Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 270

Search results for: rubber-filled tubes

270 Analysis of Control by Flattening of the Welded Tubes

Authors: Hannachi Med Tahar, H. Djebaili, B. Daheche


In this approach, we have tried to describe the flattening of welded tubes, and its experimental application. The test is carried out at the (National product processing company dishes and tubes production). Usually, the final products (tubes) undergo a series of non-destructive inspection online and offline welding, and obviously destructive mechanical testing (bending, flattening, flaring, etc.). For this and for the purpose of implementing the flattening test, which applies to the processing of round tubes in other forms, it took four sections of welded tubes draft (before stretching hot) and welded tubes finished (after drawing hot and annealing), it was also noted the report 'health' flattened tubes must not show or crack or tear. The test is considered poor if it reveals a lack of ductility of the metal.

Keywords: flattening, destructive testing, tube drafts, finished tube, Castem 2001

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
269 Deformation and Energy Absorption of Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Rahim, Shagil Akhtar, Prem K. Bharti, Syed Muneeb Iqbal


Deformation and energy absorption studies with corrugated tubes where corrugation is perpendicular to the line of action which coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the tubes. In the present study, several specimens with various geometric parameters are prepared and compressed quasi-statistically in ANSYS Workbench. It is observed that tubes with perpendicular corrugation alters the deformation condition considerably and culminates in a substantial escalation in energy absorption scope in juxtaposed with the tubes having a circular cross-section. This study will help automotive, aerospace and various other industries to design superior components with perpendicular corrugated tubes and will reduce the experimental trials by conducting the numerical simulations.

Keywords: ANSYS Workbench, deformation and energy absorption, corrugated tubes, quasi-static compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
268 Experimental Investigation of Folding of Rubber-Filled Circular Tubes on Energy Absorption Capacity

Authors: MohammadSadegh SaeediFakher, Jafar Rouzegar, Hassan Assaee


In this research, mechanical behavior and energy absorption capacity of empty and rubber-filled brazen circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading are investigated, experimentally. The brazen tubes were cut out of commercially available brazen circular tubes with the same length and diameter. Some of the specimens were filled with rubbers with three different shores and also, an empty tube was prepared. The specimens were axially compressed between two rigid plates in a quasi-static process using a Zwick testing machine. Load-displacement diagrams and energy absorption of the tested tubes were extracted from experimental data. The results show that filling the brazen tubes with rubber causes those to absorb more energy and the energy absorption of specimens are increased by increasing the shore of rubbers. In comparison to the empty tube, the first fold for the rubber-filled tubes occurs at lower load and it can be concluded that the rubber-filled tubes are better energy absorbers than the empty tubes. Also, in contrast with the empty tubes, the tubes that were filled with lower rubber shore deform asymmetrically.

Keywords: axial compression, quasi-static loading, folding, energy absorbers, rubber-filled tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
267 Crushing Behaviour of Thin Tubes with Various Corrugated Sections Using Finite Element Modelling

Authors: Shagil Akhtar, Syed Muneeb Iqbal, Mohammed R. Rahim


Common steel tubes with similar confines were used in simulation of tubes with distinctive type of corrugated sections. These corrugated cross-sections were arc-tangent, triangular, trapezoidal and square corrugated sections. The outcome of fluctuating structures of tube cross-section shape on the deformation feedback, collapse form and energy absorption characteristics of tubes under quasi-static axial compression have been prepared numerically. The finite element package of ANSYS Workbench was applied in the current analysis. The axial load-displacement products accompanied by the fold formation of disparate tubes were inspected and compared. Deviation of the initial peak load and the mean crushing force of the tubes with distinctive cross-sections were conscientiously examined.

