Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: paraphenylen diamine

25 One-Pot Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Graphene Synthesized from Paraphenylenediamine as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Used for Alkaline Fuel Cells

Authors: Leila Samiee, Amir Yadegari, Saeedeh Tasharrofi

Abstract:

In the work presented here, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were synthesized and used as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. Paraphenylenediamine was used as N precursor. The N-doped graphene was synthesized under hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. All the materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, for electrochemical evaluation of samples, Rotating Disk electrode (RDE) and Cyclic Voltammetry techniques (CV) were employed. The resulting material exhibits an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent resistance towards methanol crossover effects, indicating their promising potential as ORR electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

Keywords: alkaline fuel cell, graphene, metal-free catalyst, paraphenylen diamine

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24 Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of 5-Phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diamine Derivatives

Authors: L. Mallesha, P. Mallu, B. Veeresh

Abstract:

In the present study, 2, 6-diflurobenzohydrazide and 4-fluorophenylisothiocyanate were used as the starting materials to synthesize 5-phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3, 4-diamine. Further, compound 5-phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3,4-diamine reacted with fluoro substituted benzaldehydes to yield a series of Schiff bases. All the final compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analyses. New compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using the MTT assay method against four human cancer cell lines (K562, COLO-205, MDA-MB231, and IMR-32) for the time period of 24 h. Among the series, few compounds showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Schiff bases, MTT assay, antiproliferative activity, human cancer cell lines, 1, 2, 4-triazoles

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23 Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Reducing Fungal Adhesion on Dentin

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Noriko Hiraishi, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Koichi Makimura, Junji Tagami

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is used to prevent and arrest dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of SDF on reducing Candida albicans adhesion on dentin. Materials and Methods: Bovine dentin disks (6×6 mm) were cut by Isomet and polished using grit silicon carbide papers down to 2000 in order to obtain flat dentin surfaces. Samples were divided into two groups. The first group (SDF group) was treated with 38% SDF for 3 min, while the other group (control group) did not undergo SDF treatment. All samples were exposed to C. albicans suspension, washed after 6 hours incubation at 30 °C before to be tested using XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) and real time PCR approaches. Statistical analyses of the results were performed at the significance level α = 0.05. Results: SDF inhibited C. albicans adhesion onto dentin. A significant difference was found between the SDF and control groups in both XTT and real time PCR tests. Conclusion: Using SDF to arrest the caries, could inhibit the Candida growth on dentin.

Keywords: silver diamine fluoride, dentin, real time PCR, XTT

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22 Porosity and Surface Chemistry of Functionalized Carbonaceous Materials from Date Palm Leaflets

Authors: El-Said I. El-Shafey, Syeda Naheed F. Ali, Saleh S. Al-Busafi, Haider A. J. Al-Lawati

Abstract:

Date palm leaflets were utilized as a precursor for activated carbon (AC) preparation using KOH activation. AC produced was oxidized using nitric acid producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC that possesses acidic surface was surface functionalized to produce basic activated carbons using linear diamine compounds (ethylene diamine and propylene diamine). OAC was also functionalized to produce hydrophobic activated carbons using ethylamine (EA) and aniline (AN). Dehydrated carbon was also prepared from date palm leaflets using sulfuric acid dehydration/ oxidation and was surface functionalized in the same way as AC. Nitric acid oxidation was not necessary for DC as it is acidic carbon. The surface area of AC is high (823 m2/g) with microporosity domination, however, after oxidation and surface functionalization, both the surface area and surface microporosity decrease tremendously. DC surface area was low (15 m2/g) with mesoporosity domination. Surface functionalization has decreased the surface area of activated carbons. FTIR spectra show that -COOH group on DC and OAC almost disappeared after surface functionalization. The surface chemistry of all carbons produced was tested for pHzpc, basic sites, boehm titration, thermogravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in addition to CHN elemental analysis were also carried out. DC and OAC possess low pHzpc and high surface functionality, however, basic and hydrophobic carbons possess high pHzpc and low surface functionality. The different behavior of carbons is related to their different surface chemistry. Methylene blue adsorption was found to be faster on hydrophobic carbons based on AC and DC. The Larger adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found for hydrophobic carbons. Dominating adsorption forces of methylene blue varies from carbon to another depending on its surface nature. Sorption forces include hydrophobic forces, H-bonding, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces.

