Search results for: Kinjal Parmar
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Kinjal Parmar

23 The Application of Hellomac Rockfall Alert System in Rockfall Barriers: An Explainer

Authors: Kinjal Parmar, Matteo Lelli


The usage of IoT technology as a rockfall alert system is relatively new. This paper explains the potential of such an alert system called HelloMac from Maccaferri which provides transportation infrastructure asset owners the way to effectively utilize their resources in the detection of boulder impacts on rockfall barriers. This would ensure a faster assessment of the impacted barrier and subsequently facilitates the implementation of remedial works in an effective and timely manner. In addition, the HelloMac can also be integrated with another warning system to alert vehicle users of the unseen dangers ahead. HelloMac is developed to work also in remote areas, where cell coverage is not available. User gets notified when a rockfall even occurs via mobile app, SMS and email. Using such alarming systems effectively, we can reduce the risk of rockfall hazard.

Keywords: rockfall, barrier, HelloMac, rockfall alert system

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
22 Ground Improvement with Basal Reinforcement with High Strength Geogrids and PVDs for Embankment over Soft Soils

Authors: Ratnakar Mahajan, Matteo Lelli, Kinjal Parmar


Ground improvement is a very important aspect of infrastructure development, especially when it comes to deep-ground improvement. The use of various geosynthetic applications is very common these days for ground improvement. This paper presents a case study where the combination of two geosynthetic applications was used in order to optimize the design as well as to control the settlements through uniform load distribution. The Agartala-Akaura rail project was made to help increase railway connectivity between India and Bangladesh. Both countries have started the construction of the same. The project requires high railway embankments to be built for the rail link. However, the challenge was to design a proper ground improvement solution as the entire area comprises very soft soil for an average depth of 15m. After due diligence, a combination of two methods was worked out by Maccaferri. PVDs were provided for the consolidation, and on top of that, a layer of high-strength geogrids (Paralink) was proposed as a basal reinforcement. The design approach was followed as described in Indian standards as well as British standards. By introducing a basal reinforcement, the spacing of PVDs could be increased, which allowed quick installation and less material consumption while keeping the consolidation time within the project duration.

Keywords: ground improvement, basal reinforcement, PVDs, high strength geogrids, Paralink

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
21 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay


Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
20 Architectural Thinking in a Time of Climate Emergency

Authors: Manoj Parmar


The article uses reflexivity as a research method to investigate and propose an architectural theory plan for climate change. It hypothecates that to discuss or formulate discourse on "Architectural Thinking in a Time of Climate Emergency," firstly, we need to understand the modes of integration that enable architectural thinking with climate change. The study intends to study the various integration modes that have evolved historically and situate them in time. Subsequently, it analyses the integration pattern, challenges the existing model, and finds a way towards climate change as central to architectural thinking. The study is fundamental on-premises that ecology and climate change scholarship has consistently out lashed the asymmetrical and nonlinear knowledge and needs approaches for architecture that are less burden to climate change to people and minimize its impact on ecology.

Keywords: climate change, architectural theory, reflexivity, modernity

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
19 Automatic Measurement of Garment Sizes Using Deep Learning

Authors: Maulik Parmar, Sumeet Sandhu


The online fashion industry experiences high product return rates. Many returns are because of size/fit mismatches -the size scale on labels can vary across brands, the size parameters may not capture all fit measurements, or the product may have manufacturing defects. Warehouse quality check of garment sizes can be semi-automated to improve speed and accuracy. This paper presents an approach for automatically measuring garment sizes from a single image of the garment -using Deep Learning to learn garment keypoints. The paper focuses on the waist size measurement of jeans and can be easily extended to other garment types and measurements. Experimental results show that this approach can greatly improve the speed and accuracy of today’s manual measurement process.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, distortion, garment measurements, image warping, keypoints

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
18 Design Modification in CNC Milling Machine to Reduce the Weight of Structure

Authors: Harshkumar K. Desai, Anuj K. Desai, Jay P. Patel, Snehal V. Trivedi, Yogendrasinh Parmar


