Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4236

Search results for: albumin creatinine ratio

4236 Microalbuminuria in Patients with Hypertension Visiting Tertiary Care Centre, Western Nepal

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhi R. Pokharel, Narayan Gautam, Puspa R. Dhakal, Yuresh Twayana

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to hypertension, with an increased risk for renal diseases. The present study was designed to find the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients by determining albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the association of ACR and microalbuminuria status with different stages and duration of hypertension (HTN). Also, to establish the correlation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with various parameters viz; ACR, urinary microalbumin (UMA), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary creatinine (Ucreat), serum creatinine (Screat), and find out their significance among HTN and ACR status. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Internal Medicine, UCMS, Bhairahawa, Nepal from April 2019 to September 2019 after obtaining ethical approval from institutional review committee (IRC), UCMS. A total of 120 hypertensive patients were enrolled whose blood, and spot urine samples were taken. eGFR was calculated by using Cockcroft-Gault formula after determining Screat while ACR was calculated after measuring Ucreat and UMA from the spot urine sample. Creatinine was estimated from modified jaffes’ reaction, whereas urinary micro albumin was done by Mispa i3 analyzer. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. 20 using p-value ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In our study, the highest enrolled were grade II HTN (36.7%) followed by normal (33.3%), grade I (20.8%) and grade III (9.2%). Evaluating the ACR status, 19.2% were microalbuminuria, and the rest were normal. Though the ACR status (normal and microalbuminuria) was not statistically significant with HTN status (P=0.860) and the duration of HTN status (P=0.165), 5 (45.5%) out of 11 grade III HTN were microalbuminuria and the prevalence was also higher for longer duration .i.e., more than 10 years. In microalbuminuria, both the SBP (p=0.023, r=0.471) and DBP (P=0.034, r= 0.444) were strongly and positively correlated with Screat, in contrast to eGFR, which was negatively but weakly correlated. With the significant difference between the HTN group, the mean ACR (P=0.047) and UMA (P=0.02) were found to be highest among grade III patients, i.e., 84.3 ± 113.3 mg/gm. and 88.4 ± 83.9 mg/l respectively. The mean eGFR (64.2 ± 24.8 vs 77.2 ± 18.1 ml/min) was considerably lower in microalbuminuria ( p=0.026) than the normal in contrast to the SBP (160 ± 33.7 vs. 146.6 ± 19.5 mm of Hg) which was significantly higher (P=0.008). Among the different BMI category, the mean ACR was found to be significantly different (P= 0.01) with the highest value in underweight (115.2 ± 51.5 mg/gm.) and lowest in overweight (31.8 ± 4.3 mg/gm.). Conclusion: The study recommends that the microalbuminuria can be a very useful and imperative predictor of deranged kidney functions in hypertensive patients. The high value of ACR and UMA in hypertensive patients along with significant increased Screat, SBP whereas decreased eGFR in microalbuminuria patients explicitly supports the above statement.

Keywords: albumin creatinine ratio, hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal disease

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4235 Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Dromedary (Camelus Dromedarius)

Authors: M. Titaouine, T. Meziane, K. Deghnouche

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine reference serum biochemistry values from dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria and to evaluate potential sources of physiological variability such as the sex, age and season on serum data. Usual serum biochemistry values were determined in blood samples from 26 apparently healthy dromedaries, 11 males and 15 females, divided into 3 lots (ender 4years), (between 5 and 10 years), (up 10 years). Parametric reference ranges and physiological variations are determined for calcium (Ca), organic phosphate (P), magnesium (Mg), natrium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), glucose, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. The results demonstrate: * Values which agreed with literature * Significant statistically differences (Anova test, p < 0.05) depending on: -the sex for Na, glucose, TG, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, albumin, -the age for Ca, P, K, Mg, glucose, TG, b and g globulin, -and season for Fe, urea, total proteins, TG, cholesterol and glucose. These reference ranges for serum biochemical analysis can be used for metabolic and nutritional disorders detection in dromedary.

Keywords: age, biochemistry, dromadery, season, sex

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4234 Raman Spectroscopic Detection of the Diminishing Toxic Effect of Renal Waste Creatinine by Its in vitro Reaction with Drugs N-Acetylcysteine and Taurine

Authors: Debraj Gangopadhyay, Moumita Das, Ranjan K. Singh, Poonam Tandon

Abstract:

