Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 303

Search results for: Fresnel lens

303 Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal

Authors: M. Javadzadeh, H. Khoshsima


In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Keywords: liquid crystal, lens, Fresnel zone, diffraction, Fresnel lens

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302 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom


The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
301 MRI Compatible Fresnel Zone Plates made of Polylactic Acid

Authors: Daniel Tarrazó-Serrano, Sergio Pérez-López, Sergio Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Pilar Candelas, Constanza Rubio


Zone Plates (ZPs) are used in many areas of physics where planar fabrication is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of ZPs, such as the well-known Fresnel ZPs or the more recent Fractal ZPs and Fibonacci ZPs. The material selection of the lens plays a very important role in the beam modulation control. This work presents a comparison between two Fresnel ZP made from different materials in the ultrasound domain: Polylactic Acid (PLA) and brass. PLA is the most common material used in commercial 3D-printers due to its high design flexibility and low cost. Numerical simulations based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and experimental results are shown, and they prove that the focusing capabilities of brass ZPs and PLA ZPs are similar. For this reason, PLA is proposed as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible material with great potential for therapeutic ultrasound focusing applications.

Keywords: FZP, PLA, focus, ultrasound, MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
300 FZP Design Considering Spherical Wave Incidence

Authors: Sergio Pérez-López, Daniel Tarrazó-Serrano, José M. Fuster, Pilar Candelas, Constanza Rubio


Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) are widely used in many areas, such as optics, microwaves or acoustics. On the design of FZPs, plane wave incidence is typically considered, but that is not usually the case in ultrasounds, especially in applications where a piston emitter is placed at a certain distance from the lens. In these cases, having control of the focal distance is very important, and with the usual Fresnel equation a focal displacement from the theoretical distance is observed due to the plane wave supposition. In this work, a comparison between FZP with plane wave incidence design and FZP with point source design in the case of piston emitter is presented. Influence of the main parameters of the piston in the final focalization profile has been studied. Numerical models and experimental results are shown, and they prove that when spherical wave incidence is considered for the piston case, it is possible to have a fine control of the focal distance in comparison with the classical design method.

Keywords: focusing, Fresnel zone plates, FZP, ultrasound

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299 Simulation Modelling of the Transmission of Concentrated Solar Radiation through Optical Fibres to Thermal Application

Authors: M. Rahou, A. J. Andrews, G. Rosengarten


One of the main challenges in high-temperature solar thermal applications transfer concentrated solar radiation to the load with minimum energy loss and maximum overall efficiency. The use of a solar concentrator in conjunction with bundled optical fibres has potential advantages in terms of transmission energy efficiency, technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness compared to a conventional heat transfer system employing heat exchangers and a heat transfer fluid. In this paper, a theoretical and computer simulation method is described to estimate the net solar radiation transmission from a solar concentrator into and through optical fibres to a thermal application at the end of the fibres over distances of up to 100 m. A key input to the simulation is the angular distribution of radiation intensity at each point across the aperture plane of the optical fibre. This distribution depends on the optical properties of the solar concentrator, in this case, a parabolic mirror with a small secondary mirror with a common focal point and a point-focus Fresnel lens to give a collimated beam that pass into the optical fibre bundle. Since solar radiation comprises a broad band of wavelengths with very limited spatial coherence over the full range of spectrum only ray tracing models absorption within the fibre and reflections at the interface between core and cladding is employed, assuming no interference between rays. The intensity of the radiation across the exit plane of the fibre is found by integrating across all directions and wavelengths. Results of applying the simulation model to a parabolic concentrator and point-focus Fresnel lens with typical optical fibre bundle will be reported, to show how the energy transmission varies with the length of fibre.

