Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8010

Search results for: Vickers hardness test

8010 Synthesis Using Sintering and Characterisation of FeCrCoNiZn Alloy Using SEM and Nanoindentation

Authors: Steadyman Chikumba, Vasudeva Vereedhi Rao


This paper reports on the synthesis of FeCrCoNiZn and its characterisation using SEM and nanoindentation. The high entropy alloy FeCrCoNiZn was fabricated using spark plasma sintering at a temperature of 1100ᵒC from powders mixed for 9 hours. The powders mixture was equimolar, and the resultant microstructure had a single crystalline structure when studied under SEM. Several nano Vickers hardness measurements were taken on a polished surface etched by Nital solution. The hardness ranged from 711 Vickers to a maximum of 1773.2. The alloy FeCrCoNiZn showed a nano hardness of 1070 Vickers and a modulus of elasticity of 460.4 MPa. The process managed to fabricate a very hard material that can find applications where wear resistance is desired.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, FeCrVNiZn, nanohardness, SEM

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8009 Hardness Analysis of Samples of Friction Stir Welded Joints of (Al-Cu)

Authors: Upamanyu Majumder, Angshuman Das


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a Solid-State joining process. Unlike fusion welding techniques it does not involve operation above the melting point temperature of metals, but above the re-crystallization temperature. FSW also does not involve fusion of other material. FSW of ALUMINIUM has been commercialized and recent studies on joining dissimilar metals have been studied. Friction stir welding was introduced and patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute. For this paper, a total of nine samples each of copper and ALUMINIUM(Dissimilar metals) were welded using FSW process and Vickers Hardness were conducted on each of the samples.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), recrystallization temperature, dissimilar metals, aluminium-copper, Vickers hardness test

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8008 Microstructural Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Test

Authors: K. Jankowski, M. Pawlikowski, A. Makuch, K. Skalski


Depth-sensing indentation (DSI) or nanoindentation is becoming a more and more popular method of measuring mechanical properties of various materials and tissues at a micro-scale. This technique allows measurements without complicated sample preparation procedures which makes this method very useful. As a result of measurement force and displacement of the intender are obtained. It is also possible to determine three measures of hardness i.e. Martens hardness (HM), nanohardness (HIT), Vickers hardness (HV) and Young modulus EIT. In this work trabecular bone mechanical properties were investigated. The bone samples were harvested from human femoral heads during hip replacement surgery. Patients were of different age, sexes and stages of tissue degeneration caused by osteoarthritis. The specimens were divided into three groups. Each group contained samples harvested from patients of different range of age. All samples were investigated with the same measurement conditions. The maximum load was Pmax=500 mN and the loading rate was 500 mN/min. The tests were held without hold at the peak force. The tests were conducted with indenter Vickers tip and spherical tip of the diameter 0.2 mm. Each trabecular bone sample was tested 7 times in a close area of the same trabecula. The measured loading P as a function of indentation depth allowed to obtain hysteresis loop and HM, HIT, HV, EIT. Results for arbitrarily chosen sample are HM=289.95 ± 42.31 MPa, HIT=430.75 ± 45.37 MPa, HV=40.66 ± 4.28 Vickers, EIT=7.37 ± 1.84 GPa for Vickers tip and HM=115.19 ± 15.03 MPa, HIT=165.80 ± 19.30 MPa, HV=16.90 ± 1.97 Vickers, EIT=5.30 ± 1.31 GPa for spherical tip. Results of nanoindentation tests show that this method is very useful and is perfect for obtaining mechanical properties of trabecular bone. Estimated values of elastic modulus are similar. The differences between hardness are significant but it is a result of using two different types of tips. However, it has to be emphasised that the differences in the values of elastic modulus and hardness result from different testing protocols, anisotropy and asymmetry of the micro-samples and the hydration of bone.