Keywords: absorbed energy, axial loading, corrugated tubes, finite element, initial peak load, mean crushing force

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
266 Failure and Stress Analysis of Super Heater Tubes of a 67 TPH Coke Dry Quenching Boiler

Authors: Subodh N. Patel, Abhijit Pusty, Manashi Adhikary, Sandip Bhattacharyya


The steam superheater (SH) is a coil type heat exchanger which is used to produce superheated steam or to convert the wet steam to dry steam (69.6 kg/cm² and 495°C), generated by a boiler. There were two superheaters in the system, SH I and SH II. SH II is a set of tubes that faces the initial interaction with flue gas at high temperature followed by SH I tubes. After a service life of 2100 hours, a tube in the SH II found to be punctured. Dye penetrant test revealed that out of 50 such tubes, 14 more tubes had severe cracks at a similar location. The failure was investigated in detail. The materials and scale were characterized by optical microscope and advance characterization technique. Scale, observed on fracture surface, was characterized under scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Stresses acting on the tubes in working condition were analyzed by finite element method software, ANSYS. Cyclic stresses were observed in the simulation at the same prone location due to restriction in expansion of tubes. Based on scale characterization and stress analysis, it was concluded that the tube failed in thermo-mechanical fatigue. Finally, prevention and control measures were taken to avoid such failure in the future.

Keywords: finite element analysis, oxide scale, superheater tube, thermomechanical fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
265 Press Hardening of Tubes with Additional Interior Spray Cooling

Authors: B. A. Behrens, H. J. Maier, A. Neumann, J. Moritz, S. Hübner, T. Gretzki, F. Nürnberger, A. Spiekermeier


Press-hardened profiles are used e.g. for automotive applications in order to improve light weight construction due to the high reachable strength. The application of interior water-air spray cooling contributes to significantly reducing the cycle time in the production of heat-treated tubes. This paper describes a new manufacturing method for producing press-hardened hollow profiles by means of an additional interior cooling based on a water-air spray. Furthermore, this paper provides the results of thorough investigations on the properties of press-hardened tubes in dependence of varying spray parameters.

Keywords: 22MnB5, press hardening, water-air spray cooling, hollow profiles, tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
264 Energy Absorption of Circular Thin-Walled Tube with Curved-Crease Patterns under Axial Crushing

Authors: Grzegorz Dolzyk, Sungmoon Jung


Thin-walled tubes are commonly used as energy absorption devices for their excellent mechanical properties and high manufacturability. Techniques such as grooving and pre-folded origami shapes were introduced to circular and polygonal tubes to improve its energy absorption efficiency. This paper examines the energy absorption characteristics of circular tubes with pre-embedded curved-crease pattern. Set of numerical analyzes were conducted with different grooving patterns for tubes with various diameter (D) to thickness (t) ratio. It has been found that even very shallow grooving can positively affect thin wall tubes, leading to increased energy absorption and higher crushing load efficiency. The phenomenon is associated with nonsymmetric deformation that is usually observed for tubes with a high D/t ratio ( > 90). Grooving can redirect a natural mode of post-buckling deformation to a one with a higher number of lobes such that its beneficial and more stable. Also, the opposite effect can be achieved, and highly disrupted deformation can be a cause of reduced energy absorption capabilities. Curved-crease engraved patterns can be used to stabilize and change a form of hazardous post-buckling deformation.

Keywords: axial crushing, energy absorption, grooving, thin-wall structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
263 Air Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distributions for Staggered Wing Shaped Tubes Bundle

Authors: Sayed A. Elsayed, Emad Z. Ibrahim, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief


An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics and pressure drop distributions of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. Three cases of the tubes arrangements with various angles of attack, row angles of attack and 90° cone angles were employed at the considered Rea range. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the values of Pdc were increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: wing-shaped tubes, cross-flow cooling, staggered arrangement, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
262 Zinc Oxid Nanotubes Modified by SiO2 as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-Ones

Authors: Rakhshan Hakimelahi


In recent years, zinc oxid nano tubes have attracted much attention. The direct use of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 as recoverable catalysts for organic reactions is very rare. The catalysts were characterized by XRD. The average particle size of ZnO catalysts is 57 nm and there are high density defects on nano tubes surfaces. A simple and efficient method for the quinazolin derivatives synthesis from the condensation isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is described. The reason proposed for higher catalytic activity of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is a combination effect of the small particle size and high-density surface defects. The practical and simple method led to excellent yields of the 2,3-Di hydro quinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives under mild conditions and within short times.

