Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 658

Search results for: liver foci

658 Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Rat Liver from CCl4-Induced Injury and Fibrogenesis by Attenuating Oxidative Stress

Authors: Xiao-Jing Zhu, Liang Zhou, Shi-Zhong Zheng


Various studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) can protect the liver injury, and DATS has a strong antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo role of DATS in protecting the liver against injury and fibrogenesis and further explores the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that DATS protected the liver from CCl4-caused injury by suppressing the elevation of ALT and AST activities, and by improving the histological architecture of the liver. Treatment with DATS or colchicine improved the liver fibrosis by sirius red staining and immunofluorescence. In addition, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses indicated that DATS inhibited HSC activation. Furthermore, DATS attenuated oxidative stress by increasing glutathione and reducing lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that the protective effect of DATS on CCl4-caused liver injury and liver fibrogenesis was, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: liver fibrogenesis, liver injury, oxidative stress, DATS

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657 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan


The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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656 Physiochemical and Histological Study on the Effect of the Hibernation on the Liver of Uromastyx acanthinura (Bell, 1825)

Authors: Youssef. K. A. Abdalhafid, Ezaldin A. M. Mohammed, Masoud M. M. Zatout


This study described the changes in the liver of Uromastyx acanthinura (Bell, 1825) males and females during hibernation and activity seasons. The results revealed that, hibernation causes increase fatty liver and pigment cells with abundant damage, comparing with nearly normal structure and less fatty liver after the hibernation with almost normal pattern. Genomic DNA showed apparent separation during hibernation. Also, caspase 3 and caspase 7 activity reached a high level in the liver tissue during hibernation comparing with activity season.

Keywords: histological liver, DNA fragmentation, hibernation, caspase 3 and caspase 7

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655 Lymphomas as Estrogen-Regulated Cancers

Authors: M. S. Hasni, J. Guan, K. Yakimchuk, M. Berglund, B. Sander, G. Enblad, R. M. Amini, S. Okret


Lymphomas are generally not considered as endocrine-related cancers. However, most lymphoid malignancies show gender differences in incidence and show prognosis with males being more affected. Furthermore, some epidemiological data indicate a protective role of estrogens against Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies have demonstrated estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to be the major ER expressed in normal and malignant cells of lymphoid origin. We have analyzed the effects of estradiol and selective ERα and ERβ agonists on lymphoma growth in culture and in vivo. Treating lymphoma cells with estradiol or ERα selective agonist had minor or no effect on cell growth while selective ERβ agonist treatment showed an antiproliferative effect. When grafting mice with murine T lymphoma cells, male mice developed larger tumors compared to female mice, a difference that was abolished following ovariectomy, demonstrating estrogen-dependent growth in vivo. When subcutaneously grafting lymphoma cells to mice, so far growth of all tested human B lymphoma tumors (Raji and Ramos Burkitt lymphoma, SU.DHL4 (GC) and U2932 (ABC) DLBCL, Granta-519, Maver1 and Z138 MCL cells), were reduced following treatment with ERβ selective agonist (ref. 2 and unpublished). Moreover, the number and size of liver foci of disseminating Raji cells was reduced. We have identified target genes and mechanism that could explain the above effects of ERβ agonists. This included effects on angio and lymphangiogenesis. Now we have further analyzed effects of ERβ agonists on Ibrutinib-sensitive and -insensitive MCL cells in xenograft experiments as well as ERβ expression in primary lymphoma material (DLBCL). Preliminary statistical analysis has been done correlating ERβ expression to other biomarkers and clinical data.

Keywords: lymphomas, estrogen receptors, cancer, liver foci

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654 Evaluating the Diagnostic Accuracy of the ctDNA Methylation for Liver Cancer

Authors: Maomao Cao


Objective: To test the performance of ctDNA methylation for the detection of liver cancer. Methods: A total of 1233 individuals have been recruited in 2017. 15 male and 15 female samples (including 10 cases of liver cancer) were randomly selected in the present study. CfDNA was extracted by MagPure Circulating DNA Maxi Kit. The concentration of cfDNA was obtained by Qubit™ dsDNA HS Assay Kit. A pre-constructed predictive model was used to analyze methylation data and to give a predictive score for each cfDNA sample. Individuals with a predictive score greater than or equal to 80 were classified as having liver cancer. CT tests were considered the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of liver cancer were calculated. Results: 9 patients were diagnosed with liver cancer according to the prediction model (with high sensitivity and threshold of 80 points), with scores of 99.2, 91.9, 96.6, 92.4, 91.3, 92.5, 96.8, 91.1, and 92.2, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ctDNA methylation for the diagnosis of liver cancer were 0.70, 0.90, 0.78, and 0.86, respectively. Conclusions: ctDNA methylation could be an acceptable diagnostic modality for the detection of liver cancer.