Keywords: carbon, acidic, basic, hydrophobic

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21 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Incorporated in Fissure Sealants

Authors: Nélio Veiga, Paula Ferreira, Tiago Correia, Maria J. Correia, Carlos Pereira, Odete Amaral, Ilídio J. Correia

Abstract:

Introduction: The application of fissure sealants is considered to be an important primary prevention method used in dental medicine. However, the formation of microleakage gaps between tooth enamel and the fissure sealant applied is one of the most common reasons of dental caries development in teeth with fissure sealants. The association between various dental biomaterials may limit the major disadvantages and limitations of biomaterials functioning in a complementary manner. The present study consists in the incorporation of a cariostatic agent – silver diamine fluoride (SDF) – in a resin-based fissure sealant followed by the study of release kinetics by spectrophotometry analysis of the association between both biomaterials and assessment of the inhibitory effect on the growth of the reference bacterial strain Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: An experimental in vitro study was designed consisting in the entrapment of SDF (Cariestop® 12% and 30%) into a commercially available fissure sealant (Fissurit®), by photopolymerization and photocrosslinking. The same sealant, without SDF was used as a negative control. The effect of the sealants on the growth of S. mutans was determined by the presence of bacterial inhibitory halos in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. In order to confirm the absence of bacteria in the surface of the materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterization was performed. Also, to analyze the release profile of SDF along time, spectrophotometry technique was applied. Results: The obtained results indicate that the association of SDF to a resin-based fissure sealant may be able to increase the inhibition of S. mutans growth. However, no SDF release was noticed during the in vitro release studies and no statistical significant difference was verified when comparing the inhibitory halo sizes obtained for test and control group.  Conclusions: In this study, the entrapment of SDF in the resin-based fissure sealant did not potentiate the antibacterial effect of the fissure sealant or avoid the immediate development of dental caries. The development of more laboratorial research and, afterwards, long-term clinical data are necessary in order to verify if this association between these biomaterials is effective and can be considered for being used in oral health management. Also, other methodologies for associating cariostatic agents and sealant should be addressed.

Keywords: biomaterial, fissure sealant, primary prevention, silver diamine fluoride

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20 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.

Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan

Abstract:

Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.

Keywords: phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov., EDTA, nickel, laterite

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19 Refining Waste Spent Hydroprocessing Catalyst and Their Metal Recovery

Authors: Meena Marafi, Mohan S. Rana

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Catalysts play an important role in producing valuable fuel products in petroleum refining; but, due to feedstock’s impurities catalyst gets deactivated with carbon and metal deposition. The disposal of spent catalyst falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste that requires strict agreement with environmental regulations. The spent hydroprocessing catalyst contains Mo, V and Ni at high concentrations that have been found to be economically significant for recovery. Metal recovery process includes deoiling, decoking, grinding, dissolving and treatment with complexing leaching agent such as ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The process conditions have been optimized as a function of time, temperature and EDTA concentration in presence of ultrasonic agitation. The results indicated that optimum condition established through this approach could recover 97%, 94% and 95% of the extracted Mo, V and Ni, respectively, while 95% EDTA was recovered after acid treatment.

Keywords: atmospheric residue desulfurization (ARDS), deactivation, hydrotreating, spent catalyst

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18 Study the Effect of Dermal Application of Stone Hair Dye on Experimental Animals

Authors: Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Ragaa Mohamed Abdel Maaboud, Heba A. Mubarak

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A commercially available Stone Hair Dye (SHD) was spread in Upper Egypt and used for dying woman's hair. Paraphenyl-diamine (PPD) is the main component of SHD and reported as a toxic substance. This work aims to study the systemic effects induced in experimental animals as a result of dermal application of SHD. 21 rats were divided into three groups, and doses of SHD and PPD were applied according to body weight (25 mg/100 g body weight) for 90 days. The results revealed that insignificant decrease in RBC count and Hb level, but there were significant increases in the WBC count, AST, ALT, GPT, and total protein while creatinine level was insignificantly increased. Hepatocytes showed a lot of degenerative changes in the form of vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular deeply stained nuclei with vascular congestion and lymphocytic infiltration, while renal affection indicated the occurrence of atrophy of glomerular capillaries, hyperplasia, and widening of bowman space.

Keywords: PPD, SHD, rats and histology, biochemistry and hematology

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17 Extraction of Polystyrene from Styrofoam Waste: Synthesis of Novel Chelating Resin for the Enrichment and Speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(vi) Ions in Industrial Effluents

Authors: Ali N. Siyal, Saima Q. Memon, Latif Elçi, Aydan Elçi

Abstract:

Polystyrene (PS) was extracted from Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene foam) waste, so called white pollutant. The PS was functionalized with N, N- Bis(2-aminobenzylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine (ABA) ligand through an azo spacer. The resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The PS-N=N-ABA resin was used for the enrichment and speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and total Cr determination in aqueous samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The separation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions was achieved at pH 2. The recovery of Cr(VI) ions was achieved ≥ 95.0% at optimum parameters: pH 2; resin amount 300 mg; flow rates 2.0 mL min-1 of solution and 2.0 mL min-1 of eluent (2.0 mol L-1 HNO3). Total Cr was determined by oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) ions using H2O2. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of Cr(VI) were found to be 0.40 and 1.20 μg L-1, respectively with preconcentration factor of 250. Total saturation and breakthrough capacitates of the resin for Cr(IV) ions were found to be 0.181 and 0.531 mmol g-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration/speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and determination of total Cr in industrial effluents.

