Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 233

Search results for: Newton interpolation

233 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
232 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong


Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
231 Overview of Adaptive Spline interpolation

Authors: Rongli Gai, Zhiyuan Chang


At this stage, in view of various situations in the interpolation process, most researchers use self-adaptation to adjust the interpolation process, which is also one of the current and future research hotspots in the field of CNC machining. In the interpolation process, according to the overview of the spline curve interpolation algorithm, the adaptive analysis is carried out from the factors affecting the interpolation process. The adaptive operation is reflected in various aspects, such as speed, parameters, errors, nodes, feed rates, random Period, sensitive point, step size, curvature, adaptive segmentation, adaptive optimization, etc. This paper will analyze and summarize the research of adaptive imputation in the direction of the above factors affecting imputation.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, CNC machining, interpolation constraints, spline curve interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
230 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim


Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
229 Evaluation of Quasi-Newton Strategy for Algorithmic Acceleration

Authors: T. Martini, J. M. Martínez


An algorithmic acceleration strategy based on quasi-Newton (or secant) methods is displayed for address the practical problem of accelerating the convergence of the Newton-Lagrange method in the case of convergence to critical multipliers. Since the Newton-Lagrange iteration converges locally at a linear rate, it is natural to conjecture that quasi-Newton methods based on the so called secant equation and some minimal variation principle, could converge superlinearly, thus restoring the convergence properties of Newton's method. This strategy can also be applied to accelerate the convergence of algorithms applied to fixed-points problems. Computational experience is reported illustrating the efficiency of this strategy to solve fixed-point problems with linear convergence rate.

Keywords: algorithmic acceleration, fixed-point problems, nonlinear programming, quasi-newton method

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
228 On Hankel Matrices Approach to Interpolation Problem in Infinite and Finite Fields

Authors: Ivan Baravy


Interpolation problem, as it was initially posed in terms of polynomials, is well researched. However, further mathematical developments extended it significantly. Trigonometric interpolation is widely used in Fourier analysis, while its generalized representation as exponential interpolation is applicable to such problem of mathematical physics as modelling of Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark repulsive interatomic potentials. Formulated for finite fields, this problem arises in decoding Reed--Solomon codes. This paper shows the relation between different interpretations of the problem through the class of matrices of special structure - Hankel matrices.

Keywords: Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, exponential interpolation, finite fields, Hankel matrices, Hankel polynomials

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
227 Evaluation of Spatial Distribution Prediction for Site-Scale Soil Contaminants Based on Partition Interpolation

Authors: Pengwei Qiao, Sucai Yang, Wenxia Wei


Soil pollution has become an important issue in China. Accurate spatial distribution prediction of pollutants with interpolation methods is the basis for soil remediation in the site. However, a relatively strong variability of pollutants would decrease the prediction accuracy. Theoretically, partition interpolation can result in accurate prediction results. In order to verify the applicability of partition interpolation for a site, benzo (b) fluoranthene (BbF) in four soil layers was adopted as the research object in this paper. IDW (inverse distance weighting)-, RBF (radial basis function)-and OK (ordinary kriging)-based partition interpolation accuracies were evaluated, and their influential factors were analyzed; then, the uncertainty and applicability of partition interpolation were determined. Three conclusions were drawn. (1) The prediction error of partitioned interpolation decreased by 70% compared to unpartitioned interpolation. (2) Partition interpolation reduced the impact of high CV (coefficient of variation) and high concentration value on the prediction accuracy. (3) The prediction accuracy of IDW-based partition interpolation was higher than that of RBF- and OK-based partition interpolation, and it was suitable for the identification of highly polluted areas at a contaminated site. These results provide a useful method to obtain relatively accurate spatial distribution information of pollutants and to identify highly polluted areas, which is important for soil pollution remediation in the site.

