Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1445

Search results for: boron removal

1445 Comparison of Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation for Boron Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Aluminium

Authors: Kartikaningsih Danis, Yao-Hui Huang


Various techniques including conventional and advanced have been employed for the boron treatment from water and wastewater. The electrocoagulation involves an electrolytic reactor for coagulation/flotation with aluminium as anode and cathode. There is aluminium as coagulant to be used for removal which may induce secondary pollution in chemical coagulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the performance between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation on boron removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of different parameters, such as pH reaction, coagulant dosage, and initial boron concentration were examined. The results show that the boron removal using chemical coagulation was lower. At the optimum condition (e.g. pH 8 and 0.8 mol coagulant dosage), boron removal efficiencies for chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation were 61% and 91%, respectively. In addition, the electrocoagulation needs no chemical reagents and makes the boron treatment easy for application.

Keywords: boron removal, chemical coagulation, aluminum, electro-coagulation

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1444 Electrocoagulation of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH for the Removal of Boron Using Nickel Foam as Sacrificial Anode

Authors: Yu-Jen Shih, Yao-Hui Hunag


Electrocoagulation (EC) using metallic nickel foam as anode and cathode for the removal of boron from solution was studied. The electrolytic parameters included pH, current density, and initial boron concentration for optimizing the EC process. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency was increased by elevating pH from 4.0 to 8.0, and then decreased at higher pH. The electrolytic efficacy was not affected by current density. In respect of energy consumption, 1.25 mA/cm2 of current density was acceptable for an effective EC of boron, while increasing boric acid from 10 to 100 ppm-B did not impair removal efficiency too much. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxide film, Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH, at specific overpotentials would result in less weight loss of anode than that predicted by the Faraday’s law. The optimal conditions under which 99.2% of boron was removed and less than 1 ppm-B remained in the electrolyte would be pH 8, four pairs of electrodes, and 1.25 mA/cm2 in 120 min as treating wastewaters containing 10 ppm-B. XRD and SEM characterization suggested that the granular crystallites of hydroxide precipitates was composed of theophrastite.

Keywords: borohydrides, hydrogen generation, NiOOH, electrocoagulation, cyclic voltammetry, boron removal

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1443 Recovery of Boron from Industrial Wastewater by Chemical Oxo-Precipitation

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Ming-Chun Yen, Jui-Yen Lin, Yu-Jen Shih


This work investigated the reclamation of boron in industrial wastewaters by a chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) technique at room temperature. In COP, the boric acid was pretreated with H₂O₂, yielding various perborate anions. Afterwards, calcium chloride was used to efficiently remove boron through precipitation of calcium perborate. The important factors included reacted pH and the molar ratio of [Ca]/[B]. Under conditions of pH 11 and [Ca]/[B] of 1, the boron concentration could be reduced immediately from 600 ppm to 50 ppm in 10 minutes. The boron removal was enhanced with a higher [Ca]/[B], which further reduced boron to 20 ppm in 10 minutes. Nevertheless, the dissolution of carbon dioxide potentially affected the efficacy of COP and increased the boron concentration after 10 minutes.

Keywords: chemical oxo-precipitation, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide

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1442 Recovery of Boron as Homogeneous Perborate Particles from Synthetic Wastewater by Integrating Chemical Oxo-Precipitation with Fluidized-Bed Homogeneous Granulation

Authors: Chiung-Chin Huang, Jui-Yen Lin, Yao-Hui Huang


Among current techniques of boron removal from wastewater with high boron concentration, chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) is one of the promising methods due to its milder condition. COP uses H2O2 to transform boric acid to perborates which can easily precipitate with barium ions at room temperature. However, the generation of the waste sludge that requires sludge/water separation and sludge dewatering is troublesome. This work presents an innovative technology which integrates chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) with fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHG) to reclaim boron as homogeneous perborate particles. By conducting COP in a fluidized-bed reactor, the barium perborate can be granulated to form homogeneous particles (>1.0 mm) with low water content (< 10%). Under the suitable condition, more than 70% of boron can be recovered from 600 ppm of boron solution and the residual boron is lower than 100 ppm.