The need of continuous improvement in a product or process in this era of global competition leads to apply value engineering for functional and aesthetic improvement in consideration with economic aspect too. Solar industries located at G.I.D.C., Makarpura, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; a manufacturer of variety of CNC Machines had a challenge to analyze the structural design of column, base, carriage and table of CNC Milling Machine in the account of reduction of overall weight of a machine without affecting the rigidity and accuracy at the time of operation. The identified task is the first attempt to validate and optimize the proposed design of ribbed structure statically using advanced modeling and analysis tools in a systematic way. Results of stress and deformation obtained using analysis software are validated with theoretical analysis and found quite satisfactory. Such optimized results offer a weight reduction of the final assembly which is desired by manufacturers in favor of reduction of material cost, processing cost and handling cost finally.

Keywords: CNC milling machine, optimization, finite element analysis (FEA), weight reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
17 Headache Masquerading as Common Psychiatric Disorders in Patients of Low Economic Class in a Tertiary Care Setting

Authors: Seema Singh Parmar, Shweta Chauhan


Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the presence of various psychiatric disorders in patients reporting with a headache as the only symptom. Methodology: 200 patients with the chief complain of a headache who visited the psychiatric OPD of a tertiary care were investigated. Out of them 50 who had pure psychiatric illness without any other neurological disease were investigated, and their diagnosis was made. Independent sample t-tests were applied to generate results. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis seen in the sample was Depression (64%) out of which 47% showed features of Depression with anxious distress. Other psychiatric disorders seen were Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Attacks, Somatic Symptom Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For pure psychiatry, headache related illnesses female to male ratio was 1.64. Conclusion: The increasing frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients who only visit the doctor seeking treat a headache shows the need for better identification of psychiatric disorders because proper diagnosis and target of psychiatric treatment shall give complete relief to the patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, depression, headache, panic attacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
16 Unseen Classes: The Paradigm Shift in Machine Learning

Authors: Vani Singhal, Jitendra Parmar, Satyendra Singh Chouhan


Unseen class discovery has now become an important part of a machine-learning algorithm to judge new classes. Unseen classes are the classes on which the machine learning model is not trained on. With the advancement in technology and AI replacing humans, the amount of data has increased to the next level. So while implementing a model on real-world examples, we come across unseen new classes. Our aim is to find the number of unseen classes by using a hierarchical-based active learning algorithm. The algorithm is based on hierarchical clustering as well as active sampling. The number of clusters that we will get in the end will give the number of unseen classes. The total clusters will also contain some clusters that have unseen classes. Instead of first discovering unseen classes and then finding their number, we directly calculated the number by applying the algorithm. The dataset used is for intent classification. The target data is the intent of the corresponding query. We conclude that when the machine learning model will encounter real-world data, it will automatically find the number of unseen classes. In the future, our next work would be to label these unseen classes correctly.

Keywords: active sampling, hierarchical clustering, open world learning, unseen class discovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
15 Cedrela Toona Roxb.: An Exploratory Study Describing Its Antidiabetic Property

Authors: Kinjal H. Shah, Piyush M. Patel


Diabetes mellitus is considered to be a serious endocrine syndrome. Synthetic hypoglycemic agents can produce serious side effects including hematological effects, coma, and disturbances of the liver and kidney. In addition, they are not suitable for use during pregnancy. In recent years, there have been relatively few reports of short-term side effects or toxicity due to sulphonylureas. Published figures and frequency of side effects in large series of patient range from about 1 to 5%, with symptoms severe enough to lead to the withdrawal of the drug in less than 1 to 2%. Adverse effects, in general, have been of the following type: allergic skin reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances, blood dyscrasias, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. The associated disadvantages with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have led to stimulation in the research for locating natural resources showing antidiabetic activity and to explore the possibilities of using traditional medicines with proper chemical and pharmacological profiles. Literature survey reveals that the inhabitants of Abbottabad district of Pakistan use the dried leaf powder along with table salt and water orally for treating diabetes, skin allergy, wounds and as a blood purifier, where they pronounced the plant locally as ‘Nem.' The detailed phytochemical investigation of the Cedrela toona Roxb. leaves for antidiabetic activity has not been documented. Hence, there is a need for phytochemical investigation of the leaves for antidiabetic activity. The collection of fresh leaves and authentification followed by successive extraction, phytochemical screening, and testing of antidiabetic activity. The blood glucose level was reduced maximum in ethanol extract at 5th and 7th h after treatment. Blood glucose was depressed by 8.2% and 10.06% in alloxan – induced diabetic rats after treatment which was comparable to the standard drug, Glibenclamide. This may be due to the activation of the existing pancreatic cells in diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract.