Creatinine is a toxic chemical waste generated from muscle metabolism. Abnormally high levels of creatinine in the body fluid indicate possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys. This leads to a condition termed as creatinine induced nephrotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine is an antioxidant drug which is capable of preventing creatinine induced nephrotoxicity and is helpful to treat renal failure in its early stages. Taurine is another antioxidant drug which serves similar purpose. The kidneys have a natural power that whenever reactive oxygen species radicals increase in the human body, the kidneys make an antioxidant shell so that these radicals cannot harm the kidney function. Taurine plays a vital role in increasing the power of that shell such that the glomerular filtration rate can remain in its normal level. Thus taurine protects the kidneys against several diseases. However, taurine also has some negative effects on the body as its chloramine derivative is a weak oxidant by nature. N-acetylcysteine is capable of inhibiting the residual oxidative property of taurine chloramine. Therefore, N-acetylcysteine is given to a patient along with taurine and this combination is capable of suppressing the negative effect of taurine. Both N-acetylcysteine and taurine being affordable, safe, and widely available medicines, knowledge of the mechanism of their combined effect on creatinine, the favored route of administration, and the proper dose may be highly useful in their use for treating renal patients. Raman spectroscopy is a precise technique to observe minor structural changes taking place when two or more molecules interact. The possibility of formation of a complex between a drug molecule and an analyte molecule in solution can be explored by analyzing the changes in the Raman spectra. The formation of a stable complex of creatinine with N-acetylcysteinein vitroin aqueous solution has been observed with the help of Raman spectroscopic technique. From the Raman spectra of the mixtures of aqueous solutions of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinein different molar ratios, it is observed that the most stable complex is formed at 1:1 ratio of creatinine andN-acetylcysteine. Upon drying, the complex obtained is gel-like in appearance and reddish yellow in color. The complex is hygroscopic and has much better water solubility compared to creatinine. This highlights that N-acetylcysteineplays an effective role in reducing the toxic effect of creatinine by forming this water soluble complex which can be removed through urine. Since the drug taurine is also known to be useful in reducing nephrotoxicity caused by creatinine, the aqueous solution of taurine with those of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinewere mixed in different molar ratios and were investigated by Raman spectroscopic technique. It is understood that taurine itself does not undergo complexation with creatinine as no additional changes are observed in the Raman spectra of creatinine when it is mixed with taurine. However, when creatinine, N-acetylcysteine and taurine are mixed in aqueous solution in molar ratio 1:1:3, several changes occurring in the Raman spectra of creatinine suggest the diminishing toxic effect of creatinine in the presence ofantioxidant drugs N-acetylcysteine and taurine.

Keywords: creatinine, creatinine induced nephrotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, taurine

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4233 Analytical Performance of Cobas C 8000 Analyzer Based on Sigma Metrics

Authors: Sairi Satari

Abstract:

Introduction: Six-sigma is a metric that quantifies the performance of processes as a rate of Defects-Per-Million Opportunities. Sigma methodology can be applied in chemical pathology laboratory for evaluating process performance with evidence for process improvement in quality assurance program. In the laboratory, these methods have been used to improve the timeliness of troubleshooting, reduce the cost and frequency of quality control and minimize pre and post-analytical errors. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the sigma values of the Cobas 8000 analyzer based on the minimum requirement of the specification. Methodology: Twenty-one analytes were chosen in this study. The analytes were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Amylase, aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, creatinine kinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), magnesium, potassium, protein, sodium, triglyceride, uric acid and urea. Total error was obtained from Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The Bias was calculated from end cycle report of Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) cycle from July to December 2016 and coefficient variation (CV) from six-month internal quality control (IQC). The sigma was calculated based on the formula :Sigma = (Total Error - Bias) / CV. The analytical performance was evaluated based on the sigma, sigma > 6 is world class, sigma > 5 is excellent, sigma > 4 is good and sigma < 4 is satisfactory and sigma < 3 is poor performance. Results: Based on the calculation, we found that, 96% are world class (ALT, albumin, ALP, amylase, AST, total bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, creatinine kinase, glucose, LDH, magnesium, potassium, triglyceride and uric acid. 14% are excellent (calcium, protein and urea), and 10% ( chloride and sodium) require more frequent IQC performed per day. Conclusion: Based on this study, we found that IQC should be performed frequently for only Chloride and Sodium to ensure accurate and reliable analysis for patient management.

Keywords: sigma matrics, analytical performance, total error, bias

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4232 Correlation between Creatinine Level with Erectile Dysfunction among Diabetics in Temerloh Health Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Zainie Bin Hassan

Abstract:

Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication commonly seen among men with diabetes which can be assessed based upon International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Creatinine level is a blood test that indicates kidney functionality. Object: To evaluate the association between ED, determined by the IIEF-5scores and Creatinine level in diabetic men attending Temerloh Health Clinic, Pahang, Malaysia.Hence, to identify raising Creatinine level related with ED or not. Methods: All married diabetic patients will be investigated face to face after consented for answering the IIEF-5 questionnaire. Creatinine level will be taken by using standard method.Patients with no sexual partner, refuse to answer the questionnaire, cancer, stroke, heart disease and language barrier will be excluded.Data obtained from IIEF-5 score and Creatinine level will be analyzed by using Pearson correlation. All statistical value determined by p=0.05. ED will be categorized accordingly to IIEF-5 scores: no ED (22-25), mild (17-21), moderate (12-16), severe (8-11) and very severe (1-7). Results: A total of 450 patients were investigated with 385 patients were included (85.6% respondant rate) and 65 patients were excluded in this study with age range from 29 to 85 years old. 7% had no ED, 28% mild ED, 34% moderate ED, 16% severe ED and 15% had very severe ED. There was a significant negative correlation between Creatinine level and IIEF-5 scores (r=-0.218, p <0.001). This result implicated that poor kidney function which indicated by high Creatinine level associated significantly with erectile dysfunction. 93% had ED with a different range of severity which triggers for appropriate aggressive ED management among diabetics. Conclusion: The high level of Creatinine is associated with erectile dysfunction among diabetics in Temerloh Health Clinic.

Keywords: correlation, creatinine level, erectile dysfunction, ED, diabetes

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4231 Assessment of Sex Differences in Serum Urea and Creatinine Level in Response to Spinal Cord Injury Using Albino Rat Models

Authors: Waziri B. I., Elkhashab M. M.

Abstract:

Background: One of the most serious consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) is progressive deterioration of renal function mostly as a result of urine stasis and ascending infection of the paralyzed bladder. This necessitates for investigation of early changes in serum urea and creatinine and associated sex related differences in response to SCI. Methods: A total of 24 adult albino rats weighing above 150g were divided equally into two groups, a control and experimental group (n = 12) each containing an equal number of male and female rats. The experimental group animals were paralyzed by complete transection of spinal cord below T4 level after deep anesthesia with ketamine 75mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from both groups five days post SCI for analysis. Mean values of serum urea (mmol/L) and creatinine (µmol/L) for both groups were compared. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of serum urea and creatinine in the male SCI models with mean values of 92.12 ± 0.98 and 2573 ± 70.97 respectively compared with their controls where the mean values for serum urea and creatinine were 6.31 ± 1.48 and 476. 95 ± 4.67 respectively. In the female SCI models, serum urea 13.11 ± 0.81 and creatinine 519.88 ± 31.13 were not significantly different from that of female controls with serum urea and creatinine levels of 11.71 ± 1.43 and 493.69 ± 17.10 respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal cord injury caused a significant increase in serum Urea and Creatinine levels in the male models compared to the females. This indicated that males might have higher risk of renal dysfunction following SCI.

Keywords: albino rats, creatinine, spinal cord injury (SCI), urea

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4230 Elevated Creatinine Clearance and Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Systemic Lupus erythematosus

Authors: Stoyanka Vladeva, Elena Kirilova, Nikola Kirilov

Abstract:

Background: The creatinine clearance is a widely used value to estimate the GFR. Increased creatinine clearance is often called hyperfiltration and is usually seen during pregnancy, patients with diabetes mellitus preceding the diabetic nephropathy. It may also occur with large dietary protein intake or with plasma volume expansion. Renal injury in lupus nephritis is known to affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartment. However high creatinine clearance has not been found in patients with SLE, Target: Follow-up of creatinine clearance values in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without history of kidney injury. Material and methods: We observed the creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR and dipstick protein values of 7 women (with a mean age of 42.71 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with active lupus have been monthly tested in the period of 13 months. Creatinine clearance has been estimated by Cockcroft-Gault Equation formula in ml/sec. GFR has been estimated by MDRD formula (The Modification of Diet in renal Disease) in ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria has been defined as present when dipstick protein > 1+.Results: In all patients without history of kidney injury we found elevated creatinine clearance levels, but GFRremained within the reference range. Two of the patients were in remission while the other five patients had clinically and immunologically active Lupus. Three of the patients had a permanent presence of high creatinine clearance levels and proteinuria. Two of the patients had periodically elevated creatinine clearance without proteinuria. These results show that kidney disturbances may be caused by the vascular changes typical for SLE. Glomerular hyperfiltration can be result of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis caused by a reduction in renal mass. Probably lupus nephropathy is preceded not only by glomerular vascular changes, but also by tubular vascular changes. Using only the GFR is not a sufficient method to detect these primary functional disturbances. Conclusion: For early detection of kidney injury in patients with SLE we determined that the follow up of creatinine clearance values could be helpful.