Keywords: barium, perborate, chemical oxo-precipitation, boron removal, fluidized-bed, granulation

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1441 Dairy Wastewater Remediation Using Electrochemical Oxidation on Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

Authors: Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum’h, Abeer Albsoul, Khalideh Alrawashdeh, Dina Al Tarazi


Treated wastewater reuse has been considered recently as one of the successful management strategies to overcome water shortage in countries suffering from water scarcity. The non-readily biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater cannot be destructed by conventional treatment methods. This paper deals with the electrochemical treatment of dairy wastewater using a promising non-conventional Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) anode. During the electrochemical process, different operating parameters were investigated, such as electrolysis time, current density, supporting electrolyte, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity as well as absorbance/color. The experimental work revealed that electrochemical oxidation carried out with no added electrolyte has significantly reduced the COD, turbidity, and color (absorbance) by 72%, 76%, and 78% respectively. Results also showed that raising the current density from 5.1 mA/cm² to 7.7 mA/cm² has boosted COD, and color removal to 82.5%, and 83% respectively. However, the current density did not show any significant effect on the turbidity. Interestingly, it was observed that adding Na₂SO₄ and FeCl₃ as supporting electrolytes brought the COD removal to 91% and 97% respectively. Likewise, turbidity and color removal has been enhanced by the addition of the same supporting electrolytes.

Keywords: boron doped-diamond anode, dairy wastewater, electrochemical oxidation, supporting electrolytes

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1440 Influence of Boron Doping and Thermal Treatment on Internal Friction of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) Alloys

Authors: I. Kurashvili, G. Darsavelidze, G. Bokuchava, A. Sichinava, I. Tabatadze


The impact of boron doping on the internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature spectra of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) monocrsytals has been investigated by reverse torsional pendulum oscillations characteristics testing. At room temperatures, microhardness and indentation modulus of the same specimens have been measured by dynamic ultra microhardness tester. It is shown that boron doping causes two kinds effect: At low boron concentration (~1015 cm-3) significant strengthening is revealed, while at the high boron concentration (~1019 cm-3) strengthening effect and activation characteristics of relaxation origin IF processes are reduced.

Keywords: boron, doping, internal friction, si-ge alloys, thermal treatment

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1439 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Asim Olgun, Ali Kara, Vural Butun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek


In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeta potential, adsorption, Orange 16, isotherms

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1438 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: boron-gypsum, hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borate, solution density

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1437 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction

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1436 A Fluorescent Polymeric Boron Sensor

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Mirgul Kosif, M. Vezir Kahraman, Ece Kok Yetimoglu


Boron is an essential trace element for the completion of the life circle for organisms. Suitable methods for the determination of boron have been proposed, including acid - base titrimetric, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy flame atomic absorption and spectrophotometric. However, the above methods have some disadvantages such as long analysis times, requirement of corrosive media such as concentrated sulphuric acid and multi-step sample preparation requirements and time-consuming procedures. In this study, a selective and reusable fluorescent sensor for boron based on glycosyloxyethyl methacrylate was prepared by photopolymerization. The response characteristics such as response time, pH, linear range, limit of detection were systematically investigated. The excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 378/423 nm, respectively. The approximate response time was measured as 50 sec. In addition, sensor had a very low limit of detection which was 0.3 ppb. The sensor was successfully used for the determination of boron in water samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: boron, fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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1435 Mechanochemical Behaviour of Aluminium–Boron Oxide–Melamine Ternary System

Authors: Ismail Seckin Cardakli, Mustafa Engin Kocadagistan, Ersin Arslan


In this study, mechanochemical behaviour of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system was investigated by high energy ball milling. According to the reaction Al + B₂O₃ = Al₂O₃ + B, stochiometric amount of aluminium and boron oxide with melamine up to ten percent of total weight was used in the experiments. The powder characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after leaching of product by 1M HCl acid. Results show that mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) between aluminium and boron oxide takes place after four hours high energy ball milling. Al₂O₃/h-BN composite powder is obtained as the product of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, hexagonal boron nitride, mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, melamine

