Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 243

Search results for: estrogen receptors

243 Estrogen Controls Hepatitis C Virus Entry and Spread through the GPR30 Pathway

Authors: Laura Ulitzky, Dougbeh-Chris Nyan, Manuel M. Lafer, Erica Silberstein, Nicoleta Cehan, Deborah R. Taylor


Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis and cirrhosis are more frequent in men and postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women and women receiving hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that β-estradiol (estrogen) plays an innate role in preventing viral infection and liver disease. Estrogen classically acts through nuclear estrogen receptors or, alternatively, through the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER). We observed a marked decrease in detectable virus when HCV-infected human hepatoma cells were treated with estrogen. The effect was mimicked by both Tamoxifen (Tam) and G1, a GPR30-specific agonist, and was reversed by the GPR30-specific antagonist, G15. Through GPR30, estrogen-mediated the down-regulation of occludin; a tight junction protein and HCV receptor, by promoting activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Activated MMP-9 was secreted in response to estrogen, cleaving occludin in the extracellular Domain D, the motif required for HCV entry and spread. This pathway gives new insight into a novel innate immune pathway and the disparate host-virus responses to HCV demonstrated by the two sexes. Moreover, these data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may have beneficial antiviral properties for HCV-infected postmenopausal women and show promise for new antiviral treatments for both men and women.

Keywords: HCV, estrogen, occludin, MMPs

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242 Quantitative Analysis of Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Insulin Resistant C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

Authors: Masocorro Gawned, Stephen Myers, Guat Siew Chew


Nuclear Receptors (NR) are a super family of transcription factors that play a major role in lipid and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Recently, pharmacological evidence supports the view that stimulation of nuclear receptors alleviates Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The orphan nuclear receptors (ONR) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily whose ligands and physiological functions remain unknown. To date, no systematic studies have been carried out to screen for ONRs expressed in insulin resistant (IR) skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, in this study, we have established a model for IR by treating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells with insulin (10nM) for 48 hours. Western Blot analysis of phosphorylated AKT confirmed IR. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results highlighted key ONRs including NUR77 (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2) and NOR1 (NR4A3) which have been associated with fatty acid oxidation regulation and glucose homeostasis. Increased mRNA expression levels of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), REV-ERBα, NUR77, NURR1, NOR1, in insulin resistant C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, indicated that these ONRs could potentially play a pivotal regulatory role of insulin secretion in lipid metabolism. Taken together, this study has successfully contributed to the complete analysis of ONR in IR, and has filled in an important void in the study and treatment of T2D.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, orphan nuclear receptors, transcription receptors, quantitative mRNA expression

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241 Evaluation on Estrogenic Effects of Diisononyl Adipate (DiNA) on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Shih-cheng Li, Ming-Yi Chung, Mei-Lien Chen


Background: Plasticizers, such as phthalates and adipates, were substances added to a material that provided flexibility and durability to plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates were generally recognized as an endocrine disrupter due to their estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Phthalates had the capacity to bind to estrogen receptors, and hence they might prolong menstrual cycles and increase the proportion of premature menopause. Recently, adipates such as di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) and di-isononyl adipate (DiNA) had replaced phthalates and were now used for food packaging. Methods: MCF-7 cell lines were treated with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di- 2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), or di-isononyl adipate (DiNA) (10-6 , 10-5 , and 10-4 mol/l), using 17β-estradiol (10-8 mol/l) as a positive control. After incubations of 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, the cells were tested using the alamarBlue assay. Results: The alamarBlue assay revealed that cell proliferation significantly increased after treatments of DEHP and DEHA for 24 hours at a concentration of 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/l. After more than 48 hours, cell proliferations in DEHP at 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/l significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that adipates, as well as phthalates, were capable of inducing cell proliferation. We further used MDA-MB-231 cell lines to confirm that the proliferation effect was generated through binding to estrogen receptors.

Keywords: MCF-7, phthalate, adipate, endocrine disrupter

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240 Puereria mirifica Replacement Improves Skeletal Muscle Performance Associated with Increasing Parvalbumin Levels in Ovariectomized Rat

Authors: Uraporn Vongvatcharanon, Kochakorn Sukjan, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Surapong Vongvatcharanon


Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass, and strength frequently found in menopause. Estrogen replacement has been shown to improve such a loss of muscle functions. However, there is an increased risk of cancer that has to be considered because of the estrogen replacement therapy. Thus, phytoestrogen supplementation has been suggested as an alternative therapy. Pueraria mirifica (PM) is a plant in the family Leguminosae, that is known to be phytoestrogen-rich and has been traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It contains isoflavones and other compounds such as miroestrol and its derivatives. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium binding protein and functions as a relaxing factor in fast twitch muscle fibers. A decrease of the PV level results in a reduction of the speed of the twitch relaxation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract from Pueraria mirifica on the estrogen levels, skeletal muscle functions and PV levels in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius of ovariectomized rats. Twelve-week old female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 6 groups: SHAM (un-ovariectomized rats, that received double distilled water), PM-0 (ovariectomized rats, OVX, receiving double distilled water), E (OVX, receiving an estradiol benzoate dose of 0.04 mg/kg), PM-50 (OVX receiving PM 50 mg/kg), PM-500 (OVX receiving PM 500 mg/kg), PM-1000 (OVX receiving PM 1000 mg/kg) all for 90 days. The PM-0 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation and parvalbumin levels of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly reduced compared to those of the SHAM group (p<0.05). Also the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and the parvalbumin immunoreactivities of both EDL and gastrocnemius were decreased in the PM-0 group. In contrast the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly increased compared with PM-0 group (p<0.05). In addition, the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and parvalbumin immunoreactivity of both the EDL and gastrocnemius were increased in the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group. In addition the extract of Pueraria mirifica replacement group at 50 and 500 mg/kg had significantly increased parvalbumin levels in the EDL muscle but in the gastrocnemius, only the dose of 500 mg/kg increased the parvalbumin levels (p<0.05). These results have demonstrated that the use of the Pueraria mirifica extract as a replacement therapy for estrogen produced estrogenic activity that was similar to that produced by the estradiol benzoate replacement. It seems that the phytoestrogens could bind with the estrogen receptors and stimulate the transcriptional activity to synthesise muscle protein that caused an increase in muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. Thus, muscle synthesis may restore parvalbumin levels resulting in an enhanced relaxation efficiency that would lead to a shortened latent period before the next contraction.