Keywords: concentrated radiation, fibre bundle, parabolic dish, fresnel lens, transmission

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298 A Statistical-Algorithmic Approach for the Design and Evaluation of a Fresnel Solar Concentrator-Receiver System

Authors: Hassan Qandil


Using a statistical algorithm incorporated in MATLAB, four types of non-imaging Fresnel lenses are designed; spot-flat, linear-flat, dome-shaped and semi-cylindrical-shaped. The optimization employs a statistical ray-tracing methodology of the incident light, mainly considering effects of chromatic aberration, varying focal lengths, solar inclination and azimuth angles, lens and receiver apertures, and the optimum number of prism grooves. While adopting an equal-groove-width assumption of the Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) prisms, the main target is to maximize the ray intensity on the receiver’s aperture and therefore achieving higher values of heat flux. The algorithm outputs prism angles and 2D sketches. 3D drawings are then generated via AutoCAD and linked to COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the lenses under solar ray conditions, which provides optical and thermal analysis at both the lens’ and the receiver’s apertures while setting conditions as per the Dallas-TX weather data. Once the lenses’ characterization is finalized, receivers are designed based on its optimized aperture size. Several cavity shapes; including triangular, arc-shaped and trapezoidal, are tested while coupled with a variety of receiver materials, working fluids, heat transfer mechanisms, and enclosure designs. A vacuum-reflective enclosure is also simulated for an enhanced thermal absorption efficiency. Each receiver type is simulated via COMSOL while coupled with the optimized lens. A lab-scale prototype for the optimum lens-receiver configuration is then fabricated for experimental evaluation. Application-based testing is also performed for the selected configuration, including that of a photovoltaic-thermal cogeneration system and solar furnace system. Finally, some future research work is pointed out, including the coupling of the collector-receiver system with an end-user power generator, and the use of a multi-layered genetic algorithm for comparative studies.

Keywords: COMSOL, concentrator, energy, fresnel, optics, renewable, solar

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
297 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien


ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
296 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich


Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: cataract, lens, NMR, LC-MS, metabolome

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295 A Mathematical Model for 3-DOF Rotary Accuracy Measurement Method Based on a Ball Lens

Authors: Hau-Wei Lee, Yu-Chi Liu, Chien-Hung Liu


A mathematical model is presented for a system that measures rotational errors in a shaft using a ball lens. The geometric optical characteristics of the ball lens mounted on the shaft allows the measurement of rotation axis errors in both the radial and axial directions. The equipment used includes two quadrant detectors (QD), two laser diodes and a ball lens that is mounted on the rotating shaft to be evaluated. Rotational errors in the shaft cause changes in the optical geometry of the ball lens. The resulting deflection of the laser beams is detected by the QDs and their output signals are used to determine rotational errors. The radial and the axial rotational errors can be calculated as explained by the mathematical model. Results from system calibration show that the measurement error is within ±1 m and resolution is about 20 nm. Using a direct drive motor (DD motor) as an example, experimental results show a rotational error of less than 20 m. The most important features of this system are that it does not require the use of expensive optical components, it is small, very easy to set up, and measurements are highly accurate.

Keywords: ball lens, quadrant detector, axial error, radial error

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
294 Graphene-Based Reconfigurable Lens Antenna for 5G/6G and Satellite Networks

Authors: André Lages, Victor Dmitriev, Juliano Bazzo, Gianni Portela


This work evaluates the feasibility of the graphene application to perform as a wideband reconfigurable material for lens antennas in 5G/6G and satellite applications. Based on transformation optics principles, the electromagnetic waves can be efficiently guided by modifying the effective refractive index. Graphene behavior can range between a lossy dielectric and a good conductor due to the variation of its chemical potential bias, thus arising as a promising solution for electromagnetic devices. The graphene properties and a lens antenna comprising multiples layers and periodic arrangements of graphene patches were analyzed using full-wave simulations. A dipole directivity was improved from 7 to 18.5 dBi at 29 GHz. In addition, the realized gain was enhanced 7 dB across a 14 GHz bandwidth within the Ka/5G band.

Keywords: 5G/6G, graphene, lens, reconfigurable, satellite

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293 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors

Authors: Kohji Mitsubayashi, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi


‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.