Keywords: styrofoam waste, polymeric resin, preconcentration, speciation, Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions, FAAS

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16 Synthesis of Magnetic Chitosan Beads and Its Cross-Linked Derivatives for Sorption of Zinc Ions from Water Samples of Yamuna and Hindon Rivers in India

Authors: Priti Rani, Rajni Johar, P. S. Jassal

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The magnetic chitosan beads (MCB) were synthesized using co-precipitation method and made to react with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to get the cross-linked derivative (ECH-MCB). The beads were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and TGA. It is found that zinc metal ion sorption efficiency of ECH-MCB is significantly higher than MCB. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior of metal ions, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature effects, were investigated. The adsorption parameters fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium parameter RL values support that the adsorption (0 < RL < 1) is favorable and spontaneous process. The thermodynamic parameters confirm that it is an endothermic reaction, which results in an increase in the randomness of adsorption process. The beads were regenerated using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for further use. These beads prove as promising materials for the removal of pollutants from industrial wastewater. Water samples from Yamuna and Hindon rivers were analysed for the detection of Zn (II) ions.

Keywords: chitosan magnetic beads, EDTA, epichlorohydrin, removal efficiency

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15 Removal of Pb(II) Ions from Wastewater Using Magnetic Chitosan–Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether Beads as Adsorbent

Authors: Pyar Singh Jassal, Priti Rani, Rajni Johar

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The adsorption of Pb(II) ions from wastewater using ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads (EGDE-MCB) was carried out by considering a number of parameters. The removal efficiency of the metal ion by magnetic chitosan beads (MCB) and its cross-linked derivatives depended on viz contact time, dose of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, etc. The concentration of Cd( II) at different time intervals was estimated by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPSAV) using 797 voltametric analyzer computrace. The adsorption data could be well interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model. The equilibrium parameter, RL values, support that the adsorption (0Keywords: magnetic chitosan beads, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether, equilibrium parameters, desorption

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14 Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Diamines and Their Thermally Stable Polyimides

Authors: Zill-E-Huma, Humaira Siddiqi

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This paper comprises of synthesis of thermally stable, mechanically strong polyimides. The polyimides were considered as most diverse class of polymers having unlimited applications. They were widely used as optical wave guides, in aerospace, for gas separation, as biomaterials and in electronics. Here the focus was to increase thermal stability and mechanical strength of polyimides. For this purpose two monomers were synthesized and were further polymerized via anhydrides to polyimides. The monomer diamines were synthesized by nucleophilic attack of aniline/2-fluoro aniline on hydroxy benzaldehydes. The two diamines synthesized were 3-(bis(4-aminophenyl) methyl) phenol (3OHDA) and 4-(bis(4-amino-3-fluorophenyl) methyl) phenol (2F4OHDA). These diamines were then reacted with dianhydrides to get polyimides. Two neat polyimides of both diamines with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and one neat polyimide of 4'-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic dianhydride (6FDA) with 3OHDA were synthesized. To compare the properties of synthesized polyimides like thermal stability, rigidity, flexibility, toughness etc. a commercial diamine oxydianiline (ODA) was used. Polyimides from oxydianiline were basically rigid. Nine different polyimide blends were synthesized from 3OHDA and commercial diamines ODA to have a better comparison of properties. TGA and mechanical testing results showed that with the increase in the percentage of 3OHDA in comparison to ODA the flexibility, toughness, strength of polyimide, thermal stability goes on increasing. So, synthesized diamines were responsible for improvement of properties of polyimides.

Keywords: diamines, dianhydrides, oxydianiline, polyimides

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13 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem

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Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

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12 New Biobased(Furanic-Sulfonated) Poly(esteramide)s

Authors: Souhir Abid

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The growing interest in vegetal biomass as an alternative for fossil resources has stimulated the development of numerous classes of monomers. Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons (i) firstly environmental concerns, and (ii) secondly the use of monomers from renewable feedstock is a steadily growing field of interest in order to reduce the amount of petroleum consumed in the chemical industry and to open new high-value-added markets to agriculture. Furanic polymers have been considered as alternative environmentally friendly polymers. In our earlier work, modifying furanic polyesters by incorporation of amide functions along their backbone, lead to a particular class of polymer ‘poly(ester-amide)s’, was investigated to combine the excellent mechanical properties of polyamides and the biodegradability of polyesters. As a continuation of our studies on this family of polymer, a series of furanic poly(ester-amide)s bearing sulfonate groups in the main chain were synthesized from 5,5’-Isopropylidene-bis(ethyl 2-furoate), dimethyl 5-sodiosulfoisophthalate, ethylene glycol and hexamethylene diamine by melt polycondensation using zinc acetate as a catalyst. In view of the complexity of the NMR spectrum analysis of the resulting sulfonated poly(ester-amide)s, we found that it is useful to prepare initially the corresponding homopolymers: sulfonated polyesters and polyamides. Structural data of these polymers will be used as a basic element in 1H NMR characterization. The hydrolytic degradation in acidic aqueous conditions (pH = 4,35 ) at 37 °C over the period of four weeks show that the mechanism of the hydrolysis of poly(ester amide)s was elucidated in relation with the microstructure. The strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between amide functions and water molecules increases the hydrophilicity of the macromolecular chains and consequently their hydrolytic degradation.