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1434 Production of Amorphous Boron Powder via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Authors: Meltem Bolluk, Ismail Duman


Boron exhibits the properties of high melting temperature (2273K to 2573 K), high hardness (Mohs: 9,5), low density (2,340 g/cm3), high chemical resistance, high strength, and semiconductivity (band gap:1,6-2,1 eV). These superior properties enable to use it in several high-tech areas from electronics to nuclear industry and especially in high temperature metallurgy. Amorphous boron and crystalline boron have different application areas. Amorphous boron powder (directly amorphous and/or α-rhombohedral) is preferred in rocket firing, airbag inflating and in fabrication of superconducting MgB2 wires. The conventional ways to produce elemental boron with a purity of 85 pct to 95 prc are metallothermic reduction, fused salt electrolysis and mechanochemical synthesis; but the only way to produce high-purity boron powders is Chemical Vapour Deposition (Hot Surface CVD). In this study; amorphous boron powders with a minimum purity of 99,9 prc were synthesized in quartz tubes using BCl3-H2 gas mixture by CVD. Process conditions based on temperature and gas flow rate were determined. Thermodynamical interpretation of BCl3-H2 system for different temperatures and molar rates were performed using Fact Sage software. The characterization of powders was examined by using Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Stereo Microscope (SM), Helium gas pycnometer analysis. The purities of final products were determined by titration after lime fusion.

Keywords: amorphous boron, CVD, powder production, powder characterization

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1433 Numerical Modelling of Surface Waves Generated by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field for Silicon Refinement Process

Authors: V. Geza, J. Vencels, G. Zageris, S. Pavlovs


One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus. Therefore, a new approach could address this problem. We propose an approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which includes coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

Keywords: numerical modelling, silicon refinement, surface waves, VOF method

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1432 Effects of Boron Compounds in Rabbits Fed High Protein and Energy Diet: A Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approach

Authors: Nuri Başpınar, Abdullah Başoğlu, Özgür Özdemir, Çağlayan Özel, FundaTerzi, Özgür Yaman


Current research is targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic disorders like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Forty New Zealand White rabbits have been used and fed a high protein (HP) and energy diet based on grains and containing 11.76 MJ/kg. Boron added to 3 experimental groups’ drinking waters (30 mg boron/L) as boron compounds. Biochemical analysis including boron levels, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics evaluation, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family were performed. LDL-cholesterol concentrations alone were decreased in all the experimental groups. Boron levels in serum and feces were increased. Content of acetate was in about 2x higher for anhydrous borax group, at least 3x higher for boric acid group. PPARα mRNA expression was significantly decreased in boric acid group. Anhydrous borax attenuated mRNA levels of PPARα, which was further suppressed by boric acid. Boron supplementation decreased the degenerative alterations in hepatocytes. Except borax group other boron groups did not have a pronounced change in tubular epithels of kidney. In conclusion, high protein and energy diet leads hepatocytes’ degenerative changes which can be prevented by boron supplementation. Boric acid seems to precede in this effectiveness.

Keywords: high protein and energy diet, boron, metabolomics, transcriptomic

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1431 Influence of Sulphur and Boron on Growth, Quality Parameters and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill)