Keywords: cavitas sensor, biosensor, contact lens, mouthguard

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
292 Quantitative Phase Imaging System Based on a Three-Lens Common-Path Interferometer

Authors: Alexander Machikhin, Olga Polschikova, Vitold Pozhar, Alina Ramazanova


White-light quantitative phase imaging is an effective technique for achieving sub-nanometer phase sensitivity. Highly stable interferometers based on common-path geometry have been developed in recent years to solve this task. Some of these methods also apply multispectral approach. The purpose of this research is to suggest a simple and effective interferometer for such systems. We developed a three-lens common-path interferometer, which can be used for quantitative phase imaging with or without multispectral modality. The lens system consists of two components, the first one of which is a compound lens, consisting of two lenses. A pinhole is placed between the components. The lens-in-lens approach enables effective light transmission and high stability of the interferometer. The multispectrality is easily implemented by placing a tunable filter in front of the interferometer. In our work, we used an acousto-optical tunable filter. Some design considerations are discussed and multispectral quantitative phase retrieval is demonstrated.

Keywords: acousto-optical tunable filter, common-path interferometry, digital holography, multispectral quantitative phase imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
291 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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290 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
289 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul


Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

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288 3D Simulation of the Twin-Aperture IRON Superconducting Quadrupole for Charm-Tau Factory

Authors: K. K. Riabchenko, T. V Rybitskaya, A. A. Starostenko


Sper Charm-Tau Factory is a double ring e+e- collider to be operated in the center-of-mass energy range from 2 to 6 GeV, with a peak luminosity of about 1035 cm-2s-1 (Crab Waist collision) and with longitudinally polarized electrons at the IP (interaction point). One of the important elements of the cτ-factory is the superconducting two-aperture quadrupole of the final focus. It was decided to make a full-scale prototype quadrupole. The main objectives of our study included: 1) 3D modeling of the quadrupole in the Opera program, 2) Optimization of the geometry of the quadrupole lens, 3) Study of the influence of magnetic properties and geometry of a quadrupole on integral harmonics. In addition to this, the ways of producing unwanted harmonics have been studied. In the course of this work, a 3D model of a two-aperture iron superconducting quadrupole lens was created. A three-dimensional simulation of the magnetic field was performed, and the geometrical parameters of the lens were selected. Calculations helped to find sources of possible errors and methods for correcting unwanted harmonics. In addition to this, calculations show that there are no obstacles to the production of a prototype lens.

Keywords: super cτ-factory, final focus, twin aperture quadrupole lens, integral harmonics

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287 Sustainable Use of Laura Lens during Drought

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi


Laura Island, which is located about 50 km away from downtown, is a source of water supply in Majuro atoll, which is the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Low and flat Majuro atoll has neither river nor lake. It is very important for Majuro atoll to ensure the conservation of its water resources. However, up-coning, which is the process of partial rising of the freshwater-saltwater boundary near the water-supply well, was caused by the excess pumping from it during the severe drought in 1998. Up-coning will make the water usage of the freshwater lens difficult. Thus, appropriate water usage is required to prevent up-coning in the freshwater lens because there is no other water source during drought. Numerical simulation of water usage applying SEAWAT model was conducted at the central part of Laura Island, including the water-supply well, which was affected by up-coning. The freshwater lens was created as a result of infiltration of consistent average rainfall. The lens shape was almost the same as the one in 1985. 0 of monthly rainfall and variable daily pump discharge were used to calculate the sustainable pump discharge from the water-supply well. Consequently, the total amount of pump discharge was increased as the daily pump discharge was increased, indicating that it needs more time to recover from up-coning. Thus, a pump standard to reduce the pump intensity is being proposed, which is based on numerical simulation concerning the occurrence of the up-coning phenomenon in Laura Island during the drought.