Keywords: antidiabetic, Cedrela toona Roxb., phytochemical screening, blood glucose

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
14 Vertical Accuracy Evaluation of Indian National DEM (CartoDEM v3) Using Dual Frequency GNSS Derived Ground Control Points for Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh B. Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Ashish Chaurasia


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is considered as an important data in GIS-based terrain analysis for many applications and assessment of processes such as environmental and climate change studies, hydrologic modelling, etc. Vertical accuracy of DEM having geographically dynamic nature depends on different parameters which affect the model simulation outcomes. Vertical accuracy assessment in Indian landscape especially in low-lying coastal urban terrain such as lower Tapi Basin is very limited. In the present study, attempt has been made to evaluate the vertical accuracy of 30m resolution open source Indian National Cartosat-1 DEM v3 for Lower Tapi Basin (LTB) from western India. The extensive field investigation is carried out using stratified random fast static DGPS survey in the entire study region, and 117 high accuracy ground control points (GCPs) have been obtained. The above open source DEM was compared with obtained GCPs, and different statistical attributes were envisaged, and vertical error histograms were also evaluated.

Keywords: CartoDEM, Digital Elevation Model, GPS, lower Tapi basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
13 Effect of Irregularities on Seismic Performance of Building

Authors: Snehal Mevada, Darshana Bhatt, Aryan Kalthiya, Neel Parmar, Vishal Baraiya, Dhruvit Bhanderi, Tisha Patel


In multi-storeyed framed buildings, damage occurring from earthquake ground motion generally initiates at locations of structural weaknesses present in the lateral load-resisting frame. In some cases, these weaknesses may be created by discontinuities in stiffness, mass, plan, and torsion. Such discontinuity between storeys is often associated with sudden variations in the vertical geometric irregularities and plan irregularities. Vertical irregularities are structures with a soft storey that can further be broken down into the different types of irregularities as well as their severity for a more refined assessment tool pushover analysis which is one of the methods available for evaluating building against earthquake loads. So, it is very necessary to analyse and understand the seismic performance of the irregular structure in order to reduce the damage which occurs during an earthquake. In this project, a multi-storey (G+4) RCC building with four irregularities (stiffness, mass, plan, torsion) is studied for earthquake loads using the response spectrum method (dynamic analysis) and STADD PRO. All analyses have been done for seismic zone IV and for Medium Soil. In this study effects of different irregularities are analysed based on storey displacement, storey drift, and storey shear.

Keywords: comparison of regular and irregular structure, dynamic analysis, mass irregularity, plan irregularity, response spectrum method, stiffness irregularity, seismic performance, torsional irregularity, STAAD PRO

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
12 Characteristic Study of Polymer Sand as a Potential Substitute for Natural River Sand in Construction Industry

Authors: Abhishek Khupsare, Ajay Parmar, Ajay Agarwal, Swapnil Wanjari


The extreme demand for aggregate leads to the exploitation of river-bed for fine aggregates, affecting the environment adversely. Therefore, a suitable alternative to natural river sand is essentially required. This study focuses on preventing environmental impact by developing polymer sand to replace natural river sand (NRS). Development of polymer sand by mixing high volume fly ash, bottom ash, cement, natural river sand, and locally purchased high solid content polycarboxylate ether-based superplasticizer (HS-PCE). All the physical and chemical properties of polymer sand (P-Sand) were observed and satisfied the requirement of the Indian Standard code. P-Sand yields good specific gravity of 2.31 and is classified as zone-I sand with a satisfactory friction angle (37˚) compared to natural river sand (NRS) and Geopolymer fly ash sand (GFS). Though the water absorption (6.83%) and pH (12.18) are slightly more than those of GFS and NRS, the alkali silica reaction and soundness are well within the permissible limit as per Indian Standards. The chemical analysis by X-Ray fluorescence showed the presence of high amounts of SiO2 and Al2O3 with magnitudes of 58.879% 325 and 26.77%, respectively. Finally, the compressive strength of M-25 grade concrete using P-sand and Geopolymer sand (GFS) was observed to be 87.51% and 83.82% with respect to natural river sand (NRS) after 28 days, respectively. The results of this study indicate that P-sand can be a good alternative to NRS for construction work as it not only reduces the environmental effect due to sand mining but also focuses on utilising fly ash and bottom ash.