Keywords: furan, hydrolytic degradation, polycondensation, poly(ester amide)

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11 Studies on the Recovery of Calcium and Magnesium from Red Seawater by Nanofiltration Membrane

Authors: Mohamed H. Sorour, Hayam F. Shaalan, Heba A. Hani, Mahmoud A. El-Toukhy

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This paper reports the results of nanofiltration (NF) polymeric membrane for the recovery of divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) from Red Seawater. Pilot plant experiments have been carried out using Alfa-Laval (NF 2517/48) membrane module. System was operated in both total recirculation mode (permeate and brine) and brine recirculation mode under hydraulic pressure of 15 bar. Impacts of some chelating agents on both flux and rejection have been also investigated. Results indicated that pure water permeability ranges from 17 to 85.5 L/m²h at 2-15 bar. Comparison with seawater permeability under the same operating pressure values reveals lower values of 8.9-31 L/m²h manifesting the effect of the osmotic pressure of seawater. Overall total dissolved solids (TDS) reduction was almost constant without incorporation of chelating agents. On the contrary of expectations, the use of chelating agents N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene diamine-N,N´,N´-triacetic acid (HEDTA) and ethylene glycol bis (2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N´,N´-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) showed flux decline of about 3-15%. Analysis of rejection data of total recirculation mode showed reasonable rejection values of 35%, 59% and 90% for Ca, Mg and SO₄, respectively. Operating under brine recirculation mode only showed a decrease of rejection to 33%, 56% and 86% for Ca, Mg and SO₄, respectively. The use of chelating agents has no substantial effect on NF membrane performance except for increasing the total Ca rejection to 48 and 65% for EGTA and HEDTA, respectively. Results, in general, confirmed the powerful separation of NF technology for softening and recovery of divalent ions from seawater. It is anticipated that increasing operating pressure beyond the limits of our investigations would improve the rejection and flux values. A trade-off should be considered between operating cost (due to higher pressure and marginal benefits as manifested by expected improved performance). The experimental results fit well with the formulated rejection empirical correlations and the published ones.

Keywords: nanofiltration, seawater, recovery, calcium, magnesium

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10 Effects of pH, Load Capacity and Contact Time in the Sulphate Sorption onto a Functionalized Mesoporous Structure

Authors: Jaime Pizarro, Ximena Castillo

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The intensive use of water in agriculture, industry, human consumption and increasing pollution are factors that reduce the availability of water for future generations; the challenge is to advance in sustainable and low-cost solutions to reuse water and to facilitate the availability of the resource in quality and quantity. The use of new low-cost materials with sorbent capacity for pollutants is a solution that contributes to the improvement and expansion of water treatment and reuse systems. Fly ash, a residue from the combustion of coal in power plants that is produced in large quantities in newly industrialized countries, contains a high amount of silicon oxides and aluminum oxides, whose properties can be used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials. Properly functionalized, this material allows obtaining matrixes with high sorption capacity. The mesoporous materials have a large surface area, thermal and mechanical stability, uniform porous structure, and high sorption and functionalization capacities. The goal of this study was to develop hexagonal mesoporous siliceous material (HMS) for the adsorption of sulphate from industrial and mining waters. The silica was extracted from fly ash after calcination at 850 ° C, followed by the addition of water. The mesoporous structure has a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a size of 5.7 nm and was functionalized with ethylene diamine through of a self-assembly method. The material was characterized by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The capacity of sulphate sorption was evaluated according to pH, maximum load capacity and contact time. The sulphate maximum adsorption capacity was 146.1 mg g-1, which is three times higher than commercial sorbents. The kinetic data were fitted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model.