Keywords: freshwater lens, islands, numerical simulation, sustainable water use

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286 Simulation and Fabrication of Plasmonic Lens for Bacteria Detection

Authors: Sangwoo Oh, Jaewoo Kim, Dongmin Seo, Jaewon Park, Yongha Hwang, Sungkyu Seo


Plasmonics has been regarded one of the most powerful bio-sensing modalities to evaluate bio-molecular interactions in real-time. However, most of the plasmonic sensing methods are based on labeling metallic nanoparticles, e.g. gold or silver, as optical modulation markers, which are non-recyclable and expensive. This plasmonic modulation can be usually achieved through various nano structures, e.g., nano-hole arrays. Among those structures, plasmonic lens has been regarded as a unique plasmonic structure due to its light focusing characteristics. In this study, we introduce a custom designed plasmonic lens array for bio-sensing, which was simulated by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) approach and fabricated by top-down approach. In our work, we performed the FDTD simulations of various plasmonic lens designs for bacteria sensor, i.e., Samonella and Hominis. We optimized the design parameters, i.e., radius, shape, and material, of the plasmonic lens. The simulation results showed the change in the peak intensity value with the introduction of each bacteria and antigen i.e., peak intensity 1.8711 a.u. with the introduction of antibody layer of thickness of 15nm. For Salmonella, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 2.3654 a.u. and for Hominis, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 3.2355 a.u. This significant shift in the intensity due to the interaction between bacteria and antigen showed a promising sensing capability of the plasmonic lens. With the batch processing and bulk production of this nano scale design, the cost of biological sensing can be significantly reduced, holding great promise in the fields of clinical diagnostics and bio-defense.

Keywords: plasmonic lens, FDTD, fabrication, bacteria sensor, salmonella, hominis

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285 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

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284 Noncritical Phase-Matched Fourth Harmonic Generation of Converging Beam by Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal

Authors: Xiangxu Chai, Bin Feng, Ping Li, Deyan Zhu, Liquan Wang, Guanzhong Wang, Yukun Jing


In high power large-aperture laser systems, such as the inertial confinement fusion project, the Nd: glass laser (1053nm) is usually needed to be converted to ultraviolet (UV) light and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) is one of the most favorite candidates to achieve UV light. Deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal is an optimal choice for converting the Nd: glass radiation to the fourth harmonic laser by noncritical phase matching (NCPM). To reduce the damage probability of focusing lens, the DKDP crystal is suggested to be set before the focusing lens. And a converging beam enters the FHG crystal consequently. In this paper, we simulate the process of FHG in the scheme and the dependence of FHG efficiency on the lens’ F is derived. Besides, DKDP crystal with gradient deuterium is proposed to realize the NCPM FHG of the converging beam. At every position, the phase matching is achieved by adjusting the deuterium level, and the FHG efficiency increases as a result. The relation of the lens’ F with the deuterium gradient is investigated as well.

Keywords: fourth harmonic generation, laser induced damage, converging beam, DKDP crystal

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283 Intensity-Enhanced Super-Resolution Amplitude Apodization Effect on the Non-Spherical Near-Field Particle-Lenses

Authors: Liyang Yue, Bing Yan, James N. Monks, Rakesh Dhama, Zengbo Wang, Oleg V. Minin, Igor V. Minin


A particle can function as a refractive lens to focus a plane wave, generating a narrow, high intensive, weak-diverging beam within a sub-wavelength volume, known as the ‘photonic jet’. Refractive index contrast (particle to background media) and scaling effect of the dielectric particle (relative-to-wavelength size) play key roles in photonic jet formation, rather than the shape of particle-lens. Waist (full width of half maximum, FWHM) of a photonic jet could be beyond the diffraction limit and smaller than the Airy disk, which defines the minimum distance between two objects to be imaged as two instead of one. Many important applications for imaging and sensing have been afforded based upon the super-resolution characteristic of the photonic jet. It is known that apodization method, in the form of an amplitude pupil-mask centrally situated on a particle-lens, can further reduce the waist of a photonic nanojet, however, usually lower its intensity at the focus due to blocking of the incident light. In this paper, the anomalously intensity-enhanced apodization effect was discovered in the near-field via numerical simulation. It was also experimentally verified by a scale model using a copper-masked Teflon cuboid solid immersion lens (SIL) with 22 mm side length under radiation of a plane wave with 8 mm wavelength. Peak intensity enhancement and the lateral resolution of the produced photonic jet increased by about 36.0 % and 36.4 % in this approach, respectively. This phenomenon may possess the scale effect and would be valid in multiple frequency bands.