Authors: Shital Bangar, G. B. Khandagale


The experimentation was carried out to study the influence of sulphur and boron on growth parameters and productivity of soybean in kharif season of 2009-2010 at Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M.S.). The object was to evaluate the impact of sulphur and boron on growth, development, grain yield and physiological aspects of soybean variety MAUS-81. Nine treatments consisted of three levels of sulphur i.e. 20, 30 and 40 Kg/ha as well as three levels boron i.e.10, 15 and 20 kg boron/ha and the combinations of these two mineral elements i.e. Sulphur @30 kg/ha + Borax @15 kg/ha and Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha with one control treatment in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The effect of sulphur and boron on various growth parameters of soybean like relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were remained statistically on par with each other. However, the application of higher dose of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha enhanced significantly all the growth parameters. Application of the nutrients increased the dry matter accumulation of the crop plant and hence, other growth indices like RGR and NAR also increased significantly. RGR and NAR values were recorded highest at the initial crop growth stages and decline thereafter. The application of sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha recorded significantly higher content of chlorophyll ‘a’ than rest of the treatments and chlorophyll ‘b’ observed higher in boron @15 kg/ha as well as [email protected] kg/ha, whereas total chlorophyll content was maximum in sulphur @40 kg/ha. Oil content was not influenced significantly due to above fertilization. The highest seed yield and total biological yield were obtained with combination of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha, single sulphur and boron application also showed a significant effect on seed and biological yield.

Keywords: boron, growth, productivity, quality, soybean and sulphur

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1430 Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Zih-Jie Lin


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a feasible means for decreasing the porosity of powder metallurgy (PM) Fe-based material without substantially increase the production cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.6 wt% boron on the densification of PM 304L stainless steel by LPS. The results indicated that the increase in the sintered density of 304L+0.6B steel is obvious after 1250 ºC sintering, and eutectic structures with borides are observed at the interfaces of the raw steel powders. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that liquid is generated at 1244ºC during sintering. The boride in the eutectic structure is rich in boron and chromium atoms and is deficient in nickel atoms, as identified by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the sintered densities of 304L and 304L+0.6B steels sintered at 1300 ºC are 6.99 g/cm3 and 7.69 g/cm3, respectively, indicating that boron is a suitable alloying element for facilitating LPS of PM 304L stainless steel.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, boron, microstructure

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1429 Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Yu-Jin Tsai, Ching-Huai Chang


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, martensite, boron, microstructure

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1428 Lithium Oxide Effect on the Thermal and Physical Properties of the Ternary System Glasses (Li2O3-B2O3-Al2O3)

Authors: D. Aboutaleb, B. Safi


The borate glasses are known by their structural characterized by existence of unit’s structural composed by triangles and tetrahedrons boron in different configurations depending on the percentage of B2O3 in the glass chemical composition. In this paper, effect of lithium oxide addition on the thermal and physical properties of an alumina borate glass, was investigated. It was found that the boron abnormality has a significant effect in the change of glass properties according to the addition rate of lithium oxide.

Keywords: borate glasses, triangles and tetrahedrons boron, lithium oxide, boron anomaly, thermal properties, physical properties

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1427 Effect of Alloying Elements on Particle Incorporation of Boron Carbide Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

Authors: Steven Ploetz, Andreas Lohmueller, Robert F. Singer


The outstanding performance of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) regarding stiffness/weight ratio makes AMCs attractive material for lightweight construction. Low-density boride compounds promise simultaneously an increase in stiffness and decrease in composite density. This is why boron carbide is chosen for composite manufacturing. The composites are fabricated with the stir casting process. To avoid gas entrapment during mixing and ensure nonporous composites, partial vacuum is adapted during particle feeding and stirring. Poor wettability of boron carbide with liquid aluminum hinders particle incorporation, but alloying elements such as magnesium and titanium could improve wettability and thus particle incorporation. Next to alloying elements, adapted stirring parameters and impeller geometries improve particle incorporation and enable homogenous particle distribution and high particle volume fractions of boron carbide. AMCs with up to 15 vol.% of boron carbide particles are produced via melt stirring, resulting in an increase in stiffness and strength.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, boron carbide, stiffness, stir casting

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1426 Investigation of Additives' Corrosion Inhibition Effects on Dye

Authors: Abdullah Bilal Ozturk, Nil Acarali, Hediye Irem Ozgunduz, Hava Gizem Kandilci, Hanifi Sarac