Keywords: Puereria mirifica, Parvalbumin, estrogen, ovariectomized rats

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239 Lymphomas as Estrogen-Regulated Cancers

Authors: M. S. Hasni, J. Guan, K. Yakimchuk, M. Berglund, B. Sander, G. Enblad, R. M. Amini, S. Okret


Lymphomas are generally not considered as endocrine-related cancers. However, most lymphoid malignancies show gender differences in incidence and show prognosis with males being more affected. Furthermore, some epidemiological data indicate a protective role of estrogens against Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies have demonstrated estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to be the major ER expressed in normal and malignant cells of lymphoid origin. We have analyzed the effects of estradiol and selective ERα and ERβ agonists on lymphoma growth in culture and in vivo. Treating lymphoma cells with estradiol or ERα selective agonist had minor or no effect on cell growth while selective ERβ agonist treatment showed an antiproliferative effect. When grafting mice with murine T lymphoma cells, male mice developed larger tumors compared to female mice, a difference that was abolished following ovariectomy, demonstrating estrogen-dependent growth in vivo. When subcutaneously grafting lymphoma cells to mice, so far growth of all tested human B lymphoma tumors (Raji and Ramos Burkitt lymphoma, SU.DHL4 (GC) and U2932 (ABC) DLBCL, Granta-519, Maver1 and Z138 MCL cells), were reduced following treatment with ERβ selective agonist (ref. 2 and unpublished). Moreover, the number and size of liver foci of disseminating Raji cells was reduced. We have identified target genes and mechanism that could explain the above effects of ERβ agonists. This included effects on angio and lymphangiogenesis. Now we have further analyzed effects of ERβ agonists on Ibrutinib-sensitive and -insensitive MCL cells in xenograft experiments as well as ERβ expression in primary lymphoma material (DLBCL). Preliminary statistical analysis has been done correlating ERβ expression to other biomarkers and clinical data.

Keywords: lymphomas, estrogen receptors, cancer, liver foci

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238 Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Inhibits by INT3 & Quercetin in MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, S. Pradhan


Objectives: Imperviousness gainst estrogen treatments is a noteworthy reason for infection backslide and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast diseases. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal builds the reliance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 flagging. Here, we researched the commitment of Quercetin and INT3 motioning in endocrine-safe breast tumor cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine treatments safe (ETR) breast tumor: Tamoxifen-safe (TamR) and long haul estrogen-denied (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the transitory and intrusive limit of these cells by Transwell cells. Articulation of epithelial to mesenchymal move (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by constant PCR and western smudge investigation. Besides, we tried in-vitro hostile to Quercetin monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) and Gamma Secretase Inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT inversion remedial specialists. At last, we created stable Quercetin overexpressing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT components and reaction to Tamoxifen. Results: We found that ETR cells procured an Epithelial to Mesenchymal move (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we distinguished more elevated amount of INT3 however lower levels of INT1 and INT3 proposing a change to motioning through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Against Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were powerful in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 pivot and in part repressing the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell relocation and attack were weakened and the immature microorganism like populace was essentially decreased. Hereditary hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. At long last, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to Tamoxifen by INT3 initiation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives intrusive conduct. Hostile to Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen articulation of EMT particles decreasing cell obtrusiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates Tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and INT3 warrants further clinical Correlation as substantial restorative methodologies in endocrine-safe breast.

Keywords: endocrine, epithelial, mesenchymal, INT3, quercetin, MCF7

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237 Quercetin and INT3 Inhibits Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: S. Pradhan, D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy


Anti-estrogen treatment resistant is a noteworthy reason for disease relapse and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast cancers. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal increases the dependance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 signaling. Here, we researched the contribution of Quercetin and INT3 signaling in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine therapies resistant (ETR-) breast cancer: tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) and long term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the migratory and invasive limit of these cells by Transwell assay. Expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Besides, we tried in vitro anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT reversal therapeutic agents. At last, we created stable Quercetin over expessing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT features and response to tamoxifen. Results:We found that ETR cells acquired an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we detected higher level of INT3 however lower levels of INT31 and INT32 proposing a switch to targeting through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were effective in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 axis and in part inhibiting the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell migration and invasion were weakened and the stem cell like population was considerably decreased. Genetic hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. Finally, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to tamoxifen by INT3 activation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives invasive conduct. Anti-Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen expression of EMT molecules decreasing cellular invasiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and/or INT3 warrants further clinical assessment as substantial therapeutic methodologies in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Keywords: quercetin, INT3, mesenchymal transition, MCF7 breast cancer cells

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236 Prognostic Value of Tumor Markers in Younger Patients with Breast Cancer