Keywords: accuracy, applicability, partition interpolation, site, soil pollution, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
226 Node Insertion in Coalescence Hidden-Variable Fractal Interpolation Surface

Authors: Srijanani Anurag Prasad


The Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Surface (CHFIS) was built by combining interpolation data from the Iterated Function System (IFS). The interpolation data in a CHFIS comprises a row and/or column of uncertain values when a single point is entered. Alternatively, a row and/or column of additional points are placed in the given interpolation data to demonstrate the node added CHFIS. There are three techniques for inserting new points that correspond to the row and/or column of nodes inserted, and each method is further classified into four types based on the values of the inserted nodes. As a result, numerous forms of node insertion can be found in a CHFIS.

Keywords: fractal, interpolation, iterated function system, coalescence, node insertion, knot insertion

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
225 Pattern Recognition Search: An Advancement Over Interpolation Search

Authors: Shahpar Yilmaz, Yasir Nadeem, Syed A. Mehdi


Searching for a record in a dataset is always a frequent task for any data structure-related application. Hence, a fast and efficient algorithm for the approach has its importance in yielding the quickest results and enhancing the overall productivity of the company. Interpolation search is one such technique used to search through a sorted set of elements. This paper proposes a new algorithm, an advancement over interpolation search for the application of search over a sorted array. Pattern Recognition Search or PR Search (PRS), like interpolation search, is a pattern-based divide and conquer algorithm whose objective is to reduce the sample size in order to quicken the process and it does so by treating the array as a perfect arithmetic progression series and thereby deducing the key element’s position. We look to highlight some of the key drawbacks of interpolation search, which are accounted for in the Pattern Recognition Search.

Keywords: array, complexity, index, sorting, space, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
224 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
223 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg


In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
222 Transformations between Bivariate Polynomial Bases

Authors: Dimitris Varsamis, Nicholas Karampetakis


It is well known that any interpolating polynomial P(x,y) on the vector space Pn,m of two-variable polynomials with degree less than n in terms of x and less than m in terms of y has various representations that depends on the basis of Pn,m that we select i.e. monomial, Newton and Lagrange basis etc. The aim of this paper is twofold: a) to present transformations between the coordinates of the polynomial P(x,y) in the aforementioned basis and b) to present transformations between these bases.

Keywords: bivariate interpolation polynomial, polynomial basis, transformations, interpolating polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
221 Modification of Newton Method in Two Point Block Backward Differentiation Formulas

Authors: Khairil I. Othman, Nur N. Kamal, Zarina B. Ibrahim


In this paper, we present modified Newton method as a new strategy for improving the efficiency of Two Point Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (BBDF) when solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration The detailed implementation of the predictor corrector BBDF with PE(CE)2 with modified Newton are discussed. The proposed modification of BBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with the existing Block Backward Differentiation Formula. Numerical results show the advantage of using the new strategy for solving stiff ODEs in improving the accuracy of the solution.

Keywords: newton method, two point, block, accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
220 Parameter Estimation of Gumbel Distribution with Maximum-Likelihood Based on Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shanno Quasi-Newton

Authors: Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih, Hendrika Handayani


Extreme data on an observation can occur due to unusual circumstances in the observation. The data can provide important information that can’t be provided by other data so that its existence needs to be further investigated. The method for obtaining extreme data is one of them using maxima block method. The distribution of extreme data sets taken with the maxima block method is called the distribution of extreme values. Distribution of extreme values is Gumbel distribution with two parameters. The parameter estimation of Gumbel distribution with maximum likelihood method (ML) is difficult to determine its exact value so that it is necessary to solve the approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the parameter estimation of Gumbel distribution with quasi-Newton BFGS method. The quasi-Newton BFGS method is a numerical method used for nonlinear function optimization without constraint so that the method can be used for parameter estimation from Gumbel distribution whose distribution function is in the form of exponential doubel function. The quasi-New BFGS method is a development of the Newton method. The Newton method uses the second derivative to calculate the parameter value changes on each iteration. Newton's method is then modified with the addition of a step length to provide a guarantee of convergence when the second derivative requires complex calculations. In the quasi-Newton BFGS method, Newton's method is modified by updating both derivatives on each iteration. The parameter estimation of the Gumbel distribution by a numerical approach using the quasi-Newton BFGS method is done by calculating the parameter values that make the distribution function maximum. In this method, we need gradient vector and hessian matrix. This research is a theory research and application by studying several journals and textbooks. The results of this study obtained the quasi-Newton BFGS algorithm and estimation of Gumbel distribution parameters. The estimation method is then applied to daily rainfall data in Purworejo District to estimate the distribution parameters. This indicates that the high rainfall that occurred in Purworejo District decreased its intensity and the range of rainfall that occurred decreased.