Keywords: 2, 3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives, reusable catalyst, SiO2, zinc oxid nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
261 Stress Analysis of Water Wall Tubes of a Coal-fired Boiler during Soot Blowing Operation

Authors: Pratch Kittipongpattana, Thongchai Fongsamootr


This research aimed to study the influences of a soot blowing operation and geometrical variables to the stress characteristic of water wall tubes located in soot blowing areas which caused the boilers of Mae Moh power plant to lose their generation hour. The research method is divided into 2 parts (a) measuring the strain on water wall tubes by using 3-element rosette strain gages orientation during a full capacity plant operation and in periods of soot blowing operations (b) creating a finite element model in order to calculate stresses on tubes and validating the model by using experimental data in a steady state plant operation. Then, the geometrical variables in the model were changed to study stresses on the tubes. The results revealed that the stress was not affected by the soot blowing process and the finite element model gave the results 1.24% errors from the experiment. The geometrical variables influenced the stress, with the most optimum tubes design in this research reduced the average stress from the present design 31.28%.

Keywords: boiler water wall tube, finite element, stress analysis, strain gage rosette

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
260 Effect of CSL Tube Type on the Drilled Shaft Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Ali Motevalli, Shahin Nayyeri Amiri


Cross-Hole Sonic Logging (CSL) is a common type of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method, which is currently used to check the integrity of placed drilled shafts. CSL evaluates the integrity of the concrete inside the cage and between the access tubes based on propagation of ultrasonic waves between two or more access tubes. A number of access tubes are installed inside the reinforcing cage prior to concrete placement as guides for sensors. The access tubes can be PVC or steel galvanized based on ASTM6760. The type of the CSL tubes can affect the axial strength of the drilled shaft. The objective of this study is to compare the amount of axial load capacity of drilled shafts due to using a different type of CSL tubes inside the caging. To achieve this, three (3) large-scale drilled shaft samples were built and tested using a hydraulic actuator at the Florida International University’s (FIU) Titan America Structures and Construction Testing (TASCT) laboratory. During the static load test, load-displacement curves were recorded by the data acquisition system (MegaDAC). Three drilled shaft samples were built to evaluate the effect of the type of the CSL tube on the axial load capacity in drilled shaft foundations.

Keywords: drilled shaft foundations, axial load capacity, cage, PVC, galvanized tube, CSL tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
259 Effect of Longitudinal Fins on Air-Flow Characteristics for Wing-Shaped Tubes in Cross Flow

Authors: Sayed Ahmed El Sayed, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief


A numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics, pressure distributions, and skin friction coefficient over a wing-shaped tubes bundle in staggered arrangement with the placement of longitudinal fins (LF) at downstream position of the tube. The air-side Rea were at 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103. The tubes bundle were employed with various fin height [hf] and fin thickness (δ) from (2 mm ≤ hf ≤ 12 mm) and (1.5 mm ≤ δ ≤ 3.5 mm) respectively at the considered Rea range. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle was predicted using the commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. The distribution of average skin friction coefficient around wing-shaped tubes bundle is studied. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc and skin friction coefficient (Cf) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. Results indicated that the values of Pdc for hf = 6 mm are lower than these of NOF and hf = 2 mm by about 11 % and 13 % respectively for considered Rea range. Cf decreases as Rea increases. LFTH with hf = 6 mm offers lower form drag than that with hf = 12 mm and that of NOF. The lowest values of the pumping power are achieved for arrangements of hf = 6 mm for the considered Rea range. δ has negligible effect on skin friction coefficient, while has a slightly variation in ∆Pa. The wing-shaped tubes bundle heat exchanger with hf = 6 mm has the lowest values of ∆Pa, Pdc, Cf, and pumping power and hence the best performance comparing with the other bundles. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those obtained by similar previous studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: longitudinal fins, skin friction, flow characteristics, FLUENT, wing-shaped tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
258 Condensation Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of R-134a Flowing inside Dimpled Tubes

Authors: Kanit Aroonrat, Somchai Wongwises


A heat exchanger is one of the vital parts in a wide variety of applications. The tube with surface modification is generally referred to as an enhanced tube. With this, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger is improved. A dimpled tube is one of many kinds of enhanced tube. The heat transfer and pressure drop of two-phase flow inside dimpled tubes have received little attention in the literature, despite of having an important role in the development of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. As a result, the main aim of this study is to investigate the condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of refrigerant-134a flowing inside dimpled tubes. The test section is a counter-flow double-tube heat exchanger, which the refrigerant flows in the inner tube and water flows in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and three dimpled tubes with different helical pitches. All test tubes are made from copper with an inside diameter of 8.1 mm and length of 1500 mm. The experiments are conducted over mass fluxes ranging from 300 to 500 kg/m²s, heat flux ranging from 10 to 20 kW/m², and condensing temperature ranging from 40 to 50 ˚C. The results show that all dimpled tubes provide higher heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop compared to the smooth tube. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop increase with decreasing of helical pitch. It can be observed that the dimpled tube with lowest helical pitch yields the heat transfer enhancement in the range of 60-89% with the frictional pressure drop increase of 289-674% in comparison to the smooth tube.