Keywords: human bone, mechanical properties, nano hardness nanoindentation, trabecular bone

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8007 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Farid Yuristiawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Detty Iryani, Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, surface hardness, Vickers hardness tester

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8006 The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Hybrid Resin Composite Polymerization Using Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Deli Mona, Rafika Husni


The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lighting distance on surface hardness of light composite resin. We held laboratory experimental research with post-test only group design. The samples used are 30 disc-like hybrid composite resins with the diameter is 6 mm and the thickness is 2 mm, lighted by an LED for 20 seconds. They were divided into 3 groups, and every group was consisted by 10 samples, which were 0 mm, 2 mm, and 5 mm lighting distance group. Every samples group was treated with hardness test, Vicker Hardness Test, then analyzed with one-way ANOVA test to evaluate the effect of lighting distance differences on surface hardness of light composite resin. Statistic test result shown hardness mean change of composite renin between 0 mm and 2 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), between 0 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), and 2 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.05 significance (p<0.05). According to the result of this research, we concluded that the further lighting distance, the more surface hardness decline of hybrid composite resin.

Keywords: composite resin hybrid, tip distance, microhardness, light curing LED

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8005 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloy, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

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8004 High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of NiCrAl Bond Coat Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering as Thermal Barrier Coatings

Authors: Folorunso Omoniyi, Peter Olubambi, Rotimi Sadiku


Thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is used in both aero engines and other gas turbines to offer oxidation protection to superalloy substrate component. In the present work, it shows the ability of a new fabrication technique to develop rapidly new coating composition and microstructure. The compact powders were prepared by Powder Metallurgy method involving powder mixing and the bond coat was synthesized through the application of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at 10500C to produce a fully dense (97%) NiCrAl bulk samples. The influence of sintering temperature on the hardness of NiCrAl, done by Micro Vickers hardness tester, was investigated. And Oxidation test was carried out at 1100oC for 20h, 40h, and 100h. The resulting coat was characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Micro XRD analysis after the oxidation test revealed the formation of protective oxides and non-protective oxides.

Keywords: high-temperature oxidation, powder metallurgy, spark plasma sintering, thermal barrier coating

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8003 Novel Development on Orthopedic Prosthesis by Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite Coated on 316 L Stainless Steel

Authors: Neriman Ozada, Ebrahim Karamian, Amirsalar Khandan, Sina Ghafoorpoor Yazdi


Natural hydroxyapatite, NHA, coatings on the surface of 316 L stainless steel implants has been widely employed in order to achieve better osteoconductivity. For coating, the plasma spraying method is generally used because they ensure adhesion between the coating and the 316 L stainless steel (SS) surface. Some compounds such as zircon (ZrSiO4) is employed as an additive in an attempt to improve HA’s mechanical properties such as wear resistance and hardness. In this study wear resistance has been carried out in different chemical compositions of coating. Therefore, nanocomposites based on NHA containing of 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon were used as a coating on the SS implants. The samples consisted of NHA, derived from calf heated at 850 °C for 3 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS by plasma spray method. The results were estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were utilized to characterize the shape and size of NHA powder. Disc wear test and Vickers hardness were utilized to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The prepared NHA powder had nano-scale morphological structure with the mean crystallite size of 30-50 nm in diameter. The wear resistance are almost 320, 380, 415, and 395 m/g and hardness are approximately 376, 391, 420, 410 VHN in ceramic composite materials containing ZrSiO4. The results have been shown that the best wear resistance and hardness occurred in the sample coated by NHA/ZrSiO4 containing of 10 wt.% of zircon.

Keywords: zircon, 316 L stainless steel, wear resistance, orthopedic applications, plasma spray

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8002 Effect of Yttrium Doping on Properties of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ (Bi-2202) Cuprate Ceramics

Authors: Y. Boudjadja, A. Amira, A. Saoudel, A. Varilci, S. P. Altintas, C. Terzioglu


In this work, we report the effect of Y3+ doping on structural, mechanical and electrical properties of Bi-2202 phase. Samples of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 are elaborated in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDS spectroscopy, density, Vickers micro-hardness and resistivity measurements. A good correlation between the variations of the bulk density and the Vickers micro-hardness with doping is obtained. The SEM photograph shows that the samples are composed of grains with a flat shape that characterizes the Bi-based cuprates. Quantitative EDS analysis confirms the reduction of Ca content and the increase of Y content when x is increased. The variation of resistivity with temperature shows that only samples with x = 0, 0.025 and 0.05 present an onset transition to the superconducting state. The higher onset transition temperature is obtained for x = 0.025 and is about 93.62 K. The transition is wide and is realized in two steps confirming then the presence of the low Tc Bi-2201 phase in the samples. For x = 0.075 and 0.1, a transition to a semiconducting state is seen at low temperatures. Some physical parameters are extracted from these curves and discussed.