Authors: Lola T. Alimkhodjaeva, Lola T. Zakirova, Soniya S. Ziyavidenova


Background: Breast cancer occupies the first place among the cancer in women in the world. It is urgent today to study the role of molecular markers which are capable of predicting the dynamics and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study is to define the prognostic value of the content of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and amplification of HER-2 / neu oncoprotein by studying 3 and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival in 470 patients with primary operable and 280 patients with locally–advanced breast cancer. Materials and methods: Study results of 3 and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival, depending on the content of RE, PgR in primary operable patients showed that ER positive (+) and PgR (+) survival was 100 (96.2%) and 97.3 (94.6%), for ER negative (-) and PgR (-) - 69.2 (60.3%) and 65.4 (57.7%), for ER positive (+) and negative PgR (-) 87.4 (80.1%) and 81.5 (79.3%), for ER negative (-) and positive PgR (+) - 97.4 (93.4%) and 90.4 (88.5%), respectively. Survival results depended also on the level of HER-2 / neu expression. In patients with HER-2 / neu negative the survival rates were as follows: 98.6 (94.7%) and 96.2 (92.3%). In group of patients with the level of HER-2 / neu (2+) expression these figures were: 45.3 (44.3%) and 45.1 (40.2%), and in group of patients with the level of HER-2 / neu (3+) expression - 41.2 (33.1%) and 34.3 (29.4%). The combination of ER negative (-), PgR (-), HER-2 / neu (-) they were 27.2 (25.4%) and 19.5 (15.3%), respectively. In patients with locally-advanced breast cancer the results of 3 and 5-year OS and RFS for ER (+) and PgR (+) were 76.3 (69.3%) and 62.2 (61.4%), for ER (-) and RP (-) 29.1 (23.7%) and 18.3 (12.6%), for ER (+) and PgR (-) 61.2 (47.2%) and 39.4 (25.6%), for ER (-) and PgR (+) 54.3 (43.1%) and 41.3 (18.3%), respectively. The level of HER-2 / neu expression also affected the survival results. Therefore, in HER-2/ neu negative patients the survival rate was 74.1 (67.6%) and 65.1 (57.3%), with the level of expression (2+) 20.4 (14.2%) and 8.6 (6.4%), with the level of expression (3+) 6.2 (3.1%) and 1.2 (1.5%), respectively. The combination for ER, PgR, HER-2 / neu negative was 22.1 (14.3%) and 8.4 (1.2%). Conclusion: Thus, the presence of steroid hormone receptors in breast tumor tissues at primary operable and locally- advanced process as the lack of HER-2/neu oncoprotein correlates with the highest rates of 3- and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival. The absence of steroid hormone receptors as well as of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant breast tissues significantly degrades the 3- and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival. Tumors with ER, PgR and HER-2/neu negative have the most unfavorable prognostics.

Keywords: breast cancer, estrogen receptor, oncoprotein, progesterone receptor

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235 Modulation of Alternative Respiration Pathyway under Salt Stress in Exogenous Estrogen-Treated Maize Seedlings

Authors: Farideh K. Khosroushahi, Serkan Erdal, Mucip Geni̇şel


Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors that restricts arable land and reduces crop productivity worldwide. High salt concentration adversely affects plant growth and development inducing water deficit, ionic toxicity, nutrient imbalance, and lead to oxidative stress. Although the stimulating role of mammalian sex hormones on various biological and biochemical processes under normal and stress condition have been proven, there is no study regarding with these hormone's effect on modulation of the alternative respiration pathway and AOX gene expression. In this study, changes in alternative respiration pathway in leaves of maize seedlings under salinity and the possible modulating effect of estrogen on these changes were investigated. Maize seedlings were grown in a hydroponic media for 11 days and then were exposed to salt stress for 3 days after being sprayed estrogen. The data obtained from oxygen consumption revealed that salt stress elevated cellular respiration value in the leaves. In addition, a marked increase was observed at alternative respiration level in salt-stressed seedlings. Compared to salt application alone, supplementation with estrogen resulted in a significant rise in alternative oxidase (AOX) activities. Similarly, while salt stress caused to rise in expressions of AOX gene compared to control seedlings, estrogen application resulted in further activation of these genes’ expression compared to stressed-seedlings alone. These data revealed that mitigating role of estrogen against the detrimental effects of salt stress is linked to modulation of alternative respiration pathway.

Keywords: alternative oxidase, estrogen, Ssalt stress, AOX, maize

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234 Correlation of Leptin with Clinico-Pathological Features of Breast Cancer

Authors: Saad Al-Shibli, Nasser Amjad, Muna Al Kubaisi, Norra Harun, Shaikh Mizan


Leptin is a multifunctional hormone produced mainly by adipocyte. Leptin and its receptor have long been found associated with breast cancer. The main aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between Leptin/Leptin receptor and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Blood samples for ELISA, tissue samples from tumors and adjacent breast tissue were taken from 51 women with breast cancer with a control group of 40 women with a negative mammogram. Leptin and Leptin receptor in the tissues were estimated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). They were localized at the subcellular level by immunocytochemistry using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed significant difference in serum leptin level between control and the patient group, but no difference between pre and post-operative serum leptin levels in the patient group. By IHC, we found that the majority of the breast cancer cells studied, stained positively for leptin and leptin receptors with co-expression of leptin and its receptors. No significant correlation was found between leptin/leptin receptors expression with the race, menopausal status, lymph node metastasis, estrogen receptor expression, progesterone receptor expression, HER2 expression and tumor size. Majority of the patients with distant metastasis were associated with high leptin and leptin receptor expression. TEM views both Leptin and Leptin receptor were found highly concentrated within and around the nucleus of the cancer breast cells, indicating nucleus is their principal seat of actions while the adjacent breast epithelial cells showed that leptin gold particles are scattered all over the cell with much less than that of the cancerous cells. However, presence of high concentration of leptin does not necessarily prove its over-expression, because it could be internalized from outside by leptin receptor in the cells. In contrast, leptin receptor is definitely over-expressed in the ductal breast cancer cells. We conclude that reducing leptin levels, blocking its downstream tissue specific signal transduction, and/or blocking the upstream leptin receptor pathway might help in prevention and therapy of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, expression, leptin, leptin receptors

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233 A Ferutinin Analogue with Enhanced Potency and Selectivity against Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cells in vitro