Keywords: fly ash, mesoporous siliceous, sorption, sulphate

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9 Comparison of Catalyst Support for High Pressure Reductive Amination

Authors: Tz-Bang Du, Cheng-Han Hsieh, Li-Ping Ju, Hung-Jie Liou

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Polyether amines synthesize by secondary hydroxyl polyether diol play an important role in epoxy hardener. The low molecular weight product is used in low viscosity and high transparent polyamine product for the logo, ground cover, especially for wind turbine blade, while the high molecular weight products are used in advanced agricultures such as a high-speed railway. High-pressure reductive amination process is required for producing these amines. In the condition of higher than 150 atm pressure and 200 degrees Celsius temperature, supercritical ammonia is used as a reactant and also a solvent. It would be a great challenge to select a catalyst support for such high-temperature alkaline circumstance. In this study, we have established a six-autoclave-type (SAT) high-pressure reactor for amination catalyst screening, which six experiment conditions with different temperature and pressure could be examined at the same time. We synthesized copper-nickel catalyst on different shaped alumina catalyst support and evaluated the catalyst activity for high-pressure reductive amination of polypropylene glycol (PPG) by SAT reactor. Ball type gamma alumina, ball type activated alumina and pellet type gamma alumina catalyst supports are evaluated in this study. Gamma alumina supports have shown better activity on PPG reductive amination than activated alumina support. In addition, the catalysts are evaluated in fixed bed reactor. The diamine product was successfully synthesized via this catalyst and the strength of the catalysts is measured. The crush strength of blank supports is about 13.5 lb for both gamma alumina and activated alumina. The strength increases to 20.3 lb after synthesized to be copper-nickel catalyst. After test in the fixed bed high-pressure reductive amination process for 100 hours, the crush strength of the used catalyst is 3.7 lb for activated alumina support, 12.0 lb for gamma alumina support. The gamma alumina is better than activated alumina to use as catalyst support in high-pressure reductive amination process.

Keywords: high pressure reductive amination, copper nickel catalyst, polyether amine, alumina

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8 Electroremediation of Saturated and Unsaturated Nickel-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Waddah Abdullah, Saleh Al-Sarem

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation was undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar charged contaminants (such as heavy metals) and non-polar organic contaminants. It can be efficiently used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. This study presented and discussed the results of electrokinetic remediation processes to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Two types of electrokinetics cells were used: an open cell and an advanced cylindrical cell. Two types of soils were used for this investigation; the Azraq green clay which has very low permeability taken from the eastern part of Jordan (city of Azraq) and a sandy soil having, relatively, very high permeability. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel, and the sandy soil was spiked with 1500 ppm of nickel. Fully saturated and partially saturated clayey soils were used for the clean-up process. Clayey soils were tested under a direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA to study the effect of the electrical current on the remediation process. Chelating agent (Na-EDTA), disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetatic acid, was used in both types of soils to enhance the electroremediation process. The effect of carbonates presence in the contaminated soils, also, was investigated by use of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by use of buffer solutions. The results of the investigation showed that for the fully saturated clayey soil spiked with nickel had an average removal efficiency of 64%, and the average removal efficiency was 46% for the unsaturated clayey soil. For the sandy soil, the average removal efficiency of Nickel was 90%. Test results showed that presence of carbonates in the remediated soils retarded the clean-up process of nickel-contaminated soils (removal efficiency was reduced from 90% to 60%). EDTA enhanced decontamination of nickel contaminated clayey and sandy soils with carbonates was studied. The average removal efficiency increased from 60% (prior to using EDTA) to more than 90% after using EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, EDTA, electroremediation, nickel removal efficiency

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7 Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity of Methotrexate Conjugated Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in vitro Model System Using Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muhammad Ajmal, Uzma Yunus, Noaman-ul Haq, Hafiz M. Shohaib, Ambreen G. Muazzam

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Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have unique properties that are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their precise properties like small size (ideal for delivery within the body) stability in solvent and tunable surface chemistry for targeted delivery. Here, highly fluorescent, monodispersed and water-soluble CNPs were synthesized directly from a suitable carbohydrate source (glucose and sucrose) by one-step acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35 KHz for 4 hours. This method is green, simple, rapid and economical and can be used for large scale production and applications. The average particle sizes of CNPs are less than 10nm and they emit bright and colorful green-blue fluorescence under the irradiation of UV-light at 365nm. The CNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and TGA analysis. Fluorescent CNPs were used as fluorescent probe and nano-carriers for anticancer drug. Functionalized CNPs (with ethylene diamine) were attached with anticancer drug-Methotrexate. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of CNPs-drug conjugates was evaluated by LDH assay and Sulforhodamine B assay using human lung carcinoma cell lines (H157). Our results reveled that CNPs showed biocompatibility and CNPs-anticancer drug conjugates have shown potent cytotoxic effects and high antitumor activities in lung cancer cell lines. CNPs are proved to be excellent substitute for conventional drug delivery cargo systems and anticancer therapeutics in vitro. Our future studies will be more focused on using the same nanoparticles in vivo model system.