Keywords: condensation, dimpled tube, heat transfer, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
257 Simulation of Welded Steel Tube Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: H. Zedira, M. T. Hannachi, H. Djebaili, B. Daheche


The rapid pace of technology development and strong competition in the market, prompted us to consider the field of manufacturing of steel pipes by a process complies fully with the requirements of industrial induction welding is high frequency (HF), this technique is better known today in Algeria, more precisely for the manufacture of tubes diameters Single Annabib TG Tebessa. The aim of our study is based on the characterization of processes controlling the mechanical behavior of steel pipes (type E24-2), welded by high frequency induction, considering the different tests and among the most destructive known test internal pressure. The internal pressure test is performed according to the application area of welded pipes, or as leak test, either as a test of strength (bursting). All tubes are subjected to a hydraulic test pressure of 50 bar kept at room temperature for a period of 6 seconds. This study provides information that helps optimize the design and implementation to predict the behavior of the tubes during operation.

Keywords: castem, pressure, stress, tubes, thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
256 Developing a Staff Education Program on Subglottic Suction Endotracheal Tubes

Authors: Emily Toon


Nurses play a critical role in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia through the maintenance of endotracheal tubes and use of subglottic secretion drainage via subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes. The purpose of this evidence based practice project is to develop a staff education program on subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes for critical care nurses at Middlesex Health with the aim of determining and documenting increased knowledge and/or practice change. The setting included registered nurses within Middlesex Health’s critical care unit who were recruited to complete a pre-test (n=14), view a presentation, and complete a post-test (n=10). Average pre-test scores were compared to average post-test scores to determine an increase in knowledge and/or practice change. The overall mean pre-test score was 59.7 percent, compared with the mean post-test score of 88.1 percent. Pre- and post-test scores were unmatched, so statistical significance could not be determined. The hypothesis that a staff education program on subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes would demonstrate an increase in knowledge was supported, but not statistically. By integrating a pre-test/post-test design into educational presentations to evaluate increased knowledge, data generated may be used to improve methods and practices of delivering education and enhance staff learning.

Keywords: endotracheal tubes, staff education, subglottic secretion drainage, ventilator-associated pneumonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
255 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Steam Generation in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Anunaya Saraswat


An evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally studied for steam generation. When the solar radiation falls on evacuated tubes, this energy is absorbed by the tubes and transferred to water with natural conduction and convection. A natural circulation of water occurs due to the inclination in tubes and header. In this experimental study, the efficiency of collector has been calculated. The result shows that the collector attains the maximum efficiency of 46.26% during 14:00 to 15:00h. Steam has been generated for two hours from 13:30 to 15:30 h on a winter day. Maximum solar intensity and maximum ambient temperatures are 795W/m2 and 19oC respectively on this day.

Keywords: evacuated tube, solar collector, hot water, steam generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
254 Stress Analysis of Tubular Bonded Joints under Torsion and Hygrothermal Effects Using DQM

Authors: Mansour Mohieddin Ghomshei, Reza Shahi


Laminated composite tubes with adhesively bonded joints are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries as well as oil and gas industries. In this research, adhesively tubular single lap joints subjected to torsional and hygrothermal loadings are studied using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The analysis is based on the classical shell theory. At first, an approximate closed form solution is developed by omitting the lateral deflections in the connecting tubes. Using the analytical model, the circumferential displacements in tubes and the shear stresses in the interfacing adhesive layer are determined. Then, a numerical formulation is presented using DQM in which the lateral deflections are taken into account. By using the DQM formulation, the circumferential and radial displacements in tubes as well as shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer are calculated. Results obtained from the proposed DQM solutions are compared well with those of the approximate analytical model and those of some published references. Finally using the DQM model, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influence of various parameters such as adhesive layer thickness, torsional loading, overlap length, tubes radii, relative humidity, and temperature.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joint, differential quadrature method (DQM), hygrothermal, laminated composite tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
253 Improving the Crashworthiness Characteristics of Long Steel Circular Tubes Subjected to Axial Compression by Inserting a Helical Spring