Keywords: polymer sand, fly ash, bottom ash, HSPCE plasticizer, river sand mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
11 PaSA: A Dataset for Patent Sentiment Analysis to Highlight Patent Paragraphs

Authors: Renukswamy Chikkamath, Vishvapalsinhji Ramsinh Parmar, Christoph Hewel, Markus Endres


Given a patent document, identifying distinct semantic annotations is an interesting research aspect. Text annotation helps the patent practitioners such as examiners and patent attorneys to quickly identify the key arguments of any invention, successively providing a timely marking of a patent text. In the process of manual patent analysis, to attain better readability, recognising the semantic information by marking paragraphs is in practice. This semantic annotation process is laborious and time-consuming. To alleviate such a problem, we proposed a dataset to train machine learning algorithms to automate the highlighting process. The contributions of this work are: i) we developed a multi-class dataset of size 150k samples by traversing USPTO patents over a decade, ii) articulated statistics and distributions of data using imperative exploratory data analysis, iii) baseline Machine Learning models are developed to utilize the dataset to address patent paragraph highlighting task, and iv) future path to extend this work using Deep Learning and domain-specific pre-trained language models to develop a tool to highlight is provided. This work assists patent practitioners in highlighting semantic information automatically and aids in creating a sustainable and efficient patent analysis using the aptitude of machine learning.

Keywords: machine learning, patents, patent sentiment analysis, patent information retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
10 Nutritional Evaluation of Different Quercus Species in Temperate Regions of Himachal Pradesh

Authors: Ankush Verma, Rohit Bishist


The present investigation was carried out at different locations of Shimla and Kinnaur district and nutrient analysis was done in the laboratory of Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Distt. Solan, Himachal Pradesh during 2019-2020 with the objectives to study the seasonal variation in the nutritive value of different Quercus species and to study the farmers’ preference rating of fodder tress species. From each location leaf samples were collected at 3 months interval from each Quercus spp. The findings of the present study revealed that the nutritional traits of leaves of different Quercus species varied among different seasons throughout the year. The dry matter (61.12 to 64.99%), ether extract (4.07 to 4.42%), crude fibre (34.38 to 37.85%), neutral detergent fibre (57.70 to 61.54%), acid detergent fibre (44.64 to 48.51%), total ash (3.57 to 3.91%), acid insoluble ash (44.64 to 48.51%) and calcium (1.31 to 1.53%) increased with the maturity in the leaves of different Quercus species. While, crude protein (9.10 to 10.61%), nitrogen free extract (44.73 to 47.41%), organic matter (96.09 to 96.43%), and phosphorus (0.16 to 0.31%) decreased with the advancing maturity in the leaves of different Quercus species. Maximum mean values for dry matter (65.05%), ether extract (4.45%), crude fibre (40.82%), neutral detergent fibre (61.48%), acid detergent fibre (48.44%), and organic matter (96.67%) among different Quercus species were recorded in Quercus ilex, while, Maximum mean values for crude protein (10.54%), nitrogen free extract (50.53%), total ash (4.05%), acid insoluble ash (0.59%), calcium (1.61%) and phosphorus (0.40%) were recorded in Quercus leucotrichophora.

Keywords: nutritional evaluation, fodder species, crude protein, carbohydrates

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
9 Highway Lighting of the 21st Century is Smart, but is it Cost Efficient?