Keywords: liver cancer, ctDNA methylation, detection, diagnostic performance

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653 Liver and Liver Lesion Segmentation From Abdominal CT Scans

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer- aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver and liver lesion is regarded as a major primary step in computer aided diagnosis of liver diseases. Precise liver segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for the computer-aided diagnosis of liver pathology. In this papers, a semi- automated method for medical image data is presented for the liver and liver lesion segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to determine the region of interest by applying the morphological filters to extract the liver. The second step consists to detect the liver lesion. In this task; we proposed a new method developed for the semi-automatic segmentation of the liver and hepatic lesions. Our proposed method is based on the anatomical information and mathematical morphology tools used in the image processing field. At first, we try to improve the quality of the original image and image gradient by applying the spatial filter followed by the morphological filters. The second step consists to calculate the internal and external markers of the liver and hepatic lesions. Thereafter we proceed to the liver and hepatic lesions segmentation by the watershed transform controlled by markers. The validation of the developed algorithm is done using several images. Obtained results show the good performances of our proposed algorithm

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, hepatic lesion segmentation, Liver segmentation, morphological filter, the watershed algorithm

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652 Comparative Histological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Study on the Effect of Vit. C, Vit. E, Gallic Acid and Silymarin on Carbon Tetrachloride Model of Liver Fibrosis in Rats

Authors: Safaa S. Hassan, Mohammed H. Elbakry, Safwat A. Mangoura, Zainab M. Omar


Background: Liver fibrosis is the main reason for increased mortality in chronic liver disease. It has no standard treatment. Antioxidants from a variety of sources are capable of slowing or preventing oxidation of other molecules. Aim: to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of vit. C, vit. E and gallic acid in comparison to silymarin in the rat model of carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis and their possible mechanisms of action. Material& Methods: A total number of 60 adult male albino rats 160-200gm were divided into six equal groups; received subcutaneous (s.c) injection for 8 weeks. Group I: as control. Group II: received 1.5 mL/kg of CCL4 .Group III: CCL4 and co- treatment with silymarin 100mg/kg p.o. daily. Group IV: CCL4 and co-treatment with vit. C 50mg/kg p.o. daily. Group V: CCL4 and co-treatment with vit. E 200mg/kg. p.o. Group VI: CCL4 and co-treatment with Gallic acid 100mg/kg. p.o. daily. Liver was processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Levels of AST, ALT, ALP, reduced GSH, MDA, SOD and hydroxyproline concentration were measured and evaluated statistically. Results: Light and electron microscopic examination of liver of group II exhibited foci of altered cells with dense nuclei and vacuolated, granular cytoplasm, mononuclear cell infiltration in portal areas, profuse collagen fiber deposits were found around portal tract, more intense staining α-SMA-positive cells occupied most of the liver fibrosis tissue, electron lucent areas in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes, margination of nuclear chromatin. Treatment by any of the antioxidants variably reduced the hepatic structural changes induced by CCL4. Biochemical analysis showed that carbon tetrachloride significantly increased the levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, hepatic malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline content. Moreover, it decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Treatment with silymarin, gallic acid, vit. C and vit. E decreased significantly the AST, ALT, and ALP levels in plasma, MDA and hydroxyproline and increased the activities of SOD and glutathione in liver tissue. The effect of administration of CCl4 was improved with the used antioxidants in variable degrees. The most efficient antioxidant was silymarin followed by gallic acid and vit. C then vit. E. It is possibly due to their antioxidant effect, free radical scavenging properties and the reduction of oxidant dependent activation and proliferation of HSCs. Conclusion: So these antioxidants can be a promising drugs candidate for ameliorating liver fibrosis better than the use of the drugs and their side effects.

Keywords: antioxidant, ccl4, gallic acid, liver fibrosis

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651 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy


Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: carbon tetra chloride, liver fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat

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650 Effect of Long-Term Boron Exposure on Liver Structure of Adult Male Albino Rats and a Possible Role of Vitamin C