Keywords: apodization, particle-lens, scattering, near-field optics

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282 A Green Optically Active Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation System Employing Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Ultraviolet Solar Irradiance

Authors: H. Shahid


Due to Ozone layer depletion on earth, the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation is recorded at its high index levels such as 25 in South Peru (13.5° S, 3360 m a.s.l.) Also, the planning of human inhabitation on Mars is under discussion where UV radiations are quite high. The exposure to UV is health hazardous and is avoided by UV filters. On the other hand, artificial UV sources are in use for water thermolysis to generate Hydrogen and Oxygen, which are later used as fuels. This paper presents the utility of employing UVA (315-400nm) and UVB (280-315nm) electromagnetic radiation from the solar spectrum to design and implement an optically active, Hydrogen and Oxygen generation system via thermolysis of desalinated seawater. The proposed system finds its utility on earth and can be deployed in the future on Mars (UVB). In this system, by using Fresnel lens arrays as an optical filter and via active tracking, the ultraviolet light from the sun is concentrated and then allowed to fall on two sub-systems of the proposed system. The first sub-system generates electrical energy by using UV based tandem photovoltaic cells such as GaAs/GaInP/GaInAs/GaInAsP and the second elevates temperature of water to lower the electric potential required to electrolyze the water. An empirical analysis is performed at 30 atm and an electrical potential is observed to be the main controlling factor for the rate of production of Hydrogen and Oxygen and hence the operating point (Q-Point) of the proposed system. The hydrogen production rate in the case of the commercial system in static mode (650ᵒC, 0.6V) is taken as a reference. The silicon oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is used in the proposed (UV) system for the Hydrogen and Oxygen production. To achieve the same amount of Hydrogen as in the case of the reference system, with minimum chamber operating temperature of 850ᵒC in static mode, the corresponding required electrical potential is calculated as 0.3V. However, practically, the Hydrogen production rate is observed to be low in comparison to the reference system at 850ᵒC at 0.3V. However, it has been shown empirically that the Hydrogen production can be enhanced and by raising the electrical potential to 0.45V. It increases the production rate to the same level as is of the reference system. Therefore, 850ᵒC and 0.45V are assigned as the Q-point of the proposed system which is actively stabilized via proportional integral derivative controllers which adjust the axial position of the lens arrays for both subsystems. The functionality of the controllers is based on maintaining the chamber fixed at 850ᵒC (minimum operating temperature) and 0.45V; Q-Point to realize the same Hydrogen production rate as-is for the reference system.

Keywords: hydrogen, oxygen, thermolysis, ultraviolet

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281 Outcomes Following Overcorrecting Minus Lens Therapy for Intermittent Distance Exotropia

Authors: Alasdair Warwick, Luna Dhir


Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of overcorrecting minus lens therapy in intermittent distance exotropia. Methods: Retrospective audit of all intermittent distance exotropia patients seen in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital pediatric eye clinic between 1st January 2014 and 1st March 2016. Change in LogMAR visual acuity, stereopsis, near and distance angles of deviation, as well as the proportions of patients converting to exophoria or undergoing strabismus surgery, were recorded. Results: 22 patients were identified, 45% male, mean age 5 years (range 0.6 to 18.5 years). The median overminus prescription was -1.0 dioptres (range -0.5 to -1.75 dioptres) and mean follow-up was 15 months (range 3 to 54 months). Visual acuity, near and distance angles of deviation improved but were not statistically significant: -0.15 LogMAR, -0.2 prism dioptres and -1.2 prism dioptres respectively (p>0.05). However, a significant change in stereopsis was observed: -74'' (p<0.01). 27% underwent strabismus surgery and 36% converted to exophoria whilst wearing their overminus prescription. Conclusions: Overcorrecting minus lens therapy is an effective therapy for intermittent distance exotropia. There was no deterioration in visual acuity and a significant improvement in stereopsis was seen in our cohort, with many patients converting to an exophoria. The proportion of patients requiring strabismus surgery was comparable to other studies. Further, follow-up is needed to ascertain long-term outcomes.