Authors: Remi Safi, Aline Hamade, Najat Bteich, Jamal El Saghir, Mona Diab Assaf, Marwan El-Sabban, Fadia Najjar


Estrogen is considered a risk factor for breast cancer since it promotes breast-cell proliferation. The jaesckeanadiol-3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoate, a hemi-synthetic analogue of the natural phytoestrogen ferutinin (jaesckeanadiol-p-hydroxybenzoate), is designed to be devoid of estrogenic activity. This analogue induces a cytotoxic effect 30 times higher than that of ferutinin towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. We compared these two compounds with respect to their effect on proliferation, cell cycle distribution and cancer stem-like cells in the MCF-7 cell line. Treatment with ferutinin (30 μM) and its analogue (1 μM) produced a significant accumulation of cells at the pre G0/G1 cell cycle phase and triggered apoptosis. Importantly, this compound retains its anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer stem/progenitor cells that are naturally insensitive to ferutinin at the same dose. These results position ferutinin analogue as an effective compound inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells and consistently targeting their stem-like cells.

Keywords: ferutinin, hemi-synthetic analogue, breast cancer, estrogen, stem/progenitor cells

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232 The Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Xbai Gg Genotype and Severe Preeclampsia

Authors: Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi, Ehsan Tabatabaei, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari


Purpose: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an essential role in the adaptation of increased uterine blood flow during gestation. Therefore ERα gene could be a possible candidate for preeclampsia(PE) susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association of the ERα gene polymorphisms and PE in an Iranian population. Methods: One hundred ninety-two pregnant women with PE and 186 normotensive women were genotyped for ERα gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of alleles and genotypes of ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were not different between PE and normotensive control women. However, higher frequency of GG genotype was observed in women with severe PE compared to mild PE (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02) and in severe PE compared to normotensive women [OR= 1.8(1.1-3), P=0.02] after adjusting for age, ethnicity and primiparity. Conclusions: The GG genotype of ERα XbaI polymorphism could be a genetic risk factor for PE predisposition.

Keywords: estrogen receptor-α, polymorphism, gene, preeclampsia

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231 Effect of Synchronization Protocols on Serum Concentrations of Estrogen and Progesterone in Holstein Dairy Heifers

Authors: K. Shafiei, A. Pirestani, G. Ghalamkari, S. Safavipour


Use of GnRH or its agonists to increase conception rates should be based on an understanding of GnRH-induced biological effects on the reproductive-endocrine system. This effect may occur through GnRH-stimulated LH surge stimulating production of progesterone by corpus luteum.the aim of this study was to compare the effects on reproductive efficiency of a luteolytic dose of a synthetic prostaglandin Cloprostenol Sodium versus ainjectable progesterone and Luliberin- A on Follicle estrogen and progesterone levels.In this study, we used45 head of holstein dairy heifersin the three treatments, with 15 replicates per treatment were performed in random groups. all the heifers before the projects is began in two steps injection 3 mL CloprostenolSodium with an interval of 11 days been synchronized and 10 days later, second injection of prostaglandin was conducted after that we started below protocol:Control group (daily sodium chloride serum injection 1 cc), Group B: Day Zero, intramuscular injection of 15 mg Luliberin- A + every other day injection of 3 cc progesterone + day 7, injection of Cloprostenol Sodium+ day 9, injection of 15 mg Luliberin- A.Group C: similar to Grop B + daily injection of progesterone after that blood samples was collected and centrifuged.plasma were analysed by ELISA.the analysis of this study uses SPSS data software package and compared between the mean and LS Means LSD test at 5% significance level was used.The results of this study shows that maximum of progesterone plasma levels were in the control gruop (P ≥ 0.05).Therefore, daily injection of progesterone inhibit the growth CL. the most estrogen levels in plasma were in Group C (P ≥ 0.05) thus it can be concluded, rise in endogenous estrogen concentrations normally stimulates the preovulatory LH release in heifers.

Keywords: Luliberin- A, Cloprostenol Sodium, estrogen, progesterone, dairy heifers

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230 A Computational Approach for the Prediction of Relevant Olfactory Receptors in Insects

Authors: Zaide Montes Ortiz, Jorge Alberto Molina, Alejandro Reyes


Insects are extremely successful organisms. A sophisticated olfactory system is in part responsible for their survival and reproduction. The detection of volatile organic compounds can positively or negatively affect many behaviors in insects. Compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonium, indol, and lactic acid are essential for many species of mosquitoes like Anopheles gambiae in order to locate vertebrate hosts. For instance, in A. gambiae, the olfactory receptor AgOR2 is strongly activated by indol, which accounts for almost 30% of human sweat. On the other hand, in some insects of agricultural importance, the detection and identification of pheromone receptors (PRs) in lepidopteran species has become a promising field for integrated pest management. For example, with the disruption of the pheromone receptor, BmOR1, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the sensitivity to bombykol was completely removed affecting the pheromone-source searching behavior in male moths. Then, the detection and identification of olfactory receptors in the genomes of insects is fundamental to improve our understanding of the ecological interactions, and to provide alternatives in the integrated pests and vectors management. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose a bioinformatic workflow to enhance the detection and identification of potential olfactory receptors in genomes of relevant insects. Applying Hidden Markov models (Hmms) and different computational tools, potential candidates for pheromone receptors in Tuta absoluta were obtained, as well as potential carbon dioxide receptors in Rhodnius prolixus, the main vector of Chagas disease. This study showed the validity of a bioinformatic workflow with a potential to improve the identification of certain olfactory receptors in different orders of insects.