Authors: Mehdi Tajdari, Farzad Mokhtarnejad, Fatemeh Moradi, Mehdi Najafizadeh


Nowadays, energy absorbing devices have been widely used in all vehicles and moving parts such as railway couches, aircraft, ships and lifts. The aim is to protect these structures from serious damages while subjected to impact loads, or to minimize human injuries while collision is occurred in transportation systems. These energy-absorbing devices can dissipate kinetic energy in a wide variety of ways like friction, facture, plastic bending, crushing, cyclic plastic deformation and metal cutting. On the other hand, various structures may be used as collapsible energy absorbers. Metallic cylindrical tubes have attracted much more attention due to their high stiffness and strength combined with the low weight and ease of manufacturing process. As a matter of fact, favorable crash worthiness characteristics for energy dissipation purposes can be achieved from axial collapse of tubes while they crush progressively in symmetric modes. However, experimental and theoretical results have shown that depending on various parameters such as tube geometry, material properties of tube, boundary and loading conditions, circular tubes buckle in different modes of deformation, namely, diamond and Euler collapsing modes. It is shown that when the tube length is greater than the critical length, the tube deforms in overall Euler buckling mode, which is an inefficient mode of energy absorption and needs to be avoided in crash worthiness applications. This study develops a new method with the aim of improving energy absorption characteristics of long steel circular tubes. Inserting a helical spring into the tubes is proved experimentally to be an efficient solution. In fact when a long tube is subjected to axial compression load, the spring prevents of undesirable Euler or diamond collapsing modes. This is because the spring reinforces the internal wall of tubes and it causes symmetric deformation in tubes. In this research three specimens were prepared and three tests were performed. The dimensions of tubes were selected so that in axial compression load buckling is occurred. In the second and third tests a spring was inserted into tubes and they were subjected to axial compression load in quasi-static and impact loading, respectively. The results showed that in the second and third tests buckling were not happened and the tubes deformed in symmetric modes which are desirable in energy absorption.

Keywords: energy absorption, circular tubes, collapsing deformation, crashworthiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
252 Parametric Study of 3D Micro-Fin Tubes on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Authors: Shima Soleimani, Steven Eckels


One area of special importance for surface-level study of heat exchangers is tubes with internal micro-fins (< 0.5 mm tall). Micro-finned surfaces are a kind of extended solid surface in which energy is exchanged with water that acts as the source or sink of energy. Significant performance gains are possible for either shell, tube, or double pipe heat exchangers if the best surfaces are identified. The parametric studies of micro-finned tubes that have appeared in the literature left some key parameters unexplored. Specifically, they ignored three-dimensional (3D) micro-fin configurations, conduction heat transfer in the fins, and conduction in the solid surface below the micro-fins. Thus, this study aimed at implementing a parametric study of 3D micro-finned tubes that considered micro-fin height and discontinuity features. A 3D conductive and convective heat-transfer simulation through coupled solid and periodic fluid domains is applied in a commercial package, ANSYS Fluent 19.1. The simulation is steady-state with turbulent water flow cooling inner wall of a tube with micro-fins. The simulation utilizes a constant and uniform temperature on the tube outer wall. Performance is mapped for 18 different simulation cases, including a smooth tube using a realizable k-ε turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 48,928. Results compared the performance of 3D tubes with results for the similar two-dimensional (2D) one. Results showed that the micro-fin height has greater impact on performance factor than discontinuity features in 3D micro-fin tubes. A transformed 3D micro-fin tube can enhance heat transfer and pressure drop up to 21% and 56% compared to a 2D one, respectfully.