Authors: Saurabh Gupta, Vanshdeep Parmar, Sri Harsha Reddy Yelly, Michele Baker, Elizabeth Bigler, Kunhee Choi


It is known that the adoption of solar powered LED highway lighting systems or sensory LED highway lighting systems can dramatically reduce energy consumption by 55 percent when compared to conventional on-grid High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps that are widely applied to most highways. However, an initial high installation cost for building the infrastructure of solar photovoltaic devices hampers a wider adoption of such technologies. This research aims to examine currently available state-of-the-art solar photovoltaic and sensory technologies, identify major obstacles, and analyze each technology to create a benchmarking metrics from the benefit-cost analysis perspective. The on-grid HPS lighting systems will serve as the baseline for this study to compare it with other lighting alternatives such as solar and sensory LED lighting systems. This research will test the validity of the research hypothesis that alternative LED lighting systems produce more favorable benefit-cost ratios and the added initial investment costs are recouped by the savings in the operation and maintenance cost. The payback period of the excess investment and projected savings over the life-cycle of the selected lighting systems will be analyzed by utilizing the concept of Net Present Value (NPV). Researchers believe that if this study validates the research hypothesis, it can promote a wider adoption of alternative lighting systems that will eventually save millions of taxpayer dollars in the long-run.

Keywords: lighting systems, sensory and solar PV, benefit cost analysis, net present value

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
8 Effect of Different Planting Times and Mulching Materials on Seed Quality and Yield of China Aster Cultivars

Authors: A. A. Bajad, B. P. Sharma, Y. C. Gupta, B. S. Dilt, R. K. Gupta


The present investigations were carried out at the experimental farm of Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, H.P. during 2015 and 2016. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (factorial) consisting of 48 treatment combinations of four planting dates viz., D1- mid March, D2-mid April, D3-mid May and D4- mid June and two cultivars namely V1- Kamini and V2 -Poornima with six mulching materials M¬0¬- without mulch, M1- Black plastic mulch (100 µ), M2- Silver plastic mulch (100 µ), M3¬- Transparent plastic mulch (100 µ), M3-Transparent plastic mulch (100 µ), M4¬- Pine needle (100 µ) and M5- Grass (1 inch layer). Among different planting times, D4 i.e. mid June planting obtained best results for number of seed per flower (179.38), germination percent (83.92 %), electrical conductivity (0.97 ds/m), seedling length (7.93 cm), seedling dry weight (7.09 mg), seedling vigour index I (763.79), moisture content (7.83 %) and 1000 seed weight (1.94 g). However, seed yield per plant (14.30 g) was recorded to be maximum in mid of March. Among the cultivars, cv. ‘Poornima’ gave best results for number of seed per plant (187.30). However, cv. ‘Kamini’ recorded the best result for seed yield per plant (12.55), electrical conductivity (1.11 ds/m), germination percent (80.47 %), seedling length (6.39 cm), seedling dry weight (5.11 mg), seedling vigour index I (649.49), moisture content (9.28 %) and 1000 seed weight (1.70 g). Silver plastic obtained best results for number of seed per flower (170.10), seed yield per plant (15.66 g), germination percent (80.17 %), electrical conductivity (1.26 ds/m), seedling length (5.88 cm), seedling dry weight (4.46 mg), seedling vigour index I (616.78), Moisture content (9.35 %) and 100 seed weight (1.97 g).

Keywords: cultivars, mulch materials, planting times, flowers

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7 Comparison of Agree Method and Shortest Path Method for Determining the Flow Direction in Basin Morphometric Analysis: Case Study of Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Bhaumik Shah


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is elevation data of the virtual grid on the ground. DEM can be used in application in GIS such as hydrological modelling, flood forecasting, morphometrical analysis and surveying etc.. For morphometrical analysis the stream flow network plays a very important role. DEM lacks accuracy and cannot match field data as it should for accurate results of morphometrical analysis. The present study focuses on comparing the Agree method and the conventional Shortest path method for finding out morphometric parameters in the flat region of the Lower Tapi Basin which is located in the western India. For the present study, open source SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission with 1 arc resolution) and toposheets issued by Survey of India (SOI) were used to determine the morphometric linear aspect such as stream order, number of stream, stream length, bifurcation ratio, mean stream length, mean bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, length of overland flow, constant of channel maintenance and aerial aspect such as drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, shape factor and relief aspect such as relief ratio, gradient ratio and basin relief for 53 catchments of Lower Tapi Basin. Stream network was digitized from the available toposheets. Agree DEM was created by using the SRTM and stream network from the toposheets. The results obtained were used to demonstrate a comparison between the two methods in the flat areas.