Authors: Ola Abdel-Tawab Hussein


Background: Boron is a naturally occurring agent and an essential trace element of human, animals and higher plants. It is released in the form of boric acid (BA) that is water soluble and biolologically available. Its largest uses are in glass, detergents, agriculture, leather tanning industries, cosmetics, photographic materials, soaps and cleaners. Human consume daily few milligrams in the water, fruits and vegetables. High doses of boron had been recorded to be developmental and reproductive toxin in animals(Only few studies on human had investigated the health effects associated with exposure to boron. Vitamin C is a major water soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant, acts to overcome the oxidative stress. Aim of the work: However , the liver is exposed to toxic substances that are absorbed, degraded or conjugated there were little information exists about the effects of boron that it would specifically have in the liver tissue of experimental rats. So the present work aimed to study the effects of long-term boron ingestion on histological structural of the liver of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against induced changes. Material and Methods: 30 adult male albino rats were divided into 3 equal groups; Group I: control, Group II: recieved drinking water containing 55x10-6 gm boron/liter for 90 days and Group III: recieved vitamin C (200mg/Kg.B.W) orally concomitant with boron for the same period. liver specimens were processed for light and electron microscopic(TEM) study. Results: Examination of the liver sections of group II revealed foci of severe dilatation and congestion of central and portal veins with mononuclear cellular infiltration and hepatocellular vacuolation. Increased collagen deposition specially around the portal areas. Marked electrolucent areas in the cytoplasm, heterochromatic nuclei and destroyed organelles of the hepatocytes. Apoptotic cells were observed and decreased lipid content of ito cells. In Group III the co administration of vitamin C improved most of the structural changes of the hepatocytes, Ito cells, increased binucleated cells and decreased collagen fibers deposition. Conclusion: Thus, the long term exposure to boron, induced histological changes on the structure of liver. The co administration of vitamin C improved most of these structural changes.

Keywords: boron, liver, vitamin C, rats

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649 Comparison between Transient Elastography (FibroScan) and Liver Biopsy for Diagnosis of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Seham Seif, Shahera Etreby, Khaled Zalata, Waleed Samir


Background: Transient Elastography (TE; FibroScan®) is a non-invasive technique to assess liver fibrosis. Aim: To compare TE and liver biopsy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, genotype IV and evaluate the effect of steatosis and schistosomiasis on FibroScan. Methods: The fibrosis stage (METAVIR Score) TE, was assessed in 519 patients. The diagnostic performance of FibroScan is assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results: The cut-off value of ≥ F2 was 8.55 kPa, ≥ F3 was 10.2 kPa and cirrhosis = F4 was 16.3 kPa. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 70.1% and 81.7% for the diagnosis of ≥ F2, 62.6% and 96.22% for F ≥ 3, and 27.7% and 100% for F4. No significant difference between schistosomiasis, steatosis degree and FibroScan measurements. Conclusion: Fibroscan could accurately predict liver fibrosis.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, FibroScan, liver biopsy, liver fibrosis

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648 Classifier for Liver Ultrasound Images

Authors: Soumya Sajjan


Liver cancer is the most common cancer disease worldwide in men and women, and is one of the few cancers still on the rise. Liver disease is the 4th leading cause of death. According to new NHS (National Health Service) figures, deaths from liver diseases have reached record levels, rising by 25% in less than a decade; heavy drinking, obesity, and hepatitis are believed to be behind the rise. In this study, we focus on Development of Diagnostic Classifier for Ultrasound liver lesion. Ultrasound (US) Sonography is an easy-to-use and widely popular imaging modality because of its ability to visualize many human soft tissues/organs without any harmful effect. This paper will provide an overview of underlying concepts, along with algorithms for processing of liver ultrasound images Naturaly, Ultrasound liver lesion images are having more spackle noise. Developing classifier for ultrasound liver lesion image is a challenging task. We approach fully automatic machine learning system for developing this classifier. First, we segment the liver image by calculating the textural features from co-occurrence matrix and run length method. For classification, Support Vector Machine is used based on the risk bounds of statistical learning theory. The textural features for different features methods are given as input to the SVM individually. Performance analysis train and test datasets carried out separately using SVM Model. Whenever an ultrasonic liver lesion image is given to the SVM classifier system, the features are calculated, classified, as normal and diseased liver lesion. We hope the result will be helpful to the physician to identify the liver cancer in non-invasive method.

Keywords: segmentation, Support Vector Machine, ultrasound liver lesion, co-occurance Matrix

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647 Latest Advances in the Management of Liver Diseases

Authors: Rabab Makki, Deputy Chief Dietitian


Malnutrition is commonly seen in Liver Disease patients. Prevalence of malnutrition in cirrhosis, is as high as 65-90%. Protein depletion and reduced muscle function are common. There are many mechanisms of malnutrition in liver cirrhosis e.g. insulin resistance, low respiratory quotient, increased glucogenesis etc. Nutrition support improves outcome in patients unable to maintain an intake of 35-40 Kcal/kg and 1.2-1.5 gm/kg/day. Simple methods of assessment such as subjective global assessment, calorie counting, MMC are useful. The value of BCAAs remains uncertain despite a considerable number of studies. Normal protein diets have been given safely to patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Restriction of protein not more than 48 hours pre- and pro-biotic, glutamine, fish oil etc are all part of the latest advanced techniques used.