In this study, zeolite, shellac and different boron chemicals were used as additive to dye and effects were comprehensively investigated. Considering previous studies additive materials that had not used before were determined for produce dye with physical properties. Literature research about the materials provides determining easily sufficient amount of additive materials. Accessible of additives or yearly production amounts are become important issue at selection of materials. Zeolite and boron chemicals are suitable selection in that easy access and has large amount of production in our country. Previous research about boron chemicals shows they have flame retardant effect on textile materials besides numerous usage areas. Also, from previous research, shellac was used widely for protection and insulation of metallic materials. Zeolite added to dye to increase adhesive effect of dye. In this study, corrosion tests were applied to find out if there are positive effects of zeolite, shellac, and boron chemicals to dye’s physical properties.

Keywords: dye, corrosion, zeolite, shellac, boron

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1425 Graphene Based Materials as Novel Membranes for Water Desalination and Boron Separation

Authors: Francesca Risplendi, Li-Chiang Lin, Jeffrey C. Grossman, Giancarlo Cicero


Desalination is one of the most employed approaches to supply water in the context of a rapidly growing global water shortage. However, the most popular water filtration method available is the reverse osmosis (RO) technique, still suffers from important drawbacks, such as a large energy demands and high process costs. In addition some serious limitations have been recently discovered, among them, the boron problem seems to have a critical meaning. Boron has been found to have a dual effect on the living systems on Earth and the difference between boron deficiency and boron toxicity levels is quite small. The aim of this project is to develop a new generation of RO membranes based on porous graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) able to remove salts from seawater and to reduce boron concentrations in the permeate to the level that meets the drinking or process water requirements, by means of a theoretical approach based on density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics. Computer simulations have been employed to investigate the relationship between the atomic structure of nanoporous graphene or rGO monolayer and its membrane properties in RO applications (i.e. water permeability and resilience at RO pressures). In addition, an emphasis has been given to multilayer nanoporous rGO and rGO flakes based membranes. By means of non-equilibrium MD simulations, we investigated the water transport mechanism permeating through such multilayer membrane focusing on the effect of slit widths and sheet geometries. These simulations allowed us to establish the implications of these graphene based materials as promising membrane properties for desalination plants and as boron filtration.

Keywords: boron filtration, desalination, graphene membrane, reduced graphene oxide membrane

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1424 Adhesion Enhancement of Boron Carbide Coatings on Aluminum Substrates Utilizing an Intermediate Adhesive Layer

Authors: Sharon Waichman, Shahaf Froim, Ido Zukerman, Shmuel Barzilai, Shmual Hayun, Avi Raveh


Boron carbide is a ceramic material with superior properties such as high chemical and thermal stability, high hardness and high wear resistance. Moreover, it has a big cross section for neutron absorption and therefore can be employed in nuclear based applications. However, an efficient attachment of boron carbide to a metal such as aluminum can be very challenging, mainly because of the formation of aluminum-carbon bonds that are unstable in humid environment, the affinity of oxygen to the metal and the different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials that may cause internal stresses and a subsequent failure of the bond. Here, we aimed to achieving a strong and a durable attachment between the boron carbide coating and the aluminum substrate. For this purpose, we applied Ti as a thin intermediate layer that provides a gradual change in the thermal expansion coefficients of the configured layers. This layer is continuous and therefore prevents the formation of aluminum-carbon bonds. Boron carbide coatings with a thickness of 1-5 µm were deposited on the aluminum substrate by pulse-DC magnetron sputtering. Prior to the deposition of the boron carbide layer, the surface was pretreated by energetic ion plasma followed by deposition of the Ti intermediate adhesive layer in a continuous process. The properties of the Ti intermediate layer were adjusted by the bias applied to the substrate. The boron carbide/aluminum bond was evaluated by various methods and complementary techniques, such as SEM/EDS, XRD, XPS, FTIR spectroscopy and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS), in order to explore the structure, composition and the properties of the layers and to study the adherence mechanism of the boron carbide/aluminum contact. Based on the interfacial bond characteristics, we propose a desirable solution for improved adhesion of boron carbide to aluminum using a highly efficient intermediate adhesive layer.

