study conducted at Kamla Nehru State Hospital for the mother and Child, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, from June 1, 2020, to May 31ˢᵗ, 2021). A total of 200 consenting participants (100 participants undergoing elective cesarean section & 100 participants undergoing emergency cesarean section) were enrolled. The analysis was performed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results: Antenatal complications were more in women who had an emergency cesarean section (95%) as compared to those who had an elective cesarean section (46%) (p=0.0076). 26.5% of women had fetal complications, and out of them, 92.4% (49/53) underwent emergency cesarean section. IUGR was diagnosed in 8% of women, out of them, 56.2% had elective cesarean section & 43.8% had an emergency cesarean section. Malpresentation other than breech presentation were present in 3.5% (7/200) of women. Six (3%) women had cesarean section for macrosomia. Of these, 66.7% (4/6) had elective cesarean section & 33.3% had emergency cesarean section. 23% (46/200) neonates required NICU admission, and 5% (10/200) had transient tachypnoea of new-born (TTNB). Conclusion: Our study concluded that maternal and fetal Complications of an emergency cesarean are more as compared to a planned elective cesarean. An elective cesarean conducted well in time will prevent an emergency cesarean delivery and its related complications.

Keywords: maternal, fetal, neonatal, complications, cesareans

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
16 Assessment of Delirium, It's Possible Risk Factors and Outcome in Patient Admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Rupesh K. Chaudhary, Narinder P. Jain, Rajesh Mahajan, Rajat Manchanda


Introduction: Delirium is a complex, multifactorial neuropsychiatric syndrome comprising a broad range of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple predisposing factors. Although it can be transient and irreversible but if left untreated may lead to long term cognitive dysfunction. Early identification and assessment of risk factors usually help in appropriate management of delirium which in turn leads to decreased hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. Aim and Objective: Aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of delirium using a validated scale in medical ICU patients and to determine the associated risk factors and outcomes. Material and Method: A prospective study in an 18-bed medical-intensive care unit (ICU) was undertaken. A total of 357 consecutive patients admitted to ICU for more than 24 hours were assessed. These patients were screened with the help of Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit -CAM-ICU, Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale, Screening Checklist for delirium and APACHE II. Appropiate statistical analysis was done to evaluate the risk factors influencing mortality in delirium. Results: Delirium occurred in 54.6% of 194 patients. Risk of delirium was independently associated with a history of hypertension, diabetes but not with severity of illness APACHE II score. Delirium was linked to longer ICU stay 13.08 ± 9.6 ver 7.07 ± 4.98 days, higher ICU mortality (35.8% % vs. 17.0%). Conclusion: Our study concluded that delirium poses a great risk factor in the outcome of the patient and carries high mortality, so a timely intervention helps in addressing these issues.

Keywords: delirium, risk factors, outcome, intervention

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15 Subthalamic Nucleus in Adult Human Cadaveric Brain: A Morphometric Study

Authors: Mangala Kohli, P. A. Athira, Reeha Mahajan


The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a biconvex nucleus situated in the diencephalon. The knowledge of the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus is essential for accurate targeting of the nucleus during Deep Brain Stimulation. The present study aims to note the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus in both the cerebral hemispheres which will prove to be of great value to radiologists and neurosurgeons. A cross‐sectional observational study was conducted in the Departments of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Hospitals, New Delhi on thirty adult cadaveric brain specimens of unclaimed and donated corpses. The specimens were categorized into 3 age groups: 20-35, 35-50 and above 50 years. All samples were collected after following the standard protocol for ethical clearance. The morphometric study of 60 subthalamic nucleus was thus conducted. Transverse section of the brain was made at a plane 4mm ventral to the plane containing mid commissural point. The dimensions of the subthalamic nucleus were measured bilaterally with the aid of digital Vernier caliper and magnifying glass. In the present study, the mean length and width and AC-PC length of the subthalamic nucleus was recorded on the right and left side in Group A, B and C. On comparison of mean of subthalamic nucleus dimensions between the right and left side in Group C, no statistically significant difference was observed. The length and width of subthalamic nucleus measured in the 3 age groups were compared with each other and the p value calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the dimensions of Group A and B, Group B and C as well as Group A and C. The present study reveals that there is no significant reduction in the size of the nucleus was noted with increasing age. Thus, the values obtained in the present study can be used as a reference for various invasive and non-invasive procedures on subthalamic nucleus.