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, omega 3 for liver disease, nutrition management, malnutrition

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646 Higher Freshwater Fish and Sea Fish Intake Is Inversely Associated with Liver Cancer in Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Maomao Cao


Background and aims While the association between higher consumption of fish and lower liver cancer risk has been confirmed, however, the association between specific fish intake and liver cancer risk remains unknown. We aimed to identify the association between specific fish consumption and the risk of liver cancer. Methods: Based on a community-based seropositive hepatitis B cohort involving 18404 individuals, face to face interview was conducted by a standardized questionnaire to acquire baseline information. Three common fish types in this study were analyzed, including freshwater fish, sea fish, and small fish (shrimp, crab, conch, and shell). All participants received liver cancer screening, and possible cases were identified by CT or MRI. Multivariable logistic models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariate multiple imputations were utilized to impute observations with missing values. Results: 179 liver cancer cases were identified. Consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week had a strong inverse association with liver cancer risk compared with the lowest intake level, with an adjusted OR of 0.53 (95% CI, 0.38-0.75) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.19-0.73), respectively. This inverse association was also observed after the imputation. There was no statistically significant association between intake of small fish and liver cancer risk (OR=0.58, 95%, CI 0.32-1.08). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week could reduce liver cancer risk.

Keywords: cross-sectional study, fish intake, liver cancer, risk factor

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645 Role of Tyrosine-Phosphorylated STAT3 in Liver Regeneration: Survival, DNA Synthesis, Inflammatory Reaction and Liver Mass Recovery

Authors: JiYoung Park, SueGoo Rhee, HyunAe Woo


In liver regeneration, quiescent hepatocytes need to be primed to fully respond to growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor. To understand the priming process, it is necessary to analyze patterns of gene expression that occur during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). Recently, tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pYSTAT3) has been shown to play an important role in initiating liver regeneration. In order to evaluate the role of pYSTAT3 on liver regeneration after PHx, we used an intrabody which can selectively inhibit pYSTAT3. In our previous studies, an intrabody had been shown that it bound specifically to the pYSTAT3. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the intrabody in HepG2 cells, as well as mouse liver, blocked both accumulation of pYSTAT3 in the nucleus and downstream target of pYSTAT3. In this study, PHx was performed on intrabody-expressing mice and the expression levels of liver regeneration-related genes were analyzed. We also measured liver/body weight ratios and the related cellular signaling pathways were analyzed. Acute phase response genes were reduced in an intrabody-expressing mice during liver regeneration than in control virus-injected mice. However, the time course of liver mass restoration in intrabody-expressing mice was similar to that observed in control virus-injected mice. We also observed that the expression levels of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl2 and Bcl-xL were decreased in intrabody-expressing mice whereas the expression of cell cycle-related genes such as cyclin D1, and c-myc was increased. Liver regeneration after PHx was partially impaired by the selective inhibition of pYSTAT3 with a phosphorylation site-specific intrabody and these results indicated that pYSTAT3 might have limited role in liver mass recovery.

Keywords: STAT3, pYSTAT3, liver regeneration, intrabody

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644 Computer-Aided Detection of Liver and Spleen from CT Scans using Watershed Algorithm

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Bessaid Abdelhafid


In the recent years a great deal of research work has been devoted to the development of semi-automatic and automatic techniques for the analysis of abdominal CT images. The first and fundamental step in all these studies is the semi-automatic liver and spleen segmentation that is still an open problem. In this paper, a semi-automatic liver and spleen segmentation method by the mathematical morphology based on watershed algorithm has been proposed. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to determine the region of interest by applying the morphological to extract the liver and spleen. The second step consists to improve the quality of the image gradient. In this step, we propose a method for improving the image gradient to reduce the over-segmentation problem by applying the spatial filters followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the segmentation of the liver, spleen. The aim of this work is to develop a method for semi-automatic segmentation liver and spleen based on watershed algorithm, improve the accuracy and the robustness of the liver and spleen segmentation and evaluate a new semi-automatic approach with the manual for liver segmentation. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work. The system has been evaluated by computing the sensitivity and specificity between the semi-automatically segmented (liver and spleen) contour and the manually contour traced by radiological experts. Liver segmentation has achieved the sensitivity and specificity; sens Liver=96% and specif Liver=99% respectively. Spleen segmentation achieves similar, promising results sens Spleen=95% and specif Spleen=99%.