Keywords: agree method, morphometric analysis, lower Tapi basin, shortest path method

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
6 '3D City Model' through Quantum Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Gujarat International Finance Tec-City, Gujarat, India

Authors: Rahul Jain, Pradhir Parmar, Dhruvesh Patel


Planning and drawing are the important aspects of civil engineering. For testing theories about spatial location and interaction between land uses and related activities the computer based solution of urban models are used. The planner’s primary interest is in creation of 3D models of building and to obtain the terrain surface so that he can do urban morphological mappings, virtual reality, disaster management, fly through generation, visualization etc. 3D city models have a variety of applications in urban studies. Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT) is an ongoing construction site between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. It will be built on 3590000 m2 having a geographical coordinates of North Latitude 23°9’5’’N to 23°10’55’’ and East Longitude 72°42’2’’E to 72°42’16’’E. Therefore to develop 3D city models of GIFT city, the base map of the city is collected from GIFT office. Differential Geographical Positioning System (DGPS) is used to collect the Ground Control Points (GCP) from the field. The GCP points are used for the registration of base map in QGIS. The registered map is projected in WGS 84/UTM zone 43N grid and digitized with the help of various shapefile tools in QGIS. The approximate height of the buildings that are going to build is collected from the GIFT office and placed on the attribute table of each layer created using shapefile tools. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 Arc-Second Global (30 m X 30 m) grid data is used to generate the terrain of GIFT city. The Google Satellite Map is used to place on the background to get the exact location of the GIFT city. Various plugins and tools in QGIS are used to convert the raster layer of the base map of GIFT city into 3D model. The fly through tool is used for capturing and viewing the entire area in 3D of the city. This paper discusses all techniques and their usefulness in 3D city model creation from the GCP, base map, SRTM and QGIS.

Keywords: 3D model, DGPS, GIFT City, QGIS, SRTM

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
5 Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: H. K. Ratre, M. Roy, S. Roy, M. S. Parmar, V. Bhagat


Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.

Keywords: mastitis, bacteria, characterization, expression, gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
4 Cross-Sectional Study Investigating the Prevalence of Uncorrected Refractive Error and Visual Acuity through Mobile Vision Screening in the Homeless in Wales

Authors: Pakinee Pooprasert, Wanxin Wang, Tina Parmar, Dana Ahnood, Tafadzwa Young-Zvandasara, James Morgan


Homelessness has been shown to be correlated to poor health outcomes, including increased visual health morbidity. Despite this, there are relatively few studies regarding visual health in the homeless population, especially in the UK. This research aims to investigate visual disability and access barriers prevalent in the homeless population in Cardiff, South Wales. Data was collected from 100 homeless participants in three different shelters. Visual outcomes included near and distance visual acuity as well as non-cycloplegic refraction. Qualitative data was collected via a questionnaire and included socio-demographic profile, ocular history, subjective visual acuity and level of access to healthcare facilities. Based on the participants’ presenting visual acuity, the total prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 17.0% and 19.0% respectively based on spherical equivalent from the eye with the greatest absolute value. The prevalence of astigmatism was 8.0%. The mean absolute spherical equivalent was 0.841D and 0.853D for right and left eye respectively. The number of participants with sight loss (as defined by VA= 6/12-6/60 in the better-seeing eye) was 27.0% in comparison to 0.89% and 1.1% in the general Cardiff and Wales population respectively (p-value is < 0.05). Additionally, 1.0% of the homeless subjects were registered blind (VA less than 3/60), in comparison to 0.17% for the national consensus after age standardization. Most participants had good knowledge regarding access to prescription glasses and eye examination services. Despite this, 85.0% never had their eyes examined by a doctor and 73.0% had their last optometrist appointment in more than 5 years. These findings suggested that there was a significant disparity in ocular health, including visual acuity and refractive error amongst the homeless in comparison to the general population. Further, the homeless were less likely to receive the same level of support and continued care in the community due to access barriers. These included a number of socio-economic factors such as travel expenses and regional availability of services, as well as administrative shortcomings. In conclusion, this research demonstrated unmet visual health needs within the homeless, and that inclusive policy changes may need to be implemented for better healthcare outcomes within this marginalized community.