Keywords: Bi-2202 phase, doping, structure, mechanical and electrical properties

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8001 Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis

Authors: Alejandro Carrasco-Pena, Mahmoud Omer, Nina Orlovskaya


The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.

Keywords: failure, mechanical properties, microstructure, Raman spectroscopy

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8000 An Investigation into Mechanical Properties of Laser Fabricated 308LSi Stainless Steel Walls by Wire Feedstock

Authors: Taiwo Ebenezer Abioye, Alexis Medrano-Tellez, Peter Kayode Farayibi, Peter Kayode Oke,


Laser metal deposition by wire feedstock has been established as a process which can provide a high material deposition rate with good quality. Sound mechanical properties of the deposited parts are the pre-requisites for the real applications of this process. This paper investigates the laser metal deposition of 308LSi stainless steel wire within a process window. Single tracks and multiple layer thin-walls of 308LSi stainless steel wire were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate. The grain structures of the built walls were examined using optical microscopy. The mechanical properties of the built walls including the micro-hardness and tensile properties along the transverse and longitudinal directions were investigated using Vickers hardness tester and tensile test machine. Long columnar grains were found growing in the wall building direction (transverse) and nucleation were observed at the boundary between two deposited layers due to remelting of the previously deposited layers. The results showed that the hardness values of the deposited walls (ranging between 194 HV and 167 HV) decreased from the track-substrate interface to the top of the wall. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the wall (518 ± 7 MPa) showed dependence on wall building directions.

Keywords: laser metal deposition, ultimate tensile strength, hardness, wall, microstructure

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7999 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness and near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.


In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor Hobson Talysurf tester, micro Vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.

Keywords: hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness

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7998 Effect of Cr2O3 on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Produced Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Yasin Akgul, Fazil Husem, Memis Isik


In this study, effect of content of chromium (III) oxide on production of Al/Cr203 alloys were investigated. Experimental procedure was started with mixturing of powders in the presence of absolute ethanol, vacuum distillation technique was used for evaporation, by ultrasonic bath and mechanic stirrer. Pressing procedure was achieved by hydrolic press that has 100 tons forcing for production of 25 mm diameter compact green billets. Green bodies were sintered at 600 °C in argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis for characterization of microstructure, compression test for determination of strength and Vickers test for measuring of hardness of sintered billets were done. End of the study is concluded that, enhancement of physical and mechanical properties is observed by increasing content of chromium (III) oxide.

Keywords: aluminium, chromium (III) oxide, powder metallurgy, sintering

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7997 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi


This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: austenite, ferrite, grain size, hardness, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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7996 Investigation of Microstructure of Differently Sub-Zero Treated Vanadis 6 Steel

Authors: J. Ptačinová, J. Ďurica, P. Jurči, M Kusý


Ledeburitic tool steel Vanadis 6 has been subjected to sub-zero treatment (SZT) at -140 °C and -196 °C, for different durations up to 48 h. The microstructure and hardness have been examined with reference to the same material after room temperature quenching, by using the light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers hardness testing method. The microstructure of the material consists of the martensitic matrix with certain amount of retained austenite, and of several types of carbides – eutectic carbides, secondary carbides, and small globular carbides. SZT reduces the retained austenite amount – this is more effective at -196 °C than at -140 °C. Alternatively, the amount of small globular carbides increases more rapidly after SZT at -140 °C than after the treatment at -140 °C. The hardness of sub-zero treated material is higher than that of conventionally treated steel when tempered at low temperature. Compressive hydrostatic stresses are developed in the retained austenite due to the application of SZT, as a result of more complete martensitic transformation. This is also why the population density of small globular carbides is substantially increased due to the SZT. In contrast, the hardness of sub-zero treated samples decreases more rapidly compared to that of conventionally treated steel, and in addition, sub-zero treated material induces a loss the secondary hardening peak.