Keywords: CT images, liver and spleen segmentation, anisotropic diffusion filter, morphological filters, watershed algorithm

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643 Analysis of Radiation-Induced Liver Disease (RILD) and Evaluation of Relationship between Therapeutic Activity and Liver Clearance Rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin in Yttrium-90 Microspheres Treatment

Authors: H. Tanyildizi, M. Abuqebitah, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Whole liver radiation has the modest benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases but the radiation doses must keep in control. Otherwise, RILD complications may arise. In this study, we aimed to calculate amount of maximum permissible activity (MPA) and critical organ absorbed doses with MIRD methodology, to evaluate tumour doses for treatment response and whole liver doses for RILD and to find optimal liver function test additionally. Materials and Methods: This study includes 29 patients who attended our nuclear medicine department suffering from Y-90 microspheres treatment. 10 mCi Tc-99m MAA was applied to the patients for dosimetry via IV. After the injection, whole body SPECT/CT images were taken in one hour. The minimum therapeutic tumour dose is on the point of being 120 Gy1, the amount of activities were calculated with MIRD methodology considering volumetric tumour/liver rate. A sub-working group was created with 11 patients randomly and liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin was calculated according to Ekman formalism. Results: The volumetric tumour/liver rates were found between 33-66% (Maksimum Tolarable Dose (MTD) 48-52Gy3) for 4 patients, were found less than 33% (MTD 72Gy3) for 25 patients. According to these results the average amount of activity, mean liver dose and mean tumour dose were found 1793.9±1.46 MBq, 32.86±0.19 Gy, and 138.26±0.40 Gy. RILD was not observed in any patient. In sub-working group, the relationship between Bilirubin, Albumin, INR (which show presence of liver disease and its degree), liver clearance with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin and calculated activity amounts were found r=0.49, r=0.27, r=0.43, r=0.57, respectively. Discussions: The minimum tumour dose was found 120 Gy for positive dose-response relation. If volumetric tumour/liver rate was > 66%, dose 30 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate 33-66%, dose escalation 48 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate < 33%, dose 72 Gy. These dose limitations did not create RILD. Clearance measurement with Mebrofenin was concluded that the best method to determine the liver function. Therefore, liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin should be considered in calculation of yttrium-90 microspheres dosimetry.

Keywords: clearance, dosimetry, liver, RILD

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642 Computer-Aided Classification of Liver Lesions Using Contrasting Features Difference

Authors: Hussein Alahmer, Amr Ahmed


Liver cancer is one of the common diseases that cause the death. Early detection is important to diagnose and reduce the incidence of death. Improvements in medical imaging and image processing techniques have significantly enhanced interpretation of medical images. Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems based on these techniques play a vital role in the early detection of liver disease and hence reduce liver cancer death rate.  This paper presents an automated CAD system consists of three stages; firstly, automatic liver segmentation and lesion’s detection. Secondly, extracting features. Finally, classifying liver lesions into benign and malignant by using the novel contrasting feature-difference approach. Several types of intensity, texture features are extracted from both; the lesion area and its surrounding normal liver tissue. The difference between the features of both areas is then used as the new lesion descriptors. Machine learning classifiers are then trained on the new descriptors to automatically classify liver lesions into benign or malignant. The experimental results show promising improvements. Moreover, the proposed approach can overcome the problems of varying ranges of intensity and textures between patients, demographics, and imaging devices and settings.

Keywords: CAD system, difference of feature, fuzzy c means, lesion detection, liver segmentation

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641 Segmentation of Liver Using Random Forest Classifier

Authors: Gajendra Kumar Mourya, Dinesh Bhatia, Akash Handique, Sunita Warjri, Syed Achaab Amir


Nowadays, Medical imaging has become an integral part of modern healthcare. Abdominal CT images are an invaluable mean for abdominal organ investigation and have been widely studied in the recent years. Diagnosis of liver pathologies is one of the major areas of current interests in the field of medical image processing and is still an open problem. To deeply study and diagnose the liver, segmentation of liver is done to identify which part of the liver is mostly affected. Manual segmentation of the liver in CT images is time-consuming and suffers from inter- and intra-observer differences. However, automatic or semi-automatic computer aided segmentation of the Liver is a challenging task due to inter-patient Liver shape and size variability. In this paper, we present a technique for automatic segmenting the liver from CT images using Random Forest Classifier. Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification that operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of the classes of the individual trees. After comparing with various other techniques, it was found that Random Forest Classifier provide a better segmentation results with respect to accuracy and speed. We have done the validation of our results using various techniques and it shows above 89% accuracy in all the cases.