Keywords: parameter estimation, Gumbel distribution, maximum likelihood, broyden fletcher goldfarb shanno (BFGS)quasi newton

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
219 Increasing the Apparent Time Resolution of Tc-99m Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin Dynamic SPECT by Use of an 180-Degree Interpolation Method

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Maya Yamashita, Kyoko Saito


In general, dynamic SPECT data acquisition needs a few minutes for one rotation. Thus, the time-activity curve (TAC) derived from the dynamic SPECT is relatively coarse. In order to effectively shorten the interval, between data points, we adopted a 180-degree interpolation method. This method is already used for reconstruction of the X-ray CT data. In this study, we applied this 180-degree interpolation method to SPECT and investigated its effectiveness.To briefly describe the 180-degree interpolation method: the 180-degree data in the second half of one rotation are combined with the 180-degree data in the first half of the next rotation to generate a 360-degree data set appropriate for the time halfway between the first and second rotations. In both a phantom and a patient study, the data points from the interpolated images fell in good agreement with the data points tracking the accumulation of 99mTc activity over time for appropriate region of interest. We conclude that data derived from interpolated images improves the apparent time resolution of dynamic SPECT.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, time resolution, 180-degree interpolation method, 99mTc-GSA.

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
218 Spatial Interpolation Technique for the Optimisation of Geometric Programming Problems

Authors: Debjani Chakraborty, Abhijit Chatterjee, Aishwaryaprajna


Posynomials, a special type of polynomials, having singularities, pose difficulties while solving geometric programming problems. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and used to obtain extreme values for geometric programming problems by nth degree polynomial interpolation technique. Here the main idea to optimise the posynomial is to fit a best polynomial which has continuous gradient values throughout the range of the function. The approximating polynomial is smoothened to remove the discontinuities present in the feasible region and the objective function. This spatial interpolation method is capable to optimise univariate and multivariate geometric programming problems. An example is solved to explain the robustness of the methodology by considering a bivariate nonlinear geometric programming problem. This method is also applicable for signomial programming problem.

Keywords: geometric programming problem, multivariate optimisation technique, posynomial, spatial interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
217 Descent Algorithms for Optimization Algorithms Using q-Derivative

Authors: Geetanjali Panda, Suvrakanti Chakraborty


In this paper, Newton-like descent methods are proposed for unconstrained optimization problems, which use q-derivatives of the gradient of an objective function. First, a local scheme is developed with alternative sufficient optimality condition, and then the method is extended to a global scheme. Moreover, a variant of practical Newton scheme is also developed introducing a real sequence. Global convergence of these schemes is proved under some mild conditions. Numerical experiments and graphical illustrations are provided. Finally, the performance profiles on a test set show that the proposed schemes are competitive to the existing first-order schemes for optimization problems.

Keywords: Descent algorithm, line search method, q calculus, Quasi Newton method

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
216 A Gradient Orientation Based Efficient Linear Interpolation Method

Authors: S. Khan, A. Khan, Abdul R. Soomrani, Raja F. Zafar, A. Waqas, G. Akbar


This paper proposes a low-complexity image interpolation method. Image interpolation is used to convert a low dimension video/image to high dimension video/image. The objective of a good interpolation method is to upscale an image in such a way that it provides better edge preservation at the cost of very low complexity so that real-time processing of video frames can be made possible. However, low complexity methods tend to provide real-time interpolation at the cost of blurring, jagging and other artifacts due to errors in slope calculation. Non-linear methods, on the other hand, provide better edge preservation, but at the cost of high complexity and hence they can be considered very far from having real-time interpolation. The proposed method is a linear method that uses gradient orientation for slope calculation, unlike conventional linear methods that uses the contrast of nearby pixels. Prewitt edge detection is applied to separate uniform regions and edges. Simple line averaging is applied to unknown uniform regions, whereas unknown edge pixels are interpolated after calculation of slopes using gradient orientations of neighboring known edge pixels. As a post-processing step, bilateral filter is applied to interpolated edge regions in order to enhance the interpolated edges.