Keywords: microstructure, Vanadis 6 tool steel, sub-zero treatment, carbides

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7995 Effect of Martensite Content and Its Morphology on Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Dual Phase Steel

Authors: M. K. Manoj, V. Pancholi, S. K. Nath


Microalloyed dual phase steels have been prepared by intercritical austenitisation (ICA) treatment of normalized steel at different temperature and time. Water quenching wad carried to obtain different martensite volume fraction (MVF) in DP steels. DP steels and normalized steels have been characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and tensile properties determination. The effect of MVF and martensite morphology on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of microalloyed dual phase steels have been explained in the present work.

Keywords: dual phase steel, martensite morphology, hardness, tensile strength

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7994 Inhibition of Pipelines Corrosion Using Natural Extracts

Authors: Eman Alzahrani, Hala M. Abo-Dief, Ashraf T. Mohamed


The present work is aimed at examining carbon steel oil pipelines corrosion using three natural extracts (Eruca Sativa, Rosell and Mango peels) that are used as inhibitors of different concentrations ranging from 0.05-0.1wt. %. Two sulphur compounds are used as corrosion mediums. Weight loss method was used for measuring the corrosion rate of the carbon steel specimens immersed in technical white oil at 100ºC at various time intervals in absence and presence of the two sulphur compounds. The corroded specimens are examined using the chemical wear test, scratch test and hardness test. The scratch test is carried out using scratch loads from 0.5 Kg to 2.0 Kg. The scratch width is obtained at various scratch load and test conditions. The Brinell hardness test is carried out and investigated for both corroded and inhibited specimens. The results showed that three natural extracts can be used as environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors.

Keywords: inhibition, natural extract, oil pipelines corrosion, sulphur compounds

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7993 Investigation of the Fading Time Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Vermicular Cast Iron

Authors: Mehmet Ekici


In this study, the fading time affecting the mechanical properties and microstructures of vermicular cast iron were studied. Pig iron and steel scrap weighing about 12 kg were charged into the high-frequency induction furnace crucible and completely melted for production of vermicular cast iron. The slag was skimmed using a common flux. After fading time was set at 1. 3 and 5 minutes. In this way, three vermicular cast iron was produced that same composition but different phase structures. The microstructure of specimens was investigated, and uni-axial tensile test and the Charpy impact test were performed, and their micro-hardness measurements were done in order to characterize the mechanical behaviours of vermicular cast iron.

Keywords: vermicular cast iron, fading time, hardness, tensile test and impact test

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7992 A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content

Authors: JongWon Han, NoHoon Kim, HyoIk Ahn, HaeWoo Lee


In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.

Keywords: inconel 625, Nb content, potentiodynamic test, DL-EPR test

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7991 Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy

Authors: K. A. Mistry, I. B. Patel, A. H. Prajapati


In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported. In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.

Keywords: EDAX, hardening coefficient, micro hardness, Bi-Pb alloy

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7990 Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Microhardness of AA7039 Rods Joined by Friction Welding

Authors: H. Karakoc, A. Uzun, G. Kırmızı, H. Çinici, R. Çitak


The main objective of this investigation was to apply friction welding for joining of AA7039 rods produced by powder metallurgy. Friction welding joints were carried out using a rotational friction welding machine. Friction welds were obtained under different rotational speeds between (2700 and 2900 rpm). The friction pressure of 10 MPa and friction time of 30 s was kept constant. The cross sections of joints were observed by optical microscopy. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Vickers micro hardness measurement of the interface was evaluated using a micro hardness testing machine. Finally the results obtained were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, powder metallurgy, friction welding, microstructure

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7989 A New Correlation Between SPT-N and SSPT-N values for Various Soil Types in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Abdull Halim