Keywords: CT images, image validation, random forest, segmentation

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640 Assessment of Some Heavy Metals (Manganese, Copper, Nickel and Zinc) in Muscle and Liver of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ilushi River, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua I. Izegaegbe, Femi F. Oloye, Catherine E. Nasiru


This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the extent of contamination. Heavy metal determination of digested fish samples was done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results show that the muscles and livers were contaminated to varying levels with the presence of some non-metallic elements. The heavy metal load revealed that zinc had the highest mean concentration of 0.217±0.008µg/g in liver and 0.130±0.006µg/g in muscle, while copper recorded the least concentration in liver 0.063±0.004µg/g and 0.027±0.003µg/gin muscle. The distribution of the heavy metals in the muscles and livers of Clarias gariepinus showed significant variations and the results also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu,Ni and Mn) found in the liver was higher than those found in the muscle. This indicates that the liver is a better accumulator of heavy metal in Clarias gariepinus than the muscles. On comparison with WHO/FAO/FEPA/USFDA standards, the study shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver and muscle were within permissible limits safe for human consumption.

Keywords: clarias gariepinus, heavy metals, liver, muscle

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639 Transcriptomic Analysis of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Cafeteria Diet Induced Obese Rats

Authors: Mohammad Jamal


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most chronic liver diseases, prevalent among people with morbid obesity. NAFLD does not develop clinically significant liver disease, however cirrhosis and liver cancer develop in subset and currently there are no approved therapies for the treatment of NAFLD. The study is aimed to understand the various key genes involved in the mechanism of NAFLD which can be valuable for developing diagnostic and predictive biomarkers based on their histologic stage of liver. The study was conducted on 16 male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided in two groups: control group (n=8) fed on ad libitum normal chow and regular water and the cafeteria group (CAF)) (n=8) fed on high fatty/ carbohydrate diet. The animals received their respective diet from 4 weeks onwards from D.O.B until 25 weeks. Liver was extracted and RT² Profiler PCR Array was used to assess the NAFLD related genes. Histological evaluation was performed using H&E stain in liver tissue sections. Our PCR array results showed that genes involved in anti-inflammatory activity (Ifng, IL10), fatty acid uptake/oxidation (Fabp5), apoptosis (Fas), lipogenesis (Gck and Srebf1), Insulin signalling (Igfbp1) and metabolic pathway (pdk4) were upregulated in the liver of cafeteria fed obese rats. Bloated hepatocytes, displaced nucleus and higher lipid content were seen in the liver of cafeteria fed obese rats. Although Liver biopsies remain the gold standard in evaluating NAFLD, however an approach towards non-invasive markers could be used in understanding the physiology, therapeutic potential, and the targets to combat NAFLD.

Keywords: biomarkers, cafeteria diet, obesity, NAFLD

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638 Liver Regeneration of Small in situ Injury

Authors: Ziwei Song, Junjun Fan, Jeremy Teo, Yang Yu, Yukun Ma, Jie Yan, Shupei Mo, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Peter So, Hanry Yu


Liver is the center of detoxification and exposed to toxic metabolites all the time. It is highly regenerative after injury, with the ability to restore even after 70% partial hepatectomy. Most of the previous studies were using hepatectomy as injury models for liver regeneration study. There is limited understanding of small-scale liver injury, which can be caused by either low dose drug consumption or hepatocyte routine metabolism. Although these small in situ injuries do not cause immediate symptoms, repeated injuries will lead to aberrant wound healing in liver. Therefore, the cellular dynamics during liver regeneration is critical for our understanding of liver regeneration mechanism. We aim to study the liver regeneration of small-scale in situ liver injury in transgenic mice labeling actin (Lifeact-GFP). Previous studies have been using sample sections and biopsies of liver, which lack real-time information. In order to trace every individual hepatocyte during the regeneration process, we have developed and optimized an intravital imaging system that allows in vivo imaging of mouse liver for consecutive 5 days, allowing real-time cellular tracking and quantification of hepatocytes. We used femtosecond-laser ablation to make controlled and repeatable liver injury model, which mimics the real-life small in situ liver injury. This injury model is the first case of its kind for in vivo study on liver. We found that small-scale in situ liver injury is repaired by the coordination of hypertrophy and migration of hepatocytes. Hypertrophy is only transient at initial phase, while migration is the main driving force to complete the regeneration process. From cellular aspect, Akt/mTOR pathway is activated immediately after injury, which leads to transient hepatocyte hypertrophy. From mechano-sensing aspect, the actin cable, formed at apical surface of wound proximal hepatocytes, provides mechanical tension for hepatocyte migration. This study provides important information on both chemical and mechanical signals that promote liver regeneration of small in situ injury. We conclude that hypertrophy and migration play a dominant role at different stages of liver regeneration.