Keywords: bioinformatic workflow, insects, olfactory receptors, protein prediction

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229 Molecular Docking Analysis of Flavonoids Reveal Potential of Eriodictyol for Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: Nicole C. Valdez, Vincent L. Borromeo, Conrad C. Chong, Ahmad F. Mazahery


Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, where the majority of cases are estrogen-receptor positive and involve 2 receptor proteins. The binding of estrogen to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) promotes breast cancer growth, while it's binding to estrogen-receptor beta (ERβ) inhibits tumor growth. While natural products have been a promising source of chemotherapeutic agents, the challenge remains in finding a bioactive compound that specifically targets cancer cells, minimizing side effects on normal cells. Flavonoids are natural products that act as phytoestrogens and induce the same response as estrogen. They are able to compete with estrogen for binding to ERα; however, it has a higher binding affinity for ERβ. Their abundance in nature and low toxicity make them a potential candidate for breast cancer treatment. This study aimed to determine which particular flavonoids can specifically recognize ERβ and potentially be used for breast cancer treatment through molecular docking. A total of 206 flavonoids comprised of 97 isoflavones and 109 flavanones were collected from ZINC15, while the 3D structures of ERβ and ERα were obtained from Protein Data Bank. These flavonoid subclasses were chosen as they bind more strongly to ERs due to their chemical structure. The structures of the flavonoid ligands were converted using Open Babel, while the estrogen receptor protein structures were prepared using Autodock MGL Tools. The optimal binding site was found using BIOVIA Discovery Studio Visualizer before docking all flavonoids on both ERβ and ERα through Autodock Vina. Genistein is a flavonoid that exhibits anticancer effects by binding to ERβ, so its binding affinity was used as a baseline. Eriodictyol and 4”,6”-Di-O-Galloylprunin both exceeded genistein’s binding affinity for ERβ and was lower than its binding affinity for ERα. Of the two, eriodictyol was pursued due to its antitumor properties on a lung cancer cell line and on glioma cells. It is able to arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase by inhibiting the mTOR/PI3k/Akt cascade and is able to induce apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway. Protein pathway and gene analysis were also conducted using ChEMBL and PANTHER and it was shown that eriodictyol might induce anticancer effects through the ROS1, CA7, KMO, and KDM1A genes which are involved in cell proliferation in breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and other diseases. The high binding affinity of eriodictyol to ERβ, as well as its potential affected genes and antitumor effects, therefore, make it a candidate for the development of new breast cancer treatment. Verification through in vitro experiments such as checking the upregulation and downregulation of genes through qPCR and checking cell cycle arrest using a flow cytometry assay is recommended.

Keywords: breast cancer, estrogen receptor, flavonoid, molecular docking

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228 Toward Understanding the Glucocorticoid Receptor Network in Cancer

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Mattia Lauriola, Yuval Gilad, Adi Kimchi, Yosef Yarden


The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been proposed to play important, but incompletely understood roles in cancer. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as co-medication of various carcinomas, due to their ability to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. Furthermore, GR antagonism has proven to be a strategy to treat triple negative breast cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer. These observations suggest differential GR involvement in cancer subtypes. The goal of our study has been to elaborate the current understanding of GR signaling in tumor progression and metastasis. Our study involves two cellular models, non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) and Ewing sarcoma cells (CHLA9). In our breast cell model, the results indicated that the GR agonist dexamethasone inhibits EGF-induced mammary cell migration, and this effect was blocked when cells were stimulated with a GR antagonist, namely RU486. Microarray analysis for gene expression revealed that the mechanism underlying inhibition involves dexamenthasone-mediated repression of well-known activators of EGFR signaling, alongside with enhancement of several EGFR’s negative feedback loops. Because GR mainly acts primarily through composite response elements (GREs), or via a tethering mechanism, our next aim has been to find the transcription factors (TFs) which can interact with GR in MCF10A cells.The TF-binding motif overrepresented at the promoter of dexamethasone-regulated genes was predicted by using bioinformatics. To validate the prediction, we performed high-throughput Protein Complementation Assays (PCA). For this, we utilized the Gaussia Luciferase PCA strategy, which enabled analysis of protein-protein interactions between GR and predicted TFs of mammary cells. A library comprising both nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, GR) and TFs was fused to fragments of GLuc, namely GLuc(1)-X, X-GLuc(1), and X-GLuc(2), where GLuc(1) and GLuc(2) correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of the luciferase gene.The resulting library was screened, in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, for all possible interactions between nuclear receptors and TFs. By screening all of the combinations between TFs and nuclear receptors, we identified several positive interactions, which were strengthened in response to dexamethasone and abolished in response to RU486. Furthermore, the interactions between GR and the candidate TFs were validated by co-immunoprecipitation in MCF10A and in CHLA9 cells. Currently, the roles played by the uncovered interactions are being evaluated in various cellular processes, such as cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. In conclusion, our assay provides an unbiased network analysis between nuclear receptors and other TFs, which can lead to important insights into transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors in various diseases, in this case of cancer.

Keywords: epidermal growth factor, glucocorticoid receptor, protein complementation assay, transcription factor

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227 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova


Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data ( The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cell migration, decoy receptor, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

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226 The Effect of Malaria Parasitaemia on Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels of Asymptomatic HIV Subjects in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Rosemary Adanma Analike, Adesuwa Peace Eidangbe


This study was designed to assess the effect of malaria parasitaemia on serum reproductive hormone levels of asymptomatic HIV adult subjects. A total of 271 participants aged between 17 and 58 ears were conveniently recruited. 135 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects participated in the study; 67 of them had malaria parasitaemia. 136 HIV seropositive control subjects, 68 of them had malaria parasitaemia. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the determination of HIV status by immunoassay and immunochromatography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay for serum LH, FSH, Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and PSA levels, CD4+T cell counts by Cyflow method, thick and thin films determination of malaria parasitaemia count and density by WHO. Student's t-tests and ANOVA were used to compare means. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed significant differences in serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone amongst the groups at P<0.05, respectively. The serum levels of LH, FSH, and PSA were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects than in asymptomatic HIV subjects with malaria parasitaemia (P<0.05 in each case). Also, the serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, and progesterone were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects compared with malaria-infected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, respectively). The mean MP counts and MP density were significantly higher in asymptomatic HIV subjects compared to HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). The mean serum levels of testosterone were significantly lower in both malaria-infected and malaria uninfected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). In conclusion, Malaria and HIV co-infection might increase the burden of hypogonadism as well as primary testicular failure, hyperprogesteronaemia, elevated levels of estrogen, and PSA in adult males asymptomatic HIV subjects.