Keywords: cerebral hemisphere, deep brain stimulation, morphometry, subthalamic nucleus

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14 Genetic Dissection of QTLs in Intraspecific Hybrids Derived from Muskmelon (Cucumis Melo L.) and Mangalore Melon (Cucumis Melo Var Acidulus) for Shelflife and Fruit Quality Traits

Authors: Virupakshi Hiremata, Ratnakar M. Shet, Raghavendra Gunnaiah, Prashantha A.


Muskmelon is a health-beneficial and refreshing dessert vegetable with a low shelf life. Mangalore melon, a genetic homeologue of muskmelon, has a shelf life of more than six months and is mostly used for culinary purposes. Understanding the genetics of shelf life, yield and yield-related traits and identification of markers linked to such traits is helpful in transfer of extended shelf life from Mangalore melon to the muskmelon through intra-specific hybridization. For QTL mapping, 276 F2 mapping population derived from the cross Arka Siri × SS-17 was genotyped with 40 polymorphic markers distributed across 12 chromosomes. The same population was also phenotyped for yield, shelf life and fruit quality traits. One major QTL (R2 >10) and fourteen minor QTLs (R2 <10) localized on four linkage groups, governing different traits were mapped in F2 mapping population developed from the intraspecific cross with a LOD > 5.5. The phenotypic varience explained by each locus varied from 3.63 to 10.97 %. One QTL was linked to shelf-life (qSHL-3-1), five QTLs were linked to TSS (qTSS-1-1, qTSS-3-3, qTSS-3-1, qTSS-3-2 and qTSS-1-2), two QTLs for flesh thickness (qFT-3-1, and qFT-3-2) and seven QTLs for fruit yield per vine (qFYV-3-1, qFYV-1-1, qFYV-3-1, qFYV1-1, qFYV-1-3, qFYV2-1 and qFYV6-1). QTL flanking markers may be used for marker assisted introgression of shelf life into muskmelon. Important QTL will be further fine-mapped for identifying candidate genes by QTLseq and RNAseq analysis. Fine-mapping of Important Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) holds immense promise in elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits. Leveraging advanced techniques like QTLseq and RNA sequencing (RNA seq) is crucial for this endeavor. QTLseq combines next-generation sequencing with traditional QTL mapping, enabling precise identification of genomic regions associated with traits of interest. Through high-throughput sequencing, QTLseq provides a detailed map of genetic variations linked to phenotypic variations, facilitating targeted investigations. Moreover, RNA seq analysis offers a comprehensive view of gene expression patterns in response to specific traits or conditions. By comparing transcriptomes between contrasting phenotypes, RNA seq aids in pinpointing candidate genes underlying QTL regions. Integrating QTLseq with RNA seq allows for a multi-dimensional approach, coupling genetic variation with gene expression dynamics.

Keywords: QTL, shelf life, TSS, muskmelon and Mangalore melon

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13 Effect of Supplementation of Rough Lemon Juice, Amla Juice and Aloe Vera Gel on Physio-biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Broiler Chicken During Summer Season

Authors: Suraj Amrutkar, R. Gowri, Asma Khan, Nazam Khan, Vikas Mahajan, Manpreet Kour And Bharti Deshmukh


Herbal additives are rich in vitamin C, A and other biological active compounds and may act as surrogate source to subdue heat stress in chicken. Among various herbal additives such as rough lemon (Citrus Jambhiri Lush) juice, amla (Emblica officinalis) juice and aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) gel are easily available during summer (stress period) and also cost less as comparison to synthetic feed additives in market. In order to analyze the performance by supplementation of rough lemon juice, amla juice and aloe vera gel in broiler under heat stress conditions. Study was carried out with a random distribution of day old straight run chicks (240 No.) in to four treatment group (n=60) was done. All the groups were given basal diet (Maize-Soya based; T0) was same for all the groups with supplementation of rough lemon juice (T1), amla juice (T2) and aloe vera (T3) @ 2% in drinking water. Experiment trial lasted for 42 days during heat stress period (June-July) with minimum THI (78.2) and Maximum THI (88.02). Feed and water were offered ad-libitum throughout the trial. Results revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight in T3 and T2, followed by T1 and least in T0 at 42 days of age. The overall mean of Feed conversion ratio of various treatment T0, T1, T2 andT3 were 2.16, 1.98, 1.89 and 1.82, respectively. The mortality percentage in various treatment, T0, T1, T2 and T3, were 6.67, 3.33, 0.0 and 1.67, respectively. pH value, PCV (%), Sodium (mmol/L) and Potassium (mmol/L) was higher in T3 than rest of the groups. HL ratio is significantly lower (P<0.05) in T3, T2 followed by T1 than T0 at 42 days of age. It may be inferred that amongst these phyto-additives, aloe vera leads in alleviating heat stress in broiler in an economical way, followed by amla and rough lemon.