Keywords: hepatocyte, hypertrophy, intravital imaging, liver regeneration, migration

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637 Histopathological Changes in Liver and Muscle of Tilapia Fish from QIRE Exposed to Concentrations of Heavy Metals

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John


Toxicity of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) to Tilapia guinensis was carried out for 4 days with a view to determining their effects on the liver and muscle tissues. Tilapia guinensis samples of about 10 - 14cm length and 0.2 – 0.4kg weight each were obtained from University of Calabar fish ponds and acclimated for three (3) days before the experimental set up. Survivors after the 96-hr LC50 test period were selected from test solutions of the heavy metals for the histopathological studies. Histological preparations of liver and muscle tissues were randomly examined for histopathological lesions. Results of the histological examinations showed gross abnormalities in the liver tissues due to pathological and degenerative changes compared to liver and muscle tissues from control samples (tilapia fishes from aquaria without heavy metals). Extensive hepatocyte necrosis with chronic inflammatory changes was observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Cu solution. Similar but less damaging effects were observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Pb and Fe. The extent of lesion observed was therefore heavy metal-related. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the muscle tissues.

Keywords: degenerative changes, heavy metal, hepatocyte necrosis, histopathology, toxicity

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636 Hepatoprotective Effect of Mycophenolate Mofetil against Tacrolimus Exposure in Rat

Authors: Ferjani Hanen, El Arem Amira, Boussema Ayed Imen, Bacha Hassen


Tacrolimus (TAC), a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in the transplant recipient, but its use associated-hepatotoxicity. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an anti-metabolite, is a potent immunosuppressive drug. MMF is not hepatotoxic and is the most common adjunctive immunosuppressant for TAC. The effects of TAC and MMF combination in the liver is still not well understood. This work aimed to investigate their combined effect against in liver in rats Wistar after 24 h. The oral median lethal doses (LD50) of TAC and MMF alone were evaluated in rats are 240 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. Oral administration of the MMF at 50 mg/kg to male Wistar intoxicated with TAC at 60 mg/kg, demonstrated a significant protective effect by lowering the levels of hepatic markers enzymes (AST, ALT) in the serum rat. MMF attenuated oxidative stress by restoring the activities of SOD, CAT and by reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels liver. This study provided evidence that MMF protects rat liver from TAC-induced injury and suggests a most combination use for organ transplantation.

Keywords: tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, combination, liver, rat

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635 Diagnosis and Analysis of Automated Liver and Tumor Segmentation on CT

Authors: R. R. Ramsheeja, R. Sreeraj


For view the internal structures of the human body such as liver, brain, kidney etc have a wide range of different modalities for medical images are provided nowadays. Computer Tomography is one of the most significant medical image modalities. In this paper use CT liver images for study the use of automatic computer aided techniques to calculate the volume of the liver tumor. Segmentation method is used for the detection of tumor from the CT scan is proposed. Gaussian filter is used for denoising the liver image and Adaptive Thresholding algorithm is used for segmentation. Multiple Region Of Interest(ROI) based method that may help to characteristic the feature different. It provides a significant impact on classification performance. Due to the characteristic of liver tumor lesion, inherent difficulties appear selective. For a better performance, a novel proposed system is introduced. Multiple ROI based feature selection and classification are performed. In order to obtain of relevant features for Support Vector Machine(SVM) classifier is important for better generalization performance. The proposed system helps to improve the better classification performance, reason in which we can see a significant reduction of features is used. The diagnosis of liver cancer from the computer tomography images is very difficult in nature. Early detection of liver tumor is very helpful to save the human life.

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), multiple region of interest(ROI), feature values, segmentation, SVM classification

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634 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Β Receptor/P38 Pathway May Be the Potential Liver Damage Mechanisms Caused by Saikosaponin D

Authors: Li Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng


SaikosaponinD (SSD) is a major component of saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurumfalactum. Our current study was to examine the toxic effect of SSD on liver cells and explore the possible mechanism. The results demonstrated that SSD induced mouse liver injury and led to apoptosis in LO2 cells. HE staining and TUNEL analyses showed that SSD stimulated liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo. Subsequent experiments showed that SSD down-regulated Bcl-2 but up-regulated Bax. In vitro, SSD-treated LO2 cells exhibited apparent down-regulated expression of p-p38. Moreover, PDGF-βR agonist PDGF-BB alone significantly upregulated p38 phosphorylation, while combined with SSD, p38 phosphorylation expression was reduced. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated PDGF-βR knockdown augmented the inactivation of p-p38 and Bcl2 but abrogated the activation of Bax, these results were more obvious when shRNA combined with SSD. These data indicated that SSD stimulated liver injury and apoptosis in hepatocytes and PDGF-βR /p38 pathway may be the potential mechanistic.