Keywords: malaria parasitaemia, HIV, CD4, reproductive hormones

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225 Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Dependent CREB Activation is Required for the Induction of Aromatase in Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer

Authors: Ji Hye Im, Nguyen T. T. Phuong, Keon Wook Kang


Estrogens are important for the development and growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, for which anti-estrogen therapy is one of the most effective treatments. However, its efficacy can be limited by either de novo or acquired resistance. Aromatase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens, and inhibition of this enzyme leads to profound hypoestrogenism. Here, we found that the basal expression and activity of aromatase were significantly increased in tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant human breast cancer (TAMR-MCF-7) cells compared to control MCF-7 cells. We further revealed that aromatase immunoreactivity in tumor tissues was increased in recurrence group after TAM therapy compared to non-recurrence group after TAM therapy. Phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase were all increased in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed the transactivation of the aromatase gene and its enzyme activity. Furthermore, we have also shown that PI3K/Akt-dependent cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) activation was required for the enhanced expression of aromatase in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that aromatase expression is up-regulated in TAM-resistant breast cancer via PI3K/Akt-dependent CREB activation.

Keywords: TAMR-MCF-7, CREB, estrogen receptor, aromatase

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224 Distribution of Putative Dopaminergic Neurons and Identification of D2 Receptors in the Brain of Fish

Authors: Shweta Dhindhwal


Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of all vertebrates and plays an important role in many processes such as motor function, learning and behavior, and sensory activity. One of the important functions of dopamine is release of pituitary hormones. It is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Two types of dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like, have been reported in fish. The dopamine containing neurons are located in the olfactory bulbs, the ventral regions of the pre-optic area and tuberal hypothalamus. Distribution of the dopaminergic system has not been studied in the murrel, Channa punctatus. The present study deals with identification of D2 receptors in the brain of murrel. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using partial sequence of D2 receptor. Distribution of putative dopaminergic neurons in the brain has been investigated. Also, formalin induced hypertrophy of neurosecretory cells in murrel has been studied.

Keywords: dopamine, fish, pre-optic area, murrel

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223 In-silico Analysis of Plumbagin against Cancer Receptors

Authors: Arpita Roy, Navneeta Bharadvaja


Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. It is one of the most serious diseases on which extensive research work has been going on all over the world. Structure-based drug designing is a computational approach which helps in the identification of potential leads that can be used for the development of a drug. Plumbagin is a naphthoquinone derivative from Plumbago zeylanica roots and belongs to one of the largest and diverse groups of plant metabolites. Anticancer and antiproliferative activities of plumbagin have been observed in animal models as well as in cell cultures. Plumbagin shows inhibitory effects on multiple cancer-signaling proteins; however, the binding mode and the molecular interactions have not yet been elucidated for most of these protein targets. In this investigation, an attempt to provide structural insights into the binding mode of plumbagin against four cancer receptors using molecular docking was performed. Plumbagin showed minimal energy against targeted cancer receptors, therefore suggested its stability and potential towards different cancers. The least binding energies of plumbagin with COX-2, TACE, and CDK6 are -5.39, -4.93, -and 4.81 kcal/mol, respectively. Comparison studies of plumbagin with different receptors showed that it is a promising compound for cancer treatment. It was also found that plumbagin obeys the Lipinski’s Rule of 5 and computed ADMET properties which showed drug likeliness and improved bioavailability. Since plumbagin is from a natural source, it has reduced side effects, and these results would be useful for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, receptor, plumbagin, docking

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222 Influence of Menstrual Cycle on the Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics

Authors: Sandhyarani Guggilla


For several reasons no two individuals can be considered identical and hence individualization of therapy is the current trend in treating the patients. Influence of menstrual cycle on the pharmacokinetics of Doxycycline. Twelve healthy female volunteers have been included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. The age ranged from 16 to 25 years. Experimental design: The volunteer selection and recruitment will be carried out after obtaining informed consent from each volunteer. The drug administration will be done to each volunteer at 7 a.m along with a glass of water after an overnight fasting on 3rd, 13th and 23rd day of menstrual cycle. These saliva samples will be stored under frozen conditions until HPLC analysis. Results: In the present study the changes in estrogen levels during ovulatory phase have not shown any influence onAUCo-t of Doxycycline. Only AUCo-t of doxycycline showed an increasing trend with increasing levels of estrogen in ovulatory phase, but not in other phases. Even though the FSH levels differed significantly among volunteers during different phases FSH does not seem to influence the overall pharmacokinetic behavior of Doxycycline during different phases. The present study indicated only the trend that the hormone levels may influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of the Doxycycline. Conclusion: In the present study the changes in hormones have shown an increasing C-max, increasing AUCo-t of Doxycycline pharmacokinetics significantly in follicular phase than ovulatory and luteal phases among volunteers during different phases. In other pharmacokinetic properties like clearance, biological half-life, volume of distribution, mean residence time the change was not significant.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, doxycycline, estrogen, FSH, ovulatory phase

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221 Analysis of Autoantibodies to the S-100 Protein, NMDA, and Dopamine Receptors in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Yuri V. Bykov, V. A. Baturin


Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of the levels of autoantibodies (AAB) to the S-100 protein as well as to the dopamine and NMDA receptors in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in therapeutic remission. Materials and methods: Blood serum obtained from 42 children ages 4 to 17 years (20 boys and 22 girls) was analyzed. Twenty-one of these children had a diagnosis of type 1 DM and were in therapeutic remission (study group). The mean duration of disease in children with type 1 DM was 9.6±0.36 years. Children without DM were included in a group of "apparently healthy children" (21 children, comparison group). AAB to the S-100 protein, the dopamine, and NMDA receptors were measured by ELISA. The normal range of IgG AAB was specified as up to 10 µg/mL. In order to compare the central parameters of the groups, the following parametric and non-parametric methods were used: Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance for inter-group comparisons was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean levels of AAB to the S-100B protein were significantly higher (p=0.0045) in children with DM (16.84±1.54 µg/mL) when compared with "apparently healthy children" (2.09±0.05 µg/mL). The detected elevated levels of AAB to NMDA receptors may indicate that in children with type 1 DM, there is a change in the activity of the glutamatergic system, which in its turn suggests the presence of excitotoxicity. The mean levels of AAB to dopamine receptors were higher (p=0.0082) in patients comprising the study group than in the children of the comparison group (40.47±2.31 µg/mL and 3.91±0.09 µg/mL). The detected elevated levels of AAB to dopamine receptors suggest an altered activity of the dopaminergic system in children with DM. This can also be viewed as indirect evidence of altered activity of the brain's glutamatergic system. The mean levels of AAB to NMDA receptors were higher in patients with type 1 DM compared with the "apparently healthy children," at 13.16±2.07 µg/mL and 1.304±0.05 µg/mL, respectively (p=0.0021). The elevated mean levels of AAB to the S-100B protein may indicate damage to brain tissue in children with type 1 DM. A difference was also detected between the mean values of the measured AABs, and this difference depended on the duration of the disease: mean AAB values were significantly higher in patients whose disease had lasted more than five years. Conclusions: The elevated mean levels of AAB to the S-100B protein may indicate damage to brain tissue in the setting of excitotoxicity in children with type 1 DM. The discovered elevation of the levels of AAB to NMDA and dopamine receptors may indicate the activation of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems. The observed abnormalities indicate the presence of central nervous system damage in children with type 1 DM, with a tendency towards the elevation of the levels of the studied AABs with disease progression.

Keywords: autoantibodies, brain damage, children, diabetes mellitus

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220 Exploring the Role of Immune-Modulators in Pathogen Recognition Receptor NOD2 Mediated Protection against Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Junaid Jibran Jawed, Prasanta Saini, Subrata Majumdar


Background: Leishmania donovani infection causes severe host immune-suppression through the modulation of pathogen recognition receptors. Apart from TLRs (Toll Like Receptor), recent studies focus on the important contribution of NLR (NOD-Like Receptor) family member NOD1 and NOD2 as these receptors are capable of triggering host innate immunity. The aim of this study was to decipher the role of NOD1/NOD2 receptors during experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and the important link between host failure and parasite evasion strategy. Method: The status of NOD1 and NOD2 receptors were analysed in uninfected and infected cells through western blotting and RT-PCR. The active contributions of these receptors in reducing parasite burden were confirmed by siRNA mediated silencing, and over-expression studies and the parasite numbers were calculated through microscopic examination of the Giemsa-stained slides. In-vivo studies were done by using non-toxic dose of Mw (Mycobacterium indicus pranii), Ara-LAM(Arabinoasylated lipoarabinomannan) along with MDP (Muramyl dipeptide) administration. Result: Leishmania donovani infection of the macrophages reduced the expression of NOD2 receptors whereas NOD1 remain unaffected. MDP, a NOD2-ligand, treatment during over-expression of NOD2, reduced the parasite burden effectively which was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine generation and NO production. In experimental mouse model, Ara-LAM treatment increased the expression of NOD2 and in combination with MDP it showed active therapeutic potential against VL and found to be more effective than Mw which was already reported to be involved in NOD2 modulation. Conclusion: This work explores the essential contribution of NOD2 during experimental VL and mechanistic understanding of Ara-LAM + MDP combination therapy to work against this disease and highlighted NOD2 as an essential therapeutic target.

Keywords: Ara-LAM (Arabinoacylated Lipoarabinomannan), NOD2 (nucleotide binding oligomerization receptor 2), MDP (muramyl di peptide), visceral Leishmaniasis

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219 On the Thermodynamics of Biological Cell Adhesion

Authors: Ben Nadler


Cell adhesion plays a vital role in many cell activities. The motivation to model cell adhesion is to study important biological processes, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, tissue formation, and cell adhesion, which are very challenging to study by experimental methods alone. This study provides important insight into cell adhesion, which can lead to improve regenerative medicine and tissue formation techniques. In this presentation the biological cells adhesion is mediated by receptors–ligands binding and the diffusivity of the receptor on the cell membrane surface. The ability of receptors to diffuse on the cell membrane surface yields a very unique and complicated adhesion mechanism, which is exclusive to cells. The phospholipid bilayer, which is the main component in the cell membrane, shows fluid-like behavior associated with the molecules’ diffusivity. The biological cell is modeled as a fluid-like membrane with negligible bending stiffness enclosing the cytoplasm fluid. The in-plane mechanical behavior of the cell membrane is assumed to depend only on the area change, which is motivated by the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer. In addition, the presence of receptors influences on the local mechanical properties of the cell membrane is accounted for by including stress-free area change, which depends on the receptor density. Based on the physical properties of the receptors and ligands the attraction between the receptors and ligands is modeled as a charged-nonpolar which is a noncovalent interaction. Such interaction is a short-range type, which decays fast with distance. The mobility of the receptor on the cell membrane is modeled using the diffusion equation and Fick’s law is used to model the receptor–receptor interactions. The resultant interaction force, which includes receptor–ligand and receptor–receptor interaction, is decomposed into tangential part, which governs the receptor diffusion, and normal part, which governs the cell deformation and adhesion. The formulation of the governing equations and numerical simulations will be presented. Analysis of the adhesion characteristic and properties are discussed. The roles of various thermomechanical properties of the cell, receptors and ligands on the cell adhesion are investigated.