Keywords: carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles-methotrexate conjugates, human lung carcinoma cell lines, lactate dehydrogenase, methotrexate

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6 Effect of Proteoliposome Concentration on Salt Rejection Rate of Polysulfone Membrane Prepared by Incorporation of Escherichia coli and Halomonas elongata Aquaporins

Authors: Aysenur Ozturk, Aysen Yildiz, Hilal Yilmaz, Pinar Ergenekon, Melek Ozkan

Abstract:

Water scarcity is one of the most important environmental problems of the World today. Desalination process is regarded as a promising solution to solve drinking water problem of the countries facing with water shortages. Reverse osmosis membranes are widely used for desalination processes. Nano structured biomimetic membrane production is one of the most challenging research subject for improving water filtration efficiency of the membranes and for reducing the cost of desalination processes. There are several researches in the literature on the development of novel biomimetic nanofiltration membranes by incorporation of aquaporin Z molecules. Aquaporins are cell membrane proteins that allow the passage of water molecules and reject all other dissolved solutes. They are present in cell membranes of most of the living organisms and provide high water passage capacity. In this study, GST (Glutathione S-transferas) tagged E. coli aquaporinZ and H. elongate aquaporin proteins, which were previously cloned and characterized, were purified from E. coli BL21 cells and used for fabrication of modified Polysulphone Membrane (PS). Aquaporins were incorporated on the surface of the membrane by using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipids as carrier liposomes. Aquaporin containing proteoliposomes were immobilized on the surface of the membrane with m-phenylene-diamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) rejection layer. Water flux, salt rejection and glucose rejection performances of the thin film composite membranes were tested by using Dead-End Reactor Cell. In this study, effect of proteoliposome concentration, and filtration pressure on water flux and salt rejection rate of membranes were investigated. Type of aquaporin used for membrane fabrication, flux and pressure applied for filtration were found to be important parameters affecting rejection rates. Results suggested that optimization of concentration of aquaporin carriers (proteoliposomes) on the membrane surface is necessary for fabrication of effective composite membranes used for different purposes.

Keywords: aquaporins, biomimmetic membranes, desalination, water treatment

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5 In Silico Screening, Identification and Validation of Cryptosporidium hominis Hypothetical Protein and Virtual Screening of Inhibitors as Therapeutics

Authors: Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Rajani Kanta Mohapatra, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu

Abstract:

Computational approaches to predict structure, function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are not effective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines. We identified a unique hypothetical epitopic protein in C. hominis genome through BLASTP analysis. A 3D model of the hypothetical protein was generated using I-Tasser server through threading methodology. The quality of the model was validated through Ramachandran plot by PROCHECK server. The functional annotation of the hypothetical protein through DALI server revealed structural similarity with human Transportin 3. Phylogenetic analysis for this hypothetical protein also showed C. hominis hypothetical protein (CUV04613) was the closely related to human transportin 3 protein. The 3D protein model is further subjected to virtual screening study with inhibitors from the Zinc Database by using Dock Blaster software. Docking study reported N-(3-chlorobenzyl) ethane-1,2-diamine as the best inhibitor in terms of docking score. Docking analysis elucidated that Leu 525, Ile 526, Glu 528, Glu 529 are critical residues for ligand–receptor interactions. The molecular dynamic simulation was done to access the reliability of the binding pose of inhibitor and protein complex using GROMACS software at 10ns time point. Trajectories were analyzed at each 2.5 ns time interval, among which, H-bond with LEU-525 and GLY- 530 are significantly present in MD trajectories. Furthermore, antigenic determinants of the protein were determined with the help of DNA Star software. Our study findings showed a great potential in order to provide insights in the development of new drug(s) or vaccine(s) for control as well as prevention of cryptosporidiosis among humans and animals.

Keywords: cryptosporidium hominis, hypothetical protein, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation

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4 Platelet Volume Indices: Emerging Markers of Diabetic Thrombocytopathy