Keywords: three-dimensional micro-finned tube, heat transfer, friction factor, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
251 Parametric Study of 3D Micro-Fin Tubes on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Authors: Shima Soleimani, Steven Eckels


One area of special importance for the surface-level study of heat exchangers is tubes with internal micro-fins (< 0.5 mm tall). Micro-finned surfaces are a kind of extended solid surface in which energy is exchanged with water that acts as the source or sink of energy. Significant performance gains are possible for either shell, tube, or double pipe heat exchangers if the best surfaces are identified. The parametric studies of micro-finned tubes that have appeared in the literature left some key parameters unexplored. Specifically, they ignored three-dimensional (3D) micro-fin configurations, conduction heat transfer in the fins, and conduction in the solid surface below the micro-fins. Thus, this study aimed at implementing a parametric study of 3D micro-finned tubes that considered micro-fine height and discontinuity features. A 3D conductive and convective heat-transfer simulation through coupled solid and periodic fluid domains is applied in a commercial package, ANSYS Fluent 19.1. The simulation is steady-state with turbulent water flow cooling the inner wall of a tube with micro-fins. The simulation utilizes a constant and uniform temperature on the tube outer wall. Performance is mapped for 18 different simulation cases, including a smooth tube using a realizable k-ε turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 48,928. Results compared the performance of 3D tubes with results for the similar two-dimensional (2D) one. Results showed that the micro-fine height has a greater impact on performance factors than discontinuity features in 3D micro-fin tubes. A transformed 3D micro-fin tube can enhance heat transfer, and pressure drops up to 21% and 56% compared to a 2D one, respectfully.

Keywords: three-dimensional micro-fin tube, heat transfer, friction factor, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
250 The Effect of Enamel Surface Preparation on the Self-Etch Bonding of Orthodontic Tubes: An in Vitro Study

Authors: Fernandes A. C. B. C. J., de Jesus V. C., Sepideh N., Vilela OFGG, Somarin K. K., França R., Pinheiro F. H. S. L.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of pre-treatment of enamel with pumice and/or 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic tubes bonded to enamel while simultaneously evaluating the efficacy of orthodontic tubes bonded by self-etch primer (SEP). Materials and Methods: 39 of the crown halves were divided into 3 groups at random. Group, I was the control group utilizing both prophy paste and the conventional double etching pre-treatment method. Group II excluded the use of prophy paste prior to double etching. Group III excluded the use of both prophy paste and double etching and only utilized SEP. Bond strength of the orthodontic tubes was measured by SBS. One way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test were used to compare SBS values between the three groups. The statistical significance was set to p<0.05. Results: The difference in SBS values of groups I (36.672 ± 9.315 Mpa), II (34.242 ± 9.986 Mpa), and III (39.055 ± 5.565) were not statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that the use of prophy paste or pre-acid etch of the enamel surface did not provide a statistically significant difference in SBS between the three groups.

Keywords: shear bond strength, orthodontic bracket, self-etch primer, pumice, prophy

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
249 Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Natural Refrigerant within a Vortex Tube

Authors: Mirza Popovac


This paper investigates the application of the vortex tubes towards increasing the efficiency of high temperature heat pumps based on natural refrigerants, by recovering a part of the expansion work within the refrigerant cycle. To this purpose the 3D Navier-Stokes solver is used to perform a set of numerical simulations, investigating the vortex tube performance. Firstly, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for standard configurations of vortex tubes, and the obtained results are validated against the experimental and numerical data available in literature. Subsequently, different geometry specifications are analyzed, as well as the interplay between relevant heat pump operating conditions and the properties of natural refrigerants. Finally, the characteristic curve of performance will be derived for investigated vortex tubes specifications when used within high temperature heat pumps.

Keywords: heat pump, vortex tube, CFD, natural refrigerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
248 Heating System for Water Pool by Solar Energy

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


A swimming pool heating system is presented, composed of two alternative collectors with serial PVC absorber tubes that work in regimen of forced stream that is gotten through a bomb. A 500 liters reservoir was used, simulating the swimming pool, being raised some data that show the viability of the considered system. The chosen outflow was corresponding to 100 l/h. In function of the low outflow it was necessary the use of a not popular bomb, choosing the use of a low outflow alternative pumping system, using an air conditioner engine with three different rotations for the desired end. The thermal data related to each collector and their developed system will be presented. The UV and thermal degradations of the PVC exposed to solar radiation will be also boarded, demonstrating the viability of using tubes of this material as absorber elements of radiation in water heating solar collectors.