Keywords: rough lemon, amla, aloe vera, heat stress, broiler

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12 Eosinopenia: Marker for Early Diagnosis of Enteric Fever

Authors: Swati Kapoor, Rajeev Upreti, Monica Mahajan, Abhaya Indrayan, Dinesh Srivastava


Enteric Fever is caused by gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi and paratyphi. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely initiation of treatment is a crucial step for prevention of any complications. Cultures of body fluids are diagnostic, but not always conclusive or practically feasible in most centers. Moreover, the results of cultures delay the treatment initiation. Serological tests lack diagnostic value. The blood counts can offer a promising option in diagnosis. A retrospective study to find out the relevance of leucopenia and eosinopenia was conducted on 203 culture proven enteric fever patients and 159 culture proven non-enteric fever patients in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. The patient details were retrieved from the electronic medical records section of the hospital. Absolute eosinopenia was considered as absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of less than 40/mm³ (normal level: 40-400/mm³) using LH-750 Beckman Coulter Automated machine. Leucopoenia was defined as total leucocyte count (TLC) of less than 4 X 10⁹/l. Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT FA plus automated blood culture system before first antibiotic dose was given. Case and control groups were compared using Pearson Chi square test. It was observed that absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of 0-19/mm³ was a significant finding (p < 0.001) in enteric fever patients, whereas leucopenia was not a significant finding (p=0.096). Using Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, it was observed that patients with both AEC < 14/mm³ and TCL < 8 x 10⁹/l had 95.6% chance of being diagnosed as enteric fever and only 4.4% chance of being diagnosed as non-enteric fever. This result was highly significant with p < 0.001. This is a very useful association of AEC and TLC found in enteric fever patients of this study which can be used for the early initiation of treatment in clinically suspected enteric fever patients.

Keywords: absolute eosinopenia, absolute eosinophil count, enteric fever, leucopenia, total leucocyte count

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11 Swift Rising Pattern of Emerging Construction Technology Trends in the Construction Management

Authors: Gayatri Mahajan


Modern Construction Technology (CT) includes a broad range of advanced techniques and practices that bound the recent developments in material technology, design methods, quantity surveying, facility management, services, structural analysis and design, and other management education. Adoption of recent digital transformation technology is the need of today to speed up the business and is also the basis of construction improvement. Incorporating and practicing the technologies such as cloud-based communication and collaboration solution, Mobile Apps and 5G,3D printing, BIM and Digital Twins, CAD / CAM, AR/ VR, Big Data, IoT, Wearables, Blockchain, Modular Construction, Offsite Manifesting, Prefabrication, Robotic, Drones and GPS controlled equipment expedite the progress in the Construction industry (CI). Resources used are journaled research articles, web/net surfing, books, thesis, reports/surveys, magazines, etc. The outline of the research organization for this study is framed at four distinct levels in context to conceptualization, resources, innovative and emerging trends in CI, and better methods for completion of the construction projects. The present study conducted during 2020-2022 reveals that implementing these technologies improves the level of standards, planning, security, well-being, sustainability, and economics too. Application uses, benefits, impact, advantages/disadvantages, limitations and challenges, and policies are dealt with to provide information to architects and builders for smooth completion of the project. Results explain that construction technology trends vary from 4 to 15 for CI, and eventually, it reaches 27 for Civil Engineering (CE). The perspective of the most recent innovations, trends, tools, challenges, and solutions is highly embraced in the field of construction. The incorporation of the above said technologies in the pandemic Covid -19 and post-pandemic might lead to a focus on finding out effective ways to adopt new-age technologies for CI.

Keywords: BIM, drones, GPS, mobile apps, 5G, modular construction, robotics, 3D printing

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