Keywords: saikosaponin D, hepatotoxicity, liver injury, apoptosis, platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor, p38

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633 MiR-200a/ZEB1 Pathway in Liver Fibrogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Authors: Hai-Ying Liu, Yi-Hao Chen, Shu-Yin Pang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Li-Yuan Yang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yi Chen, Bing Zhu


Objective: Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive liver fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. MiR-200a has been shown to repress EMT. We aim to explore the role of miR-200a in the fibrogenesis of BA. Methods: We obtained the plasma samples and liver samples from patients with BA or controls to examine the role of miR-200a. Histological liver fibrosis was assessed using the Ishak fibrosis scores. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-200a in plasma. We also evaluated the expression of miR-200a in liver tissues using tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH). The expression of EMT related proteins zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the expression of miR-200a was both elevated in the plasma and liver tissues from BA patients compared with the controls. The hepatic expression of ZEB1 and α-SMA were markedly increased in the liver sections from BA patients compared to the controls, whereas E-cadherin was downregulated in the BA group. Simultaneously, we noted that the hepatic expression of miR-200a, E-cadherin and α-SMA were upregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in the BA group, while ZEB1 was downregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in BA patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest EMT has a critical effect on the fibrotic process of BA, and the interaction between miR-200a and ZEB1 may regulate EMT and eventually influence liver fibrogenesis of BA.

Keywords: biliary atresia, liver fibrosis, MicroRNA, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1

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632 Liver Tumor Detection by Classification through FD Enhancement of CT Image

Authors: N. Ghatwary, A. Ahmed, H. Jalab


In this paper, an approach for the liver tumor detection in computed tomography (CT) images is represented. The detection process is based on classifying the features of target liver cell to either tumor or non-tumor. Fractional differential (FD) is applied for enhancement of Liver CT images, with the aim of enhancing texture and edge features. Later on, a fusion method is applied to merge between the various enhanced images and produce a variety of feature improvement, which will increase the accuracy of classification. Each image is divided into NxN non-overlapping blocks, to extract the desired features. Support vector machines (SVM) classifier is trained later on a supplied dataset different from the tested one. Finally, the block cells are identified whether they are classified as tumor or not. Our approach is validated on a group of patients’ CT liver tumor datasets. The experiment results demonstrated the efficiency of detection in the proposed technique.

Keywords: fractional differential (FD), computed tomography (CT), fusion, aplha, texture features.

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631 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng


Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, curcumin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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630 Hepatoprotective Effect of Oleuropein against Cisplatin-Induced Liver Damage in Rat

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Murat Bakir, Suat Colak, Merve Sonmez, Kubra Koc


Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most effective an anticancer drug and also toxic to cells by activating oxidative stress. Oleuropein (OLE) has key role against oxidative stress in mammalian cells, but the role of this antioxidant in the toxicity of CIS remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of OLE on CIS-induced liver damages in male rats. With this aim, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: Control group; the group treated with 7 mg/kg/day CIS; the groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day OLE (i.p.); and the groups treated with OLE for three days starting at 24 h following CIS injection. After 4 days of injections, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. The liver tissues were removed for histological, biochemical (TAC, TOS and MDA) and genotoxic evaluations. In the CIS treated group, the whole liver tissue showed significant histological changes. Also, CIS significantly increased both the incidence of oxidative stress and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, the rats taking CIS have abnormal results on liver function tests. However, these parameters reached to the normal range after administration of OLE for 3 days. Finally, OLE demonstrated an acceptable high potential and was effective in attenuating CIS-induced liver injury. In this trial, the 200 mg/kg dose of OLE firstly appeared to induce the most optimal protective response.

Keywords: antioxidant response, cisplatin, histology, liver, oleuropein, 8-OhdG

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629 Effect Indol Acetic Acid on Liver of Albino Rats

Authors: Ezaldin A. M. Mohammed, Youssef K. H. Abdalhafid, Masoud. M. Zatout


The study aims to clarify the toxic effect of plant hormones, which are widely used in agriculture. One of these is the plant hormones (indole acetic acid); has been ٳata hormone to rats at 100 ppm salt solution of 0.2 per day after day for a period of forty days before conception until the fourteenth day or sixteenth or childbirth. Treatment brought about a marked shortage in the rate of increase in the weight of mice., And a percentage of the weight of the liver there was a distinct increase in the relative weight of the liver. As well as the increase in pathological changes and increase the size of the nuclei and Kupffer cell, as noted widespread and dense clusters of inflammatory cells accompanied by about the erosion of liver tissue and blood ٳrchah. Biochemical analyzes showed a marked decrease of the liver in antioxidant enzymes and an increase in the rate of free radicals. It was also noted an increase in cases of abortion. The owner of so many birth defects. It was also noted the lack of body weight in fetuses and increase the absorption rate of embryos in fetuses of mothers treatment compared to the control group. Showed microscopic examinations of the liver of mice born in the transaction and the decay in the presence of hepatic cells and edema, blood vessels and increase the rate of cell death.

Keywords: indol acetic acid, liver, pathological changes, albino rats

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