The Standard Penetration Test (SPT-N) is the most common in situ test for soil investigations. The Shearing Seismic Standard Penetration Test (SSPT-N), on the other hand, is a new method using shearing wave with propagation exponent equation between the shearing wave, Vs., and hardness, N values without any need for borehole data. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained, the SSPT has found many applications such as in the field rectification buried pipe line, the acid tank settlement and foundation design analyses, and the quality control assessment. Many geotechnical regimes and properties have attempted to correlate both the SSPT and the SPT-N values. Various foundation design methods have been developed based on the outcomes of these tests. Hence, it is pertinent to correlate these tests so that either one of the test can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SSPT-N and SPT-N values for different types of cohesive soil in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected from four different sites, and the correlations were established between the hardness N values, principal stress-strain Mohr circle curve, cohesion, friction angle and vertical effective stress. A positive exponent relationship was found between the shearing wave, sVs., and the hardness N values of the soil. In general, the SSPT-N value was slightly lower than the SPT-N value due to the upper limit boundary of the soil layer.

Keywords: InsituSoil determination; shearing wave; hardness; correlation, SSPT-N, SPT-N

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7988 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys

Authors: Young Sik Kim, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10 weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of 60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.

Keywords: Mg-Zn alloy, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

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7987 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite

Authors: U. Achutha Kini, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, P. R. Prabhu, M. C. Gowri Shankar


Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.

Keywords: hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, heat treatment, pin on disc wear testing machine

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7986 Mechanical Behavior of PVD Single Layer and Multilayer under Indentation Tests

Authors: K. Kaouther, D. Hafedh, A. Ben Cheikh Larbi


Various structures and compositions thin films were deposited on 100C6 (AISI 52100) steel substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The morphological proprieties were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vickers microindentation tests were performed with a Shimadzu HMV-2000 hardness testing machine. Hardness measurement was carried out using Jonsson and Hogmark model. The results show that the coatings topography was dominated by domes and craters. Mechanical behavior and failure modes under microindentation were depending of coatings structure and composition. TiAlN multilayer showed exception in the microindentation resistance compared to TiN single layer and TiAlN/TiAlN nanolayer. Piled structure provides an increase of failure resistance and a decrease in cracks propagation.

Keywords: PVD thin films, multilayer, microindentation, cracking, damage mechanisms

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7985 Mechanical Characterization and CNC Rotary Ultrasonic Grinding of Crystal Glass

Authors: Ricardo Torcato, Helder Morais


The manufacture of crystal glass parts is based on obtaining the rough geometry by blowing and/or injection, generally followed by a set of manual finishing operations using cutting and grinding tools. The forming techniques used do not allow the obtainment, with repeatability, of parts with complex shapes and the finishing operations use intensive specialized labor resulting in high cycle times and production costs. This work aims to explore the digital manufacture of crystal glass parts by investigating new subtractive techniques for the automated, flexible finishing of these parts. Finishing operations are essential to respond to customer demands in terms of crystal feel and shine. It is intended to investigate the applicability of different computerized finishing technologies, namely milling and grinding in a CNC machining center with or without ultrasonic assistance, to crystal processing. Research in the field of grinding hard and brittle materials, despite not being extensive, has increased in recent years, and scientific knowledge about the machinability of crystal glass is still very limited. However, it can be said that the unique properties of glass, such as high hardness and very low toughness, make any glass machining technology a very challenging process. This work will measure the performance improvement brought about by the use of ultrasound compared to conventional crystal grinding. This presentation is focused on the mechanical characterization and analysis of the cutting forces in CNC machining of superior crystal glass (Pb ≥ 30%). For the mechanical characterization, the Vickers hardness test provides an estimate of the material hardness (Hv) and the fracture toughness based on cracks that appear in the indentation. Mechanical impulse excitation test estimates the Young’s Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio of the material. For the cutting forces, it a dynamometer was used to measure the forces in the face grinding process. The tests were made based on the Taguchi method to correlate the input parameters (feed rate, tool rotation speed and depth of cut) with the output parameters (surface roughness and cutting forces) to optimize the process (better roughness using the cutting forces that do not compromise the material structure and the tool life) using ANOVA. This study was conducted for conventional grinding and for the ultrasonic grinding process with the same cutting tools. It was possible to determine the optimum cutting parameters for minimum cutting forces and for minimum surface roughness in both grinding processes. Ultrasonic-assisted grinding provides a better surface roughness than conventional grinding.