Keywords: cell adhesion, cell membrane, receptor-ligand interaction, receptor diffusion

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218 Increased Cytolytic Activity of Effector T-Cells against Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Self-Differentiated Dendritic Cells with Down-Regulation of Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptors

Authors: Chutamas Thepmalee, Aussara Panya, Mutita Junking, Jatuporn Sujjitjoon, Nunghathai Sawasdee, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus


Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive malignancy of bile duct epithelial cells in which the standard treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy are partially effective. Many solid tumors including CCA escape host immune responses by creating tumor microenvironment and generating immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These cytokines can inhibit dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and function, leading to decreased activation and response of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for cancer cell elimination. To overcome the effects of these immunosuppressive cytokines and to increase ability of DC to activate effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we generated self-differentiated DCs (SD-DCs) with down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors for activation of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were initially transduced with lentiviral particles containing the genes encoding GM-CSF and IL-4 and then secondly transduced with lentiviral particles containing short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knock-down mRNAs of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors. The generated SD-DCs showed up-regulation of MHC class II (HLA-DR) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86), comparable to those of DCs generated by convention method. Suppression of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors on SD-DCs by specific shRNAs significantly increased levels of IFN-γ and also increased cytolytic activity of DC-activated effector T cells against CCA cell lines (KKU-213 and KKU-100), but it had little effect to immortalized cholangiocytes (MMNK-1). Thus, SD-DCs with down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors increased activation of effector T cells, which is a recommended method to improve DC function for the preparation of DC-activated effector T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, IL-10 receptor, self-differentiated dendritic cells, TGF-β receptor

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217 Cloning and Analysis of Nile Tilapia Toll-like receptors Type-3 mRNA

Authors: Abdelazeem Algammal, Reham Abouelmaatti, Xiaokun Li, Jisheng Ma, Eman Abdelnaby, Wael Elfeil


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in vertebrates. However, the fish TLRs also exhibit very distinct features and a large diversity, which is likely derived from their diverse evolutionary history and the distinct environments that they occupy. Little is known about the fish immune system structure. Our work was aimed to identify and clone the Nile tilapiaTLR-3 as a model of freshwater fish species; we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) TLR-3 and according to our knowledge, it is the first report illustrating tilapia TLR-3. The complete cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia TLR-3 was 2736 pair base and it encodes a polypeptide of 912 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that Nile tilapia TLR-3 has typical structural features and main components of proteins belonging to the TLR family. Our results illustrate a complete and functional Nile tilapia TLR-3 and it is considered an ortholog of the other vertebrate’s receptor.

Keywords: Nile tilapia, TLR-3, cloning, gene expression

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216 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj


In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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215 Heterocyclic Ring Extension of Estrone: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Fused Pyrin, Pyrimidine and Thiazole Derivatives

Authors: Rafat M. Mohareb


Several D-ring alkylated estrone analogues display exceptionally high affinity for estrogen receptors. In particular, compounds in which an E-ring is formed are known to be involved in the inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes. Such compounds also have an effect on steroid dehydrogenase activity and the ability to inhibit the detrimental action of the steroid sulfatase enzyme. Generally, E-ring extended steroids have been accessed by modification of the C17-ketone in the D-ring by either arylimine or oximino formation, addition of a carbon nucleophile or hydrazone formation. Other approaches have included ketone reduction, silyl enol ether formation or ring-closing metathesis (giving five- or six-membered E-rings). Chemical modification of the steroid D-ring provides a way to alter the functional groups, sizes and stereochemistry of the D-ring, and numerous structure-activity relationships have been established by such synthetic alterations. Steroids bearing heterocycles fused to the D-ring of the steroid nucleus have been of pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, we report on the efficient synthesis of estrone possessing pyran, pyrimidine and thiazole ring systems. This study focused on the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds which were then subjected through inhibitory evaluations towards human cancer and normal cell lines.

Keywords: estrone, heterocyclization, cytotoxicity, biomedicine

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214 Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increases IgE Receptors in Children with Asthma

Authors: A. Vijayendra Chary, R. Hemalatha


Background: Vitamin D is a potent modulator of the immune system and is involved in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased severity of asthma in children. Asthma has dramatically increased in past decades, particular in developing countries and affects up to 20% of the population. IgE and its receptors, CD23 (FcεRII) and CD 21, play an essential role in all allergic conditions. Methods: A case control study was conducted on asthma and age and sex matched control children. 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 was quantified by HPLC; CD23; and CD21 expression on B cells were performed by flow cytometry. Total Histamine, total IGE and IL-5 and IFN-γ cytokines were determined by ELISA in blood samples of bronchial asthma (n=45) and control children (n=45). Results: The mean ± SE of vitamin D was significantly (p<0.05) low in asthma children (13.6±0.54 ng/mL) than in controls (17.4 ± 0.37 ng/mL). The mean (%) ± SE of CD23 and CD21 expression on B cells were significantly (p<0.01) high in asthma (1.02±0.09; 1.67± 0.13), when compared to controls (0.24±0.01; 0.94±0.03) respectively. The mean± SE of Serum IgE and blood histamine levels in asthma children (354.52 ± 17.33 IU/mL; 53.27 ± 2.54 nM/mL) were increased (P<0.05) when compared to controls (183.12±17.62 IU/mL 39.34±4.16 nM/mL) respectively and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) was lower (P<0.01) (16.37±1.27 pg/mL) than in controls (43.34±6.21 pg/mL). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased IgE receptors CD23 and CD21 on B cells. In addition, there was preferential activation of Th2 (IL-5) and suppression of Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines in children with asthma.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, CD23, IgE, vitamin D

Procedia PDF Downloads 407