Keywords: edge detection, gradient orientation, image upscaling, linear interpolation, slope tracing

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
215 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin


This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
214 Pharmaceutical Applications of Newton's Second Law and Disc Inertia

Authors: Nicholas Jensen


As the effort to create new drugs to treat rare conditions cost-effectively intensifies, there is a need to ensure maximum efficiency in the manufacturing process. This includes the creation of ultracompact treatment forms, which can best be achieved via applications of fundamental laws of physics. This paper reports an experiment exploring the relationship between the forms of Newton's 2ⁿᵈ Law appropriate to linear motion and to transversal architraves. The moment of inertia of three discs was determined by experiments and compared with previous data derived from a theoretical relationship. The method used was to attach the discs to a moment arm. Comparing the results with those obtained from previous experiments, it is found to be consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. It was further found that Newton's 2ⁿᵈ law violates the second law of thermodynamics. The purpose of this experiment was to explore the relationship between the forms of Newton's 2nd Law appropriate to linear motion and to apply torque to a twisting force, which is determined by position vector r and force vector F. Substituting equation alpha in place of beta; angular acceleration is a linear acceleration divided by radius r of the moment arm. The nevrological analogy of Newton's 2nd Law states that these findings can contribute to a fuller understanding of thermodynamics in relation to viscosity. Implications for the pharmaceutical industry will be seen to be fruitful from these findings.

Keywords: Newtonian physics, inertia, viscosity, pharmaceutical applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
213 Modified Newton's Iterative Method for Solving System of Nonlinear Equations in Two Variables

Authors: Sara Mahesar, Saleem M. Chandio, Hira Soomro


Nonlinear system of equations in two variables is a system which contains variables of degree greater or equal to two or that comprises of the transcendental functions. Mathematical modeling of numerous physical problems occurs as a system of nonlinear equations. In applied and pure mathematics it is the main dispute to solve a system of nonlinear equations. Numerical techniques mainly used for finding the solution to problems where analytical methods are failed, which leads to the inexact solutions. To find the exact roots or solutions in case of the system of non-linear equations there does not exist any analytical technique. Various methods have been proposed to solve such systems with an improved rate of convergence and accuracy. In this paper, a new scheme is developed for solving system of non-linear equation in two variables. The iterative scheme proposed here is modified form of the conventional Newton’s Method (CN) whose order of convergence is two whereas the order of convergence of the devised technique is three. Furthermore, the detailed error and convergence analysis of the proposed method is also examined. Additionally, various numerical test problems are compared with the results of its counterpart conventional Newton’s Method (CN) which confirms the theoretic consequences of the proposed method.

Keywords: conventional Newton’s method, modified Newton’s method, order of convergence, system of nonlinear equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
212 Applications of Probabilistic Interpolation via Orthogonal Matrices

Authors: Dariusz Jacek Jakóbczak


Mathematics and computer science are interested in methods of 2D curve interpolation and extrapolation using the set of key points (knots). A proposed method of Hurwitz- Radon Matrices (MHR) is such a method. This novel method is based on the family of Hurwitz-Radon (HR) matrices which possess columns composed of orthogonal vectors. Two-dimensional curve is interpolated via different functions as probability distribution functions: polynomial, sinus, cosine, tangent, cotangent, logarithm, exponent, arcsin, arccos, arctan, arcctg or power function, also inverse functions. It is shown how to build the orthogonal matrix operator and how to use it in a process of curve reconstruction.