Keywords: solar energy, solar swimming pool, water heating, PVC tubes, alternative system

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
247 Bioresorbable Medicament-Eluting Grommet Tube for Otitis Media with Effusion

Authors: Chee Wee Gan, Anthony Herr Cheun Ng, Yee Shan Wong, Subbu Venkatraman, Lynne Hsueh Yee Lim


Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the leading cause of hearing loss in children worldwide. Surgery to insert grommet tube into the eardrum is usually indicated for OME unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy. It is the most common surgery for children. However, current commercially available grommet tubes are non-bioresorbable, not drug-treated, with unpredictable duration of retention on the eardrum to ventilate middle ear. Their functionality is impaired when clogged or chronically infected, requiring additional surgery to remove/reinsert grommet tubes. We envisaged that a novel fully bioresorbable grommet tube with sustained antibiotic release technology could address these drawbacks. In this study, drug-loaded bioresorbable poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)(PLC) copolymer grommet tubes were fabricated by microinjection moulding technique. In vitro drug release and degradation model of PLC tubes were studied. Antibacterial property was evaluated by incubating PLC tubes with P. aeruginosa broth. Surface morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary animal study was conducted using guinea pigs as an in vivo model to evaluate PLC tubes with and without drug, with commercial Mini Shah grommet tube as comparison. Our in vitro data showed sustained drug release over 3 months. All PLC tubes revealed exponential degradation profiles over time. Modeling predicted loss of tube functionality in water to be approximately 14 weeks and 17 weeks for PLC with and without drug, respectively. Generally, PLC tubes had less bacteria adherence, which were attributed to the much smoother tube surfaces compared to Mini Shah. Antibiotic from PLC tube further made bacteria adherence on surface negligible. They showed neither inflammation nor otorrhea after 18 weeks post-insertion in the eardrums of guinea pigs, but had demonstrated severe degree of bioresorption. Histology confirmed the new PLC tubes were biocompatible. Analyses on the PLC tubes in the eardrums showed bioresorption profiles close to our in vitro degradation models. The bioresorbable antibiotic-loaded grommet tubes showed good predictability in functionality. The smooth surface and sustained release technology reduced the risk of tube infection. Tube functional duration of 18 weeks allowed sufficient ventilation period to treat OME. Our ongoing studies include modifying the surface properties with protein coating, optimizing the drug dosage in the tubes to enhance their performances, evaluating their functional outcome on hearing after full resoption of grommet tube and healing of eardrums, and developing animal model with OME to further validate our in vitro models.

Keywords: bioresorbable polymer, drug release, grommet tube, guinea pigs, otitis media with effusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
246 The Mainspring of Controlling of Low Pressure Steam Drum at Lower Pressure than Its Design for Adjusting the Urea Synthesis Pressure

Authors: Reza Behtash, Enayat Enayati


The pool condenser is in principal a horizontal reactor, containing a bundle of U-tubes for heat exchange, coupling to low pressure steam drum. Condensation of gas takes place in a condensed pool around the tubes of the condenser. The heat of condensation is removed by the generation of low pressure steam on the inner tube side of the bundle. A circulation pump transfers ample boiler feed water to these tubes. The pressure of the steam generated influenced the heat flux. Changing the steam pressure means changing the steam condensate temperature and therefore the temperature difference between the tube side and the shell side. 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + Heat. This reaction is exothermic and according to Le Chatelier's Principle if the heat is not removed enough, it will come back to left side and generate of the gas and so the Urea synthesis pressure will rise. The most principal reasons for high Urea synthesis pressure are non proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio and too high a pressure in low pressure steam drum. Proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio is 3.0 and normal pressure for low pressure steam drum is 4.5 bar. As regards these conditions were proportional but we could not control the synthesis pressure the plant endangered, therefore we had to control the steam drum pressure at about 3.5 bar. While we opened the pool condenser, we found the partition plate used to divide inlet and outlet boiler feed water to tubes, was broken partially and so amount of boiler feed water bypass the tubes and the heat was not removed totally and it resulted in the generation of gases and high pressure in synthesis.