Keywords: adhesion, boron carbide coatings, ceramic/metal bond, intermediate layer, pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

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1423 Development and Analysis of SFR Control Rod Design

Authors: Lenka Dujčíková, Laurent Buiron, Ján Haščík


The study is dedicated to safety management of SFR CAPRA core with CFV design improvements. In the case of CAPRA core, demands for reactivity control are higher than for reference core. There are two possible ways how to ensure the certain amount of negative reactivity. One option is to boost control rods worth. The Greater part of the study is aimed at the proposal of appropriate control rod design. At first, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) control rod design with high-enriched boron carbide B4C as absorber material was tested. Considering costly and difficult enrichment process, usage of natural boron carbide absorbator is desired. Obviously, the use of natural boron leads to CR worth reduction. In order to increase it to required value, moderator material was inserted inside the control rod. Various materials and geometric configurations were examined to find optimal solution corresponding with EFR based CR worth value.

Keywords: boron carbide, CAPRA core, control rod design, low void effect design, melting temperature, moderator material

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1422 Dielectric Behavior of 2D Layered Insulator Hexagonal Boron Nitride

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Yang Xu, Bin Yu


Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been used as a substrate and gate dielectric for graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). Using a graphene/h-BN/TiN (channel/dielectric/gate) stack, key material properties of h-BN were investigated i.e. dielectric strength and tunneling behavior. Work function difference between graphene and TiN results in spontaneous p-doping of graphene through a multi-layer h-BN flake. However, at high levels of current stress, n-doping of graphene is observed, possibly due to the charge transfer across the thin h-BN multi layer. Neither Direct Tunneling (DT) nor Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling (FNT) was observed in TiN/h-BN/Au hetero structures with h-BN showing two distinct volatile conduction states before breakdown. Hexagonal boron nitride emerges as a material of choice for gate dielectrics in GFETs because of robust dielectric properties and high tunneling barrier.

Keywords: graphene, transistors, conduction, hexagonal boron nitride, dielectric strength, tunneling

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1421 Removal of Nitenpyram from Farmland Runoff by an Integrated Ecological Ditches with Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Dan Qu, Dezhi Sun, Benhang Li


The removal of Nitenpyram from farmland runoff by an integrated eco-ditches and constructed wetland system was investigated in the case of different HRT. Experimental results show that the removal of COD, N and P was not influenced by the Nitenpyram. When the HRT was 2.5 d, 2 d, and 1 d, the Nitenpyram removal efficiency could reach 100%, 100% and 84%, respectively. The removal efficiency in the ecological ditches was about 38%-40% in the case of different HRT, while that in the constructed wetland was influenced by the HRT variation. The optimum HRT for Nitenpyram and pollutants removal was 2 d. The substrate zeolite with soil and hollow brick layer enabled higher Nitenpyram removal rates, probably due to the cooperative phenomenon of plant uptake and microbiological deterioration as well as the adsorption by the substrate.

Keywords: ecological ditch, vertical flow constructed wetland, hydraulic retention time, Nitenpyram

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1420 Improvement of Microstructure, Wear and Mechanical Properties of Modified G38NiCrMo8-4-4 Steel Used in Mining Industry

Authors: Mustafa Col, Funda Gul Koc, Merve Yangaz, Eylem Subasi, Can Akbasoglu


G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel is widely used in mining industries, machine parts, gears due to its high strength and toughness properties. In this study, microstructure, wear and mechanical properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel modified with boron used in the mining industry were investigated. For this purpose, cast materials were alloyed by melting in an induction furnace to include boron with the rates of 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and 50 ppm (wt.) and were formed in the dimensions of 150x200x150 mm by casting into the sand mould. Homogenization heat treatment was applied to the specimens at 1150˚C for 7 hours. Then all specimens were austenitized at 930˚C for 1 hour, quenched in the polymer solution and tempered at 650˚C for 1 hour. Microstructures of the specimens were investigated by using light microscope and SEM to determine the effect of boron and heat treatment conditions. Changes in microstructure properties and material hardness were obtained due to increasing boron content and heat treatment conditions after microstructure investigations and hardness tests. Wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Charpy V notch impact test was performed to determine the toughness properties of the specimens. Fracture and worn surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that boron element has a positive effect on the hardness and wear properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel.