Keywords: exotropia, overcorrecting minus lens, refraction, strabismus

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280 Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Plasmonic Lens Focused Longitudinal Electric Field Excitation

Authors: Mingqian Zhang


Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a scanning probe technique for individual objects and structured surfaces investigation that provides a wealth of enhanced spectral information with nanoscale spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity. It has become a powerful and promising chemical and physical information detection method in the nanometer scale. The TERS technique uses a sharp metallic tip regulated in the near-field of a sample surface, which is illuminated with a certain incident beam meeting the excitation conditions of the wave-vector matching. The local electric field, and, consequently, the Raman scattering, from the sample in the vicinity of the tip apex are both greatly tip-enhanced owning to the excitation of localized surface plasmons and the lightning-rod effect. Typically, a TERS setup is composed of a scanning probe microscope, excitation and collection optical configurations, and a Raman spectroscope. In the illumination configuration, an objective lens or a parabolic mirror is always used as the most important component, in order to focus the incident beam on the tip apex for excitation. In this research, a novel TERS setup was built up by introducing a plasmonic lens to the excitation optics as a focusing device. A plasmonic lens with symmetry breaking semi-annular slits corrugated on gold film was designed for the purpose of generating concentrated sub-wavelength light spots with strong longitudinal electric field. Compared to conventional far-field optical components, the designed plasmonic lens not only focuses an incident beam to a sub-wavelength light spot, but also realizes a strong z-component that dominants the electric field illumination, which is ideal for the excitation of tip-enhancement. Therefore, using a PL in the illumination configuration of TERS contributes to improve the detection sensitivity by both reducing the far-field background and effectively exciting the localized electric field enhancement. The FDTD method was employed to investigate the optical near-field distribution resulting from the light-nanostructure interaction. And the optical field distribution was characterized using an scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope to demonstrate the focusing performance of the lens. The experimental result is in agreement with the theoretically calculated one. It verifies the focusing performance of the plasmonic lens. The optical field distribution shows a bright elliptic spot in the lens center and several arc-like side-lobes on both sides. After the focusing performance was experimentally verified, the designed plasmonic lens was used as a focusing component in the excitation configuration of TERS setup to concentrate incident energy and generate a longitudinal optical field. A collimated linearly polarized laser beam, with along x-axis polarization, was incident from the bottom glass side on the plasmonic lens. The incident light focused by the plasmonic lens interacted with the silver-coated tip apex and enhanced the Raman signal of the sample locally. The scattered Raman signal was gathered by a parabolic mirror and detected with a Raman spectroscopy. Then, the plasmonic lens based setup was employed to investigate carbon nanotubes and TERS experiment was performed. Experimental results indicate that the Raman signal is considerably enhanced which proves that the novel TERS configuration is feasible and promising.

Keywords: longitudinal electric field, plasmonics, raman spectroscopy, tip-enhancement

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279 Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting by Using a Rectenna with a Metamaterial Lens

Authors: Ursula D. C. Resende, Fabiano S. Bicalho, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves


The growing demand for cheap and clean energy sources have been motivated by the study and development of distinct technologies and devices able to provide different amounts of energy. In order to supply energy for small loads, the energy from the electromagnetic spectrum can be harvested. This possibility is particularly interesting because this kind of energy is constantly available in the environment and the number of radiofrequency sources is permanently increasing, due to advances in telecommunications services. A rectenna, which is a combination of an antenna and a rectifier circuit, is an equipment that can efficiently perform the electromagnetic energy harvesting. However, since the amount of electromagnetic energy available in the environment is very small, limited values of power can be harvested by the rectenna. Therefore, several technical strategies have been investigated in order to increase this amount of power. In this work, a metamaterial electromagnetic lens is used to improve the electromagnetic energy harvesting. The rectenna investigated was designed and optimized to charge a Li-Ion battery using the electromagnetic energy from an internet Wi-Fi commercial router model TL-WR841HP operating in 2.45 GHz with maximal output power equal to 18 dBm. The rectenna consists of a high directive antenna, a double voltage rectifier circuit and a metamaterial lens. The printed antenna, constituted of two rectangular radiator elements, was projected and optimized by using the Computer Simulation Software (CST) in order to obtain high directivities and values of S11 parameter below -10 dB in 2.45 GHz. The antenna was printed over a double-sided copper fiberglass substrate, FR4, with characterized relative electric permittivity εr = 4.3 and tangent of losses δ = 0.01. The rectifier circuit, which incorporates a circuit for impedance matching and uses the Schottky diode HSMS-2852, was projected and optimized by using Advanced Design Software (ADS) and built over the same FR4 substrate. The metamaterial cell is composed of two Square Split Ring Resonator (S-SRR) and a thin wire in order to operate with negative values of εr and relative magnetic permeability in 2.45 GHz. In order to evaluate the performance of the purposed rectenna two experimental charging tests were performed, one without and other with the metamaterial lens. The result obtained demonstrate that the electromagnetic lens was able to significantly increase the levels of electric current delivered to the battery, approximately 44%.

Keywords: electromagnetic energy harvesting, electromagnetic lens, metamaterial, rectenna

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278 Evaluation of TRIS-DMA-NVP Hydrogels for Making Silicone-Based Contact Lenses

Authors: N. P. D. Tran, H. Q. D. Nguyen, M. C. Yang


In this study, contact lenses were prepared through the polymerization of tris-(trimethyl-silyl-propyl-methacrylate) (TRIS), N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), and cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). The equilibrium water content (EWC), oxygen permeability (Dk), light transmittance, and in vitro cytotoxicity of TRIS-DMA-NVP with various ratios were measured. The results showed that the EWC increased while the Dk decreased with the increase of NVP content. For the sample with 25 wt% NVP, the EWC attained 53% whereas the Dk decreased to 46 barrers. All these lenses exhibited light transmittance over than 95%. In addition, all these lenses exhibited no inhibition to the growth of L292 fibroblasts. Thus, this study showed that TRIS-DMA-NVP can be applicable for making contact lens.

Keywords: DMA, TRIS, NVP, silicone hydrogel, contact lens

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277 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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276 Evaluation of Occupational Doses in Interventional Radiology

Authors: Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Maria Eugênia Dela Rosa, Regina Moura, Diana Rodrigues De Pina


Interventional Radiology is the radiology modality that provides the highest dose values to medical staff. Recent researches show that personal dosimeters may underestimate dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities (hands and feet) and eye lens. The aim of this work was to study radiation exposure levels of medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures and estimate the annual maximum numbers of procedures (AMN) that each physician could perform without exceed the annual limits of dose established by normative. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were positioned in different body regions of the interventional physician (eye lens, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot) above the radiological protection vests as lead apron and thyroid shield. Attenuation values for lead protection vests were based on international guidelines. Based on these data were chosen as 90% attenuation of the lead vests and 60% attenuation of the protective glasses. 25 procedures were evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 10 angioplasty, and 5-aneurysm treatment. The AMN of diagnostic procedures was 641 for the primary interventional radiologist and 930 for the assisting interventional radiologist. For the angioplasty procedures, the AMN for primary interventional radiologist was 445 and for assisting interventional radiologist was 1202. As for the procedures of aneurism treatment, the AMN for the primary interventional radiologist was 113 and for the assisting interventional radiologist were 215. All AMN were limited by the eye lens doses already considering the use of protective glasses. In all categories evaluated, the higher dose values are found in gonads and in the lower regions of professionals, both for the primary interventionist and for the assisting, but the eyes lens dose limits are smaller than these regions. Additional protections as mobile barriers, which can be positioned between the interventionist and the patient, can decrease the exposures in the eye lens, providing a greater protection for the medical staff. The alternation of professionals to perform each type of procedure can reduce the dose values received by them over a period. The analysis of dose profiles proposed in this work showed that personal dosimeters positioned in chest might underestimate dose values in other body parts of the interventional physician, especially in extremities and eye lens. As each body region of the interventionist is subject to different levels of exposure, dose distribution in each region provides a better approach to what actions are necessary to ensure the radiological protection of medical staff.