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, S. K. Nema

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorder prevalent in pandemic proportions, incurring significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular angiopathies. Platelet related thrombogenesis plays key role in pathogenesis of these complications. Most patients with type II DM suffer from preventable vascular complications and early diagnosis can help manage these successfully. These complications are attributed to platelet activation which can be recognised by the increase in Platelet Volume Indices(PVI) viz. Mean Platelet Volume(MPV) and Platelet Distribution Width(PDW). This study was undertaken with the aim of finding a relationship between PVI and vascular complications of Diabetes mellitus, their importance as a causal factor in these complications and use as markers for early detection of impending vascular complications in patients with poor glycaemic status. This is a cross-sectional study conducted for 2 years with total 930 subjects. The subjects were segregated in 03 groups on basis of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) as: - (a) Diabetic, (b) Non-Diabetic and (c) Subjects with Impaired fasting glucose(IFG) with 300 individuals in IFG and non-diabetic group & 330 individuals in diabetic group. The diabetic group was further divided into two groups: - (a) Diabetic subjects with diabetes related vascular complications (b) Diabetic subjects without diabetes related vascular complications. Samples for HbA1C and platelet indices were collected using Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid(EDTA) as anticoagulant and processed on SYSMEX-XS-800i autoanalyser. The study revealed stepwise increase in PVI from non-diabetics to IFG to diabetics. MPV and PDW of diabetics, IFG and non diabetics were 17.60 ± 2.04, 11.76 ± 0.73, 9.93 ± 0.64 and 19.17 ± 1.48, 15.49 ± 0.67, 10.59 ± 0.67 respectively with a significant p value 0.00 and a significant positive correlation (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). However, significant negative correlation was found between glycaemic levels and total platelet count (PC- HbA1c r =-0.164). MPV & PDW of subjects with and without diabetes related complications were (15.14 ± 1.04) fl & (17.51±0.39) fl and (18.96 ± 0.83) fl & (20.09 ± 0.98) fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00.The current study demonstrates raised platelet indices & reduced platelet counts in association with rising glycaemic levels and diabetes related vascular complications across various study groups & showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which are important, simple, cost effective, effortless tool & indicators of impending vascular complications in patients with deranged glycaemic control. PVI should be researched and explored further as surrogate markers to develop a clinical tool for early recognition of vascular changes related to diabetes and thereby help prevent them. They can prove to be more useful in developing countries with limited resources. This study is multi-parameter, comprehensive with adequately powered study design and represents pioneering effort in India on account of the fact that both Platelet indices (MPV & PDW) along with platelet count have been evaluated together for the first time in Diabetics, non diabetics, patients with IFG and also in the diabetic patients with and without diabetes related vascular complications.

Keywords: diabetes, HbA1C, IFG, MPV, PDW, PVI

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3 Bis-Azlactone Based Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide)s: Design, Synthesis and Study

Authors: Kobauri Sophio, Kantaria Tengiz, Tugushi David, Puiggali Jordi, Katsarava Ramaz

Abstract:

Biodegradable biomaterials (BB) are of high interest for numerous applications in modern medicine as resorbable surgical materials and drug delivery systems. This kind of materials can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function that excludes a surgical intervention for their removal. One of the most promising BBare amino acids based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) which are composed of naturally occurring (α-amino acids) and non-toxic building blocks such as fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. Key bis-nucleophilic monomers for synthesizing the PEAs are diamine-diesters-di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-(α-amino acid)-alkylenediesters (TAADs) which form the PEAs after step-growth polymerization (polycondensation) with bis-electrophilic counter-partners - activated diesters of dicarboxylic acids. The PEAs combine all advantages of the 'parent polymers' – polyesters (PEs) and polyamides (PAs): Ability of biodegradation (PEs), a high affinity with tissues and a wide range of desired mechanical properties (PAs). The scopes of applications of thePEAs can substantially be expanded by their functionalization, e.g. through the incorporation of hydrophobic fragments into the polymeric backbones. Hydrophobically modified PEAs can form non-covalent adducts with various compounds that make them attractive as drug carriers. For hydrophobic modification of the PEAs, we selected so-called 'Azlactone Method' based on the application of p-phenylene-bis-oxazolinons (bis-azlactones, BALs) as active bis-electrophilic monomers in step-growth polymerization with TAADs. Interaction of BALs with TAADs resulted in the PEAs with low MWs (Mw2,800-19,600 Da) and poor material properties. The high-molecular-weight PEAs (Mw up to 100,000) with desirable material properties were synthesized after replacement of a part of BALs with activated diester - di-p-nitrophenylsebacate, or a part of TAAD with alkylenediamine – 1,6-hexamethylenediamine. The new hydrophobically modified PEAs were characterized by FTIR, NMR, GPC, and DSC. It was shown that after the hydrophobic modification the PEAs retain the biodegradability (in vitro study catalyzed by α-chymptrypsin and lipase), and are of interest for constructing resorbable surgical and pharmaceutical devices including drug delivering containers such as microspheres. The new PEAs are insoluble in hydrophobic organic solvents such as chloroform or dichloromethane (swell only) that allowed elaborating a new technology of fabricating microspheres.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, bis-azlactones, microspheres

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2 Role of Platelet Volume Indices in Diabetes Related Vascular Angiopathies

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, S. K. Nema, Sanjeev Narang