Keywords: 2D data interpolation, hurwitz-radon matrices, MHR method, probabilistic modeling, curve extrapolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
211 MapReduce Logistic Regression Algorithms with RHadoop

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Dong Hoon Lim


Logistic regression is a statistical method for analyzing a dataset in which there are one or more independent variables that determine an outcome. Logistic regression is used extensively in numerous disciplines, including the medical and social science fields. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating parameters in the logistic regression based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop that integrates R and Hadoop environment applicable to large scale data. There exist three learning algorithms for logistic regression, namely Gradient descent method, Cost minimization method and Newton-Rhapson's method. The Newton-Rhapson's method does not require a learning rate, while gradient descent and cost minimization methods need to manually pick a learning rate. The experimental results demonstrated that our learning algorithms using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also compared the performance of our Newton-Rhapson's method with gradient descent and cost minimization methods. The results showed that our newton's method appeared to be the most robust to all data tested.

Keywords: big data, logistic regression, MapReduce, RHadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
210 Feature Location Restoration for Under-Sampled Photoplethysmogram Using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hangsik Shin


The purpose of this research is to restore the feature location of under-sampled photoplethysmogram using spline interpolation and to investigate feasibility for feature shape restoration. We obtained 10 kHz-sampled photoplethysmogram and decimated it to generate under-sampled dataset. Decimated dataset has 5 kHz, 2.5 k Hz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 25 Hz and 10 Hz sampling frequency. To investigate the restoration performance, we interpolated under-sampled signals with 10 kHz, then compared feature locations with feature locations of 10 kHz sampled photoplethysmogram. Features were upper and lower peak of photplethysmography waveform. Result showed that time differences were dramatically decreased by interpolation. Location error was lesser than 1 ms in both feature types. In 10 Hz sampled cases, location error was also deceased a lot, however, they were still over 10 ms.

Keywords: peak detection, photoplethysmography, sampling, signal reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
209 Comparison between the Quadratic and the Cubic Linked Interpolation on the Mindlin Plate Four-Node Quadrilateral Finite Elements

Authors: Dragan Ribarić


We employ the so-called problem-dependent linked interpolation concept to develop two cubic 4-node quadrilateral Mindlin plate finite elements with 12 external degrees of freedom. In the problem-independent linked interpolation, the interpolation functions are independent of any problem material parameters and the rotation fields are not expressed in terms of the nodal displacement parameters. On the contrary, in the problem-dependent linked interpolation, the interpolation functions depend on the material parameters and the rotation fields are expressed in terms of the nodal displacement parameters. Two cubic 4-node quadrilateral plate elements are presented, named Q4-U3 and Q4-U3R5. The first one is modelled with one displacement and two rotation degrees of freedom in every of the four element nodes and the second element has five additional internal degrees of freedom to get polynomial completeness of the cubic form and which can be statically condensed within the element. Both elements are able to pass the constant-bending patch test exactly as well as the non-zero constant-shear patch test on the oriented regular mesh geometry in the case of cylindrical bending. In any mesh shape, the elements have the correct rank and only the three eigenvalues, corresponding to the solid body motions are zero. There are no additional spurious zero modes responsible for instability of the finite element models. In comparison with the problem-independent cubic linked interpolation implemented in Q9-U3, the nine-node plate element, significantly less degrees of freedom are employed in the model while retaining the interpolation conformity between adjacent elements. The presented elements are also compared to the existing problem-independent quadratic linked-interpolation element Q4-U2 and to the other known elements that also use the quadratic or the cubic linked interpolation, by testing them on several benchmark examples. Simple functional upgrading from the quadratic to the cubic linked interpolation, implemented in Q4-U3 element, showed no significant improvement compared to the quadratic linked form of the Q4-U2 element. Only when the additional bubble terms are incorporated in the displacement and rotation function fields, which complete the full cubic linked interpolation form, qualitative improvement is fulfilled in the Q4-U3R5 element. Nevertheless, the locking problem exists even for the both presented elements, like in all pure displacement elements when applied to very thin plates modelled by coarse meshes. But good and even slightly better performance can be noticed for the Q4-U3R5 element when compared with elements from the literature, if the model meshes are moderately dense and the plate thickness not extremely thin. In some cases, it is comparable to or even better than Q9-U3 element which has as many as 12 more external degrees of freedom. A significant improvement can be noticed in particular when modeling very skew plates and models with singularities in the stress fields as well as circular plates with distorted meshes.