Keywords: CNC machining, crystal glass, cutting forces, hardness

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7984 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Varun Mittal, Shishir Sinha


The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: bagasse fiber, composite, hardness, sodium hydroxide

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7983 Austempered Compacted Graphite Irons: Influence of Austempering Temperature on Microstructure and Microscratch Behavior

Authors: Rohollah Ghasemi, Arvin Ghorbani


This study investigates the effect of austempering temperature on microstructure and scratch behavior of the austempered heat-treated compacted graphite irons. The as-cast was used as base material for heat treatment practices. The samples were extracted from as-cast ferritic CGI pieces and were heat treated under austenitising temperature of 900°C for 60 minutes which followed by quenching in salt-bath at different austempering temperatures of 275°C, 325°C and 375°C. For all heat treatments, an austempering holding time of 30 minutes was selected for this study. Light optical microscope (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis confirmed the ausferritic matrix formed in all heat-treated samples. Microscratches were performed under the load of 200, 600 and 1000 mN using a sphero-conical diamond indenter with a tip radius of 50 μm and induced cone angle 90° at a speed of 10 μm/s at room temperature ~25°C. An instrumented nanoindentation machine was used for performing nanoindentation hardness measurement and microscratch testing. Hardness measurements and scratch resistance showed a significant increase in Brinell, Vickers, and nanoindentation hardness values as well as microscratch resistance of the heat-treated samples compared to the as-cast ferritic sample. The increase in hardness and improvement in microscratch resistance are associated with the formation of the ausferrite matrix consisted of carbon-saturated retained austenite and acicular ferrite in austempered matrix. The maximum hardness was observed for samples austempered at 275°C which resulted in the formation of very fine acicular ferrite. In addition, nanohardness values showed a quite significant variation in the matrix due to the presence of acicular ferrite and carbon-saturated retained austenite. It was also observed that the increase of austempering temperature resulted in increase of volume of the carbon-saturated retained austenite and decrease of hardness values.

Keywords: austempered CGI, austempering, scratch testing, scratch plastic deformation, scratch hardness

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7982 Effects of Applied Pressure and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Squeeze Cast Al-Si Alloy Were Examined

Authors: Mohamed Ben Amar, Henda Barhoumi, Hokia Siala, Foued Elhalouani


The present contribution consists of a purely experimental investigation on the effect of Squeeze casting on the micro structural and mechanical propriety of Al-Si alloys destined to automotive industry. Accordingly, we have proceeding, by ourselves, to all the thermal treatment consisting of solution treatment at 540°C for 8h and aging at 160°C for 4h. The various thermal treatment, have been carried out in order to monitor the processes of formation and dissolution accompanying the solid state phase transformations as well as the resulting changes in the mechanical proprieties. The examination of the micrographs of the aluminum alloys reveals the dominant presence of dendrite. Concerning the mechanical characteristic the Vickers micro-hardness curve an increase as a function of the pressure. As well as the heat treatment increase mechanical propriety such that pressure and micro hardness. The curves have been explained in terms of structural hardening resulting from the various compounds formation.

Keywords: squeeze casting, process parameters, heat treatment, ductility, microstructure

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7981 Mechanism of Failure of Pipeline Steels in Sour Environment

Authors: Abhishek Kumar


X70 pipeline steel was electrochemically charged with hydrogen for different durations in order to find crack nucleation and propagation sites. After 3 hours charging, suitable regions for crack initiation and propagation were found. These regions were studied by OM, SEM, EDS and later Vicker hardness test was done. The results brought out that HIC cracks nucleated from regions rich of inclusions and further propagated through the segregation area of some elements, such as manganese, carbon, silicon and sulfur. It is worth-mentioning that all these potential sites for crack nucleation and propagation appeared at the centre of cross section of the specimens. Additionally, cracked area has harder phase than the non-cracked area which was confirmed by hardness test.

Keywords: X70 steel, morphology of inclusions, SEM/EDS/OM, simulation, statistical data

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