Keywords: homelessness, refractive error, visual disability, Wales

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3 Oncology and Phytomedicine in the Advancement of Cancer Therapy for Better Patient Care

Authors: Hailemeleak Regassa


Traditional medicines use medicinal plants as a source of ingredients, and many modern medications are indirectly derived from plants. Consumers in affluent nations are growing disenchanted with contemporary healthcare and looking for alternatives. Oxidative stress is the primary cause of multiple diseases, and exogenous antioxidant supplementation or strengthening the body's endogenous antioxidant defenses are potential ways to counteract the negative effects of oxidative damage. Plants can biosynthesize non-enzymatic antioxidants that can reduce ROS-induced oxidative damage. Aging often aids the propagation and development of carcinogenesis, and older animals and older people exhibit increased vulnerability to tumor promoters. Cancer is a major public health issue, with several anti-cancer medications in clinical use. Potential drugs such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid, and silvestrol are in the clinical or preclinical stages of research. Methodology: Microbial Growth media, Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane were obtained from Himedia Labs, Mumbai, India. plant were collected from the Herbal Garden of Shoolini University campus, Solan, India (Latitude - 30.8644° N and longitude - 77.1184° E). The identity was confirmed by Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P.), India, and documented in Voucher specimens - UHF- Herbarium no. 13784; vide book no. 3818 Receipt No. 086. The plant materials were washed with tap water, and 0.1% mercury chloride for 2 minutes, rinsed with distilled water, air dried, and kept in a hot air oven at 40ºc on blotting paper until all the water evaporated and became well dried for grinding. After drying, the plant materials were grounded using a mixer grinder into fine powder transferred into airtight containers with proper labeling, and stored at 4ºc for future use (Horablaga et al., 2023). The extraction process was done according to Altemimi et al., 2017. The 5g powder was mixed with 15 ml of the respective solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol), and kept for 4-5 days on the platform shaker. The solvents used are based on their increasing polarity index. Then the extract was centrifuged at 10,000rpm for 5 minutes and filtered using No.1 Whatman filter paper.

Keywords: cancer, phytomedicine, medicinal plants, oncology

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2 Recognising the Importance of Smoking Cessation Support in Substance Misuse Patients

Authors: Shaine Mehta, Neelam Parmar, Patrick White, Mark Ashworth


Patients with a history of substance have a high prevalence of comorbidities, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mortality rates are higher than that of the general population and the link to respiratory disease is reported. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) support opioid substitution therapy as an effective means for harm reduction. However, whilst a high proportion of patients receiving opioid substitution therapy are smokers, to the author’s best knowledge there have been no studies of respiratory disease and smoking intensity in these patients. A cross sectional prevalence study was conducted using an anonymised patient-level database in primary care, Lambeth DataNet (LDN). We included patients aged 18 years and over who had records of ever having been prescribed methadone in primary care. Patients under 18 years old or prescribed buprenorphine (because of uncertainty about the prescribing indication) were excluded. Demographic, smoking, alcohol and asthma and COPD coding data were extracted. Differences between methadone and non-methadone users were explored with multivariable analysis. LDN contained data on 321, 395 patients ≥ 18 years; 676 (0.16%) had a record of methadone prescription. Patients prescribed methadone were more likely to be male (70.7% vs. 50.4%), older (48.9yrs vs. 41.5yrs) and less likely to be from an ethnic minority group (South Asian 2.1% vs. 7.8%; Black African 8.9% vs. 21.4%). Almost all those prescribed methadone were smokers or ex-smokers (97.3% vs. 40.9%); more were non-alcohol drinkers (41.3% vs. 24.3%). We found a high prevalence of COPD (12.4% vs 1.4%) and asthma (14.2% vs 4.4%). Smoking intensity data shows a high prevalence of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (21.5% vs. 13.1%). Risk of COPD, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and deprivation, was raised in smokers: odds ratio 14.81 (95%CI 11.26, 19.47), and in the methadone group: OR 7.51 (95%CI: 5.78, 9.77). Furthermore, after adjustment for smoking intensity (number of cigarettes/day), the risk was raised in methadone group: OR 4.77 (95%CI: 3.13, 7.28). High burden of respiratory disease compounded by the high rates of smoking is a public health concern. This supports an integrated approach to health in patients treated for opiate dependence, with access to smoking cessation support. Further work may evaluate the current structure and commissioning of substance misuse services, including smoking cessation. Regression modelling highlights that methadone as a ‘risk factor’ was independently associated with COPD prevalence, even after adjustment for smoking intensity. This merits further exploration, as the association may be related to unexplored aspects of smoking (such as the number of years smoked) or may be related to other related exposures, such as smoking heroin or crack cocaine.