Keywords: boiler, pressure, pool condenser, partition plate

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245 Machine Learning Prediction of Compressive Damage and Energy Absorption in Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubular Structures

Authors: Milad Abbasi


Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures are increasingly being utilized in the automotive industry due to their lightweight and specific energy absorption capabilities. Although it is impossible to predict composite mechanical properties directly using theoretical methods, various research has been conducted so far in the literature for accurate simulation of CFRP structures' energy-absorbing behavior. In this research, axial compression experiments were carried out on hand lay-up unidirectional CFRP composite tubes. The fabrication method allowed the authors to extract the material properties of the CFRPs using ASTM D3039, D3410, and D3518 standards. A neural network machine learning algorithm was then utilized to build a robust prediction model to forecast the axial compressive properties of CFRP tubes while reducing high-cost experimental efforts. The predicted results have been compared with the experimental outcomes in terms of load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capability. The results showed high accuracy and precision in the prediction of the energy-absorption capacity of the CFRP tubes. This research also demonstrates the effectiveness and challenges of machine learning techniques in the robust simulation of composites' energy-absorption behavior. Interestingly, the proposed method considerably condensed numerical and experimental efforts in the simulation and calibration of CFRP composite tubes subjected to compressive loading.

Keywords: CFRP composite tubes, energy absorption, crushing behavior, machine learning, neural network

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244 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding CuO Nanoparticles to R-600a Refrigerant on Heat Transfer Enhancement of a Horizontal Flattened Tube

Authors: M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, M. Najafi, A. Abbasi


An empirical investigation was performed in order to study the heat transfer characteristics of R600a flow boiling inside horizontal flattened tubes and the simultaneous effect of nanoparticles on boiling heat transfer in flattened channel. Round copper tubes of 8.7 mm I.D. were deformed into flattened shapes with different inside heights of 6.9, 5.5, and 3.4 mm as test areas. The effect of different parameters such as mass flux, vapor quality and inside height on heat transfer coefficient was studied. Flattening the tube caused significant enhancement in heat transfer performance so that the maximum augmentation ratio of 163% was obtained in flattened channel with lowest internal height. A new correlation was developed based on the present experimental data to predict the heat transfer coefficient in flattened tubes. This correlation estimated 90% of the entire database within ±20%.

Keywords: nano particles, flattend tube, R600a, CuO

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
243 An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Syukri Himran, Rustan Taraka, Anto Duma


The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study was carried out in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during the melting process. Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM), where as the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy storage such as : the motion of interface, amount of material melted at any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed as superior to in-line layout for thermal storage. The experimental study was used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good agreement.

Keywords: latent, sensible, paraffin-wax, thermal energy storage, conduction, natural convection

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242 Behaviour of Hollow Tubes Filled with Sand Slag Concrete

Authors: Meriem Senani, Noureedine Ferhoune


This paper presents the axial bearing capacity of thin welded rectangular steel stubs filled with concrete sand. A series of tests was conducted to study the behavior of short composite columns under axial compressive load, the cross section dimensions were: 100x70x2 mm. A total of 16 stubs have been tested, as follows: 4 filled with ordinary concrete appointed by BO columns, 6 filled with concrete witch natural sand was completely substitute a crystallized sand slag designated in this paper by BSI, and 6 others were tucked in concrete whose natural sand was partially replace by a crystallized sand slag called by BSII. The main objectives of these tests were to clarify the steel specimen's performance filled by concrete sand compared to those filled with ordinary concrete. The main parameters studied are: The height of the specimen (300mm-500mm), eccentricity of load and type of filling concrete. Based on test results obtained, it is confirmed that the length of the tubes, has a considerable effect on the bearing capacity and the failure mode. In all test tubes, fracture occurred by the convex warping of the largest, followed by the smallest due to the outward thrust of the concrete, it was observed that the sand concrete improves the bearing capacity of tubes compounds compared to those filled with ordinary concrete.

Keywords: concrete sand, crystallized slag, failure mode, buckling

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241 Comparison of Mechanical Property of UNS C12200Joints Brazed by (Cu&Ag) Based Filler Metals

Authors: Ali Elhatmi, Mustafa Elshbo, Hussin Alosta


In this study the coper tube witch used in medical applications was brazed by Copper, Zink and Silver alloys, using BCuP2, RBCuZnAl and BAg2 filler metals. The sample of the medical tubes was chemically analyzed and the result matches the British standard. Tensile and hardness tests were carried out for brazed joints, and the tensile test results show that the BCuP2 has the hardest and the filler metal RBCuZnAl has the highest tensile strength.

Keywords: welding, Brazing, Copper tubes, Joints

Procedia PDF Downloads 123