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by metabolic abnormalities, chronic hyperglycaemia and long term macrovascular & microvascular complications. Vascular complications are due to platelet hyperactivity and dysfunction, increased inflammation, altered coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. Large proportion of patients with Type II DM suffers from preventable vascular angiopathies, and there is need to develop risk factor modifications and interventions to reduce impact of complications. These complications are attributed to platelet activation, recognised by increase in Platelet Volume Indices (PVI) including Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Platelet Distribution Width (PDW). The current study is prospective analytical study conducted over 2 years. Out of 1100 individuals, 930 individuals fulfilled inclusion criteria and were segregated into three groups on basis of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C): - (a) Diabetic, (b) Non-Diabetic and (c) Subjects with Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with 300 individuals in IFG and non-diabetic groups & 330 individuals in diabetic group. Further, diabetic group was divided into two groups on the basis of presence or absence of known diabetes related vascular complications. Samples for HbA1c and PVI were collected using Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as anticoagulant and processed on SYSMEX-X-800i autoanalyser. The study revealed gradual increase in PVI from non-diabetics to IFG to diabetics. PVI were markedly increased in diabetic patients. MPV and PDW of diabetics, IFG and non diabetics were (17.60 ± 2.04)fl, (11.76 ± 0.73)fl, (9.93 ± 0.64)fl and (19.17 ± 1.48)fl, (15.49 ± 0.67)fl, (10.59 ± 0.67)fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00 and a significant positive correlation (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). MPV & PDW of subjects with diabetes related complications were higher as compared to those without them and were (17.51±0.39)fl & (15.14 ± 1.04)fl and (20.09 ± 0.98) fl & (18.96 ± 0.83)fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00. There was a significant positive correlation between PVI and duration of diabetes across the groups (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). However, a significant negative correlation was found between glycaemic levels and total platelet count (PC- HbA1c r =-0.164). This is multi-parameter and comprehensive study with an adequately powered study design. It can be concluded from our study that PVI are extremely useful and important indicators of impending vascular complications in all patients with deranged glycaemic control. Introduction of automated cell counters has facilitated the availability of PVI as routine parameters. PVI is a useful means for identifying larger & active platelets which play important role in development of micro and macro angiopathic complications of diabetes leading to mortality and morbidity. PVI can be used as cost effective markers to predict and prevent impending vascular events in patients with Diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries like India. PVI, if incorporated into protocols for management of diabetes, could revolutionize care and curtail the ever increasing cost of patient management.

Keywords: diabetes, IFG, HbA1C, MPV, PDW, PVI

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1 Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Low Symmetry Coordination Structured Lanthanide Complexes

Authors: Zubair Ahmed, Andrea Barbieri

Abstract:

The need to reduce energy consumption has prompted a considerable research effort for developing alternative energy-efficient lighting systems to replace conventional light sources (i.e., incandescent and fluorescent lamps). Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology offers the distinctive possibility to fabricate large area flat devices by vacuum or solution processing. Lanthanide β-diketonates complexes, due to unique photophysical properties of Ln(III) ions, have been explored as emitting layers in OLED displays and in solid-state lighting (SSL) in order to achieve high efficiency and color purity. For such applications, the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and stability are the two key points that can be achieved simply by selecting the proper organic ligands around the Ln ion in a coordination sphere. Regarding the strategies to enhance the PLQY, the most common is the suppression of the radiationless deactivation pathways due to the presence of high-frequency oscillators (e.g., OH, –CH groups) around the Ln centre. Recently, a different approach to maximize the PLQY of Ln(β-DKs) has been proposed (named 'Escalate Coordination Anisotropy', ECA). It is based on the assumption that coordinating the Ln ion with different ligands will break the centrosymmetry of the molecule leading to less forbidden transitions (loosening the constraints of the Laporte rule). The OLEDs based on such complexes are available, but with low efficiency and stability. In order to get efficient devices, there is a need to develop some new Ln complexes with enhanced PLQYs and stabilities. For this purpose, the Ln complexes, both visible and (NIR) emitting, of variant coordination structures based on the various fluorinated/non-fluorinated β-diketones and O/N-donor neutral ligands were synthesized using a one step in situ method. In this method, the β-diketones, base, LnCl₃.nH₂O and neutral ligands were mixed in a 3:3:1:1 M ratio in ethanol that gave air and moisture stable complexes. Further, they were characterized by means of elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thereafter, their photophysical properties were studied to select the best complexes for the fabrication of stable and efficient OLEDs. Finally, the OLEDs were fabricated and investigated using these complexes as emitting layers along with other organic layers like NPB,N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (hole-transporting layer), BCP, 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (hole-blocker) and Alq3 (electron-transporting layer). The layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO glass substrates. Moreover, co-deposition techniques were used to improve charge transport in the devices and to avoid quenching phenomena. The devices show strong electroluminescence at 612, 998, 1064 and 1534 nm corresponding to ⁵D₀ →⁷F₂(Eu), ²F₅/₂ → ²F₇/₂ (Yb), ⁴F₃/₂→ ⁴I₉/₂ (Nd) and ⁴I1₃/₂→ ⁴I1₅/₂ (Er). All the devices fabricated show good efficiency as well as stability.

Keywords: electroluminescence, lanthanides, paramagnetic NMR, photoluminescence

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