Keywords: G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, wear, mechanical properties

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1419 Treatment of Leather Industry Wastewater with Advance Treatment Methods

Authors: Seval Yilmaz, Filiz Bayrakci Karel, Ali Savas Koparal


Textile products produced by leather have been indispensable for human consumption. Various chemicals are used to enhance the durability of end-products in the processing of leather products. The wastewaters from the leather industry which contain these chemicals exhibit toxic effects on the receiving environment and threaten the natural ecosystem. In this study, leather industry wastewater (LIW), which has high loads of contaminants, was treated using advanced treatment techniques instead of conventional methods. During the experiments, the performance of electrochemical methods was investigated. During the electrochemical experiments, the performance of batch electrooxidation (EO) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with monopolar configuration for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from LIW were investigated. The influences of electrolysis time, current density (which varies as 5 mA/cm², 10 mA/cm², 20 mA/cm², 30 mA/cm², 50 mA/cm²) and initial pH (which varies as 3,80 (natural pH of LIW), 7, 9) on removal efficiency were investigated in a batch stirred cell to determine the best treatment conditions. The current density applied to the electrochemical reactors is directly proportional to the consumption of electric energy, so electrical energy consumption was monitored during the experiment. The best experimental conditions obtained in electrochemical studies were as follows: electrolysis time = 60 min, current density = 30.0 mA/cm², pH 7. Using these parameters, 53.59% COD removal rates for LIW was achieved and total energy consumption was obtained as 13.03 kWh/m³. It is concluded that electrooxidation process constitutes a plausible and developable method for the treatment of LIW.

Keywords: BDD electrodes, COD removal, electrochemical treatment, leather industry wastewater

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1418 Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal

Authors: H. Shiu, M.S. Lu, Y.P. Tsai


This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.

Keywords: nano copper oxide, nano titanium dioxide, nano silica, enhanced biological phosphate removal

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1417 Two Layer Photo-Thermal Deflection Model to Investigate the Electronic Properties in BGaAs/GaAs Alloys

Authors: S. Ilahi, M. Baira, F. Saidi, N. Yacoubi, L. Auvray, H. Maaref


Photo-thermal deflection technique (PTD) is used to study the nonradiative recombination process in BGaAs/GaAs alloy with boron composition of 3% and 8% grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A two layer theoretical model has been developed taking into account both thermal and electronic contribution in the photothermal signal allowing to extract the electronic parameters namely electronic diffusivity, surface and interface recombination. It is found that the increase of boron composition alters the BGaAs epilayers transport properties.

Keywords: photothermal defelction technique, two layer model, BGaAs/GaAs alloys, boron composition

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1416 Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Coated with Different Polyimides/h-Boron Nitride Composite Films

Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke


Herein, we synthesized three PIs/h-boron nitride composite films for corrosion resistance of mild steel material. The structures of these three polyimide/h-boron nitride composite films were confirmed using (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized PIs composite films have high mechanical properties, thermal stability, high glass-transition temperature (Tg), and insulating properties. It has been shown that the presence of electroactive TiO2, SiO2, and h-BN, in polymer coatings effectively inhibits corrosion. The h-BN displays an admirable anti-corrosion barrier for the 6F-OD and BT-OD films. PI/ h-BN composite films of 6F-OD exhibited better resistance to water vapor, high corrosion resistance, and positive corrosion voltage. Only four wt. percentage of h-BN in the composite is adequate.

Keywords: polyimide, corrosion resistance, electroactive, Tg

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