Keywords: interventional radiology, radiation protection, occupationally exposed individual, hemodynamic

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275 Gradient Index Metalens for WLAN Applications

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubeni, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


The control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of several researches over the past decade. In this regard, Metamaterials have shown a strong ability to manipulate the electromagnetic waves on a subwavelength scales thanks to its unconventional properties that are not available in natural materials such as negative refraction index, super imaging and invisibility cloaking. Metalenses were used to avoid some drawbacks presented by conventional lenses since focusing with conventional lenses suffered from the limited resolution because they were only able to focus the propagating wave component. Nevertheless, Metalenses were able to go beyond the diffraction limit and enhance the resolution not only by collecting the propagating waves but also by restoring the amplitude of evanescent waves that decay rapidly when going far from the source and that contains the finest details of the image. Metasurfaces have many mechanical advantages over three-dimensional metamaterial structures especially the ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Those structures have been widely used for antenna performance improvement and to build flat metalenses. In this work, we showed that a well-designed metasurface lens operating at the frequency of 5.9GHz, has efficiently enhanced the radiation characteristics of a patch antenna and can be used for WLAN applications (IEEE 802.11 a). The proposed metasurface lens is built with a geometrically modified unit cells which lead to a change in the response of the lens at different position and allow the control of the wavefront beam of the incident wave thanks to the gradient refractive index.

Keywords: focusing, gradient index, metasurface, metalens, WLAN Applications

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274 High-Pressure Steam Turbine for Medium-Scale Concentrated Solar Power Plants

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Coriolano Salvini


Many efforts have been spent in the design and development of Concentrated Solar Power (CPS) Plants worldwide. Most of them are for on-grid electricity generation and they are large plants which can benefit from the economies of scale. Nevertheless, several potential applications for Small and Medium-Scale CSP plants can be relevant in the industrial sector as well as for off-grid purposes (i.e. in rural contexts). In a wide range of industrial processes, CSP technologies can be used for heat generation replacing conventional primary sources. For such market, proven technologies (usually hybrid solutions) already exist: more than 100 installations, especially in developing countries, are in operation and performance can be verified. On the other hand, concerning off-grid applications, solar technologies are not so mature. Even if the market offers a potential deployment of such systems, especially in countries where the access to grid is strongly limited, optimized solutions have not been developed yet. In this context, steam power plants can be taken into consideration for medium scale installations, due to the recent results achieved with direct steam generation systems based on paraboloidal dish or Fresnel lens solar concentrators. Steam at 4.0-4.5 MPa and 500°C can be produced directly by means of innovative solar receivers (some prototypes already exist). Although it could seem a promising technology, presently, steam turbines commercially available do not cover the required cycle specifications. In particular, while low-pressure turbines already exist on the market, high-pressure groups, necessary for the abovementioned applications, are not available. The present paper deals with the preliminary design of a high-pressure steam turbine group for a medium-scale CSP plant (200-1000 kWe). Such a group is arranged in a single geared package composed of four radial expander wheels. Such wheels have been chosen on the basis of automotive turbocharging technology and then modified to take the new requirements into account. Results related to the preliminary geometry selection and to the analysis of the high-pressure turbine group performance are reported and widely discussed.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, steam turbine, radial turbine, medium-scale power plants

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