Keywords: Mindlin plate theory, problem-independent linked interpolation, problem-dependent interpolation, quadrilateral displacement-based plate finite elements

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208 Overhead Reduction by Channel Estimation Using Linear Interpolation for Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization Transmission

Authors: Min-Su Song, Haeng-Bok Kil, Eui-Rim Jeong


This paper proposes a new method to reduce the overhead by pilots for single carrier frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) transmission. In the conventional SC-FDE transmission structure, the overhead by transmitting pilot is heavy because the pilot are transmitted at every SC-FDE block. The proposed SC-FDE structure has fewer pilots and many SC-FCE blocks are transmitted between pilots. The channel estimation and equalization is performed at the pilot period and the channels between pilots are estimated through linear interpolation. This reduces the pilot overhead by reducing the pilot transmission compared with the conventional structure, and enables reliable channel estimation and equalization.

Keywords: channel estimation, linear interpolation, pilot overhead, SC-FDE

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
207 Observed Changes in Constructed Precipitation at High Resolution in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Tien Thanh, Günter Meon


Precipitation plays a key role in water cycle, defining the local climatic conditions and in ecosystem. It is also an important input parameter for water resources management and hydrologic models. With spatial continuous data, a certainty of discharge predictions or other environmental factors is unquestionably better than without. This is, however, not always willingly available to acquire for a small basin, especially for coastal region in Vietnam due to a low network of meteorological stations (30 stations) on long coast of 3260 km2. Furthermore, available gridded precipitation datasets are not fine enough when applying to hydrologic models. Under conditions of global warming, an application of spatial interpolation methods is a crucial for the climate change impact studies to obtain the spatial continuous data. In recent research projects, although some methods can perform better than others do, no methods draw the best results for all cases. The objective of this paper therefore, is to investigate different spatial interpolation methods for daily precipitation over a small basin (approximately 400 km2) located in coastal region, Southern Vietnam and find out the most efficient interpolation method on this catchment. The five different interpolation methods consisting of cressman, ordinary kriging, regression kriging, dual kriging and inverse distance weighting have been applied to identify the best method for the area of study on the spatio-temporal scale (daily, 10 km x 10 km). A 30-year precipitation database was created and merged into available gridded datasets. Finally, observed changes in constructed precipitation were performed. The results demonstrate that the method of ordinary kriging interpolation is an effective approach to analyze the daily precipitation. The mixed trends of increasing and decreasing monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation have documented at significant levels.

Keywords: interpolation, precipitation, trend, vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
206 Inverse Cauchy Problem of Doubly Connected Domains via Spectral Meshless Radial Point Interpolation

Authors: Elyas Shivanian


In this paper, the spectral meshless radial point interpolation (SMRPI) technique is applied to the Cauchy problems of two-dimensional elliptic PDEs in doubly connected domains. It is obtained the unknown data on the inner boundary of the domain while overspecified boundary data are imposed on the outer boundary of the domain by using the SMRPI. Shape functions, which are constructed through point interpolation method using the radial basis functions, help us to treat problem locally with the aim of high order convergence rate. In this way, localization in SMRPI can reduce the ill-conditioning for Cauchy problem. Furthermore, we improve previous results and it is revealed the SMRPI is more accurate and stable by adding strong perturbations.

Keywords: cauchy problem, doubly connected domain, radial basis function, shape function

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
205 Finite Volume Method in Loop Network in Hydraulic Transient

Authors: Hossain Samani, Mohammad Ehteram


In this paper, we consider finite volume method (FVM) in water hammer. We will simulate these techniques on a looped network with complex boundary conditions. After comparing methods, we see the FVM method as the best method. We compare the results of FVM with experimental data. Finite volume using staggered grid is applied for solving water hammer equations.

Keywords: hydraulic transient, water hammer, interpolation, non-liner interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
204 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral


The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 466