Keywords: methadone, respiratory disease, smoking cessation, substance misuse

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1 Converting Urban Organic Waste into Aquaculture Feeds: A Two-Step Bioconversion Approach

Authors: Aditi Chitharanjan Parmar, Marco Gottardo, Giulia Adele Tuci, Francesco Valentino


The generation of urban organic waste is a significant environmental problem due to the potential release of leachate and/or methane into the environment. This contributes to climate change, discharging a valuable resource that could be used in various ways. This research addresses this issue by proposing a two-step approach by linking biowaste management to aquaculture industry via single cell proteins (SCP) production. A mixture of food waste and municipal sewage sludge (FW-MSS) was firstly subjected to a mesophilic (37°C) anaerobic fermentation to produce a liquid stream rich in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are important building blocks for the following microbial biomass growth. In the frame of stable fermentation activity (after 1 week of operation), the average value of SCFAs was 21.3  0.4 g COD/L, with a CODSCFA/CODSOL ratio of 0.77 COD/COD. This indicated the successful strategy to accumulate SCFAs from the biowaste mixture by applying short hydraulic retention time (HRT; 4 days) and medium organic loading rate (OLR; 7 – 12 g VS/L d) in the lab-scale (V = 4 L) continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The SCFA-rich effluent was then utilized as feedstock for the growth of a mixed microbial consortium able to store polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), a class of biopolymers completely biodegradable in nature and produced as intracellular carbon/energy source. Given the demonstrated properties of the intracellular PHA as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effect on various fish species, the PHA-producing culture was intended to be utilized as SCP in aquaculture. The growth of PHA-storing biomass was obtained in a 2-L sequencing batch reactor (SBR), fully aerobic and set at 25°C; to stimulate a certain storage response (PHA production) in the cells, the feast-famine conditions were adopted, consisting in an alternation of cycles during which the biomass was exposed to an initial abundance of substrate (feast phase) followed by a starvation period (famine phase). To avoid the proliferation of other bacteria not able to store PHA, the SBR was maintained at low HRT (2 days). Along the stable growth of the mixed microbial consortium (the growth yield was estimated to be 0.47 COD/COD), the feast-famine strategy enhanced the PHA production capacity, leading to a final PHA content in the biomass equal to 16.5 wt%, which is suitable for the use as SCP. In fact, by incorporating the waste-derived PHA-rich biomass into fish feed at 20 wt%, the final feed could contain a PHA content around 3.0 wt%, within the recommended range (0.2–5.0 wt%) for promoting fish health. Proximate analysis of the PHA-rich biomass revealed a good crude proteins level (around 51 wt%) and the presence of all the essential amino acids (EAA), together accounting for 31% of the SCP total amino acid composition. This suggested that the waste-derived SCP was a source of good quality proteins with a good nutritional value. This approach offers a sustainable solution for urban waste management, potentially establishing a sustainable waste-to-value conversion route by connecting waste management to the growing aquaculture and fish feed production sectors.

Keywords: feed supplement, nutritional value, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), single cell protein (SCP), urban organic waste.

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