Keywords: systemic Lupus erythematosus, kidney injury, elevated creatinine clearance level, normal glomerular filtration rate

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4229 Impact of Glycation on Proteomics of Human Serum Albumin: Relevance to Diabetes Associated Pathologies

Authors: Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Background: Serum albumin glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation correlates in diabetes and its associated complications. Extensive modified human serum albumin is used to study the biochemical, electrochemical and functional properties in hyperglycemic environment with relevance to diabetes. We evaluate Spectroscopic, side chain modifications, amino acid analysis, biochemical and functional group properties in four glucose modified samples. Methods: A series four human serum albumin samples modified with glucose was characterized in terms of amino acid analysis, spectroscopic properties and side chain modifications. The diagnostic technique employed incorporates UV Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, biochemical assays for side chain modifications, amino acid estimations, electrochemical and optical characterstic of glycated albumin. Conclusion: Glucose modified human serum albumin confers AGEs formation alters biochemical, electrochemical, optical, and functional property that depend on the reactivity of glucose and its concentration used for in-vitro glycation. A biochemical, electrochemical, optical, and functional characterization of modified albumin in-vitro produced AGE product that will be useful to interpret the complications and pathophysiological significance in diabetes.

Keywords: human serum albumin, glycated albumin, adavanced glycation end products, associated pathologies

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4228 The Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) in the Diet on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Oscar Fish (Astronotus ocellatus)

Authors: Ali Saghaei, Negar Ghotbeddin, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh Ghatrami, Milad Maniat

Abstract:

The use of herbs as natural additives in fish diets are used to enhance the efficiency and safety systems. The use of herbs, garlic, due to the structure and composition of it has beneficial role in human nutrition and animal nutrition. This study was conducted evaluate the effect different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the some serum biochemical parameters of Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). Fish were divided into four groups fed on diets containing garlic in different levels; 5 g kg˗1, 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group diet was without garlic. A total number of 300 fish was used and Triplicate groups of Oscar fish with initial weight of 12.43±0.24 g were hand-fed to visual satiation at three meals per day. The experiment extended for two months. Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin (GLB) and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, were determined. Based on the results, no significant differences were seen among treatments and control groups during the experimental period for TP, ALB, GLB, and A/G ratio (p > 0.05). Although, the highest amount of serum total protein and globulin levels were observed in diet containing 10 g kg-1 of garlic. Also, the highest value of albumin and A/G were observed in diet containing 20 g kg-1 of garlic, but there were no significant difference with other treatments. The results of this study show that addition of garlic Allium sativum to fish diet can improve fish health.

Keywords: garlic (Allium sativum), serum, Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus), iran

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4227 Biochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Glycated Albumin: Clinical Relevance in Diabetes Associated Complications

Authors: Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Background: Serum albumin glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation correlates in diabetes and its associated complications. Extensive modified human serum albumin is used to study the biochemical, electrochemical and functional properties in hyperglycemic environment with relevance to diabetes. We evaluate Spectroscopic, side chain modifications, amino acid analysis, biochemical and functional group properties in four glucose modified samples. Methods: A series four human serum albumin samples modified with glucose was characterized in terms of amino acid analysis, spectroscopic properties and side chain modifications. The diagnostic technique employed incorporates UV Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, biochemical assays for side chain modifications, amino acid estimations. Conclusion: Glucose modified human serum albumin confers AGE formation causes biochemical and functional property that depend on the reactivity of glucose and its concentration used for in-vitro glycation. A biochemical and functional characterization of modified albumin in-vitro produced AGE product that will be useful to interpret the complications and pathophysiological significance in diabetes.

Keywords: glycation, diabetes, human serum albumin, biochemical and electrochemical characterization

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4226 Predicting COVID-19 Severity Using a Simple Parameters in Resource-Limited Settings

Authors: Sireethorn Nimitvilai, Ussanee Poolvivatchaikarn, Nuchanart Tomeun

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the simple laboratory parameters to predict disease severity among COVID-19 patients in resource-limited settings. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Nakhonpathom Hospital, a 722-bed tertiary care hospital, with an average of 50,000 admissions per year, during April 15 and May 15, 2021. Eligible patients were adults aged ≥ 15 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19. Baseline characteristics, comorbid conditions ad laboratory findings at admission were collected. Predictive factors for severe COVID-19 infection were analyzed. Result: There were 207 patients (79 male and 128 female) and the mean age was 46.7 (16.8) years. Of these, 39 cases (18.8%) were severe and 168 (81.2%) cases were non-severe. Factors associated with severe COVID-19 were neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≥ 4 (OR 8.1, 95%CI 2.3-20.3, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio ≥ 10 (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.3-9.1, p 0.01). Conclusions: Complete blood counts, C-reactive protein and albumin are simple, inexpensive, widely available tests and can be used to predict severe COVID-19 in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: COVID-19, predictor of severity, resource-limiting settings, simple laboratory parameters

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4225 Immuno-field Effect Transistor Using Carbon Nanotubes Network – Based for Human Serum Albumin Highly Sensitive Detection

Authors: Muhamad Azuddin Hassan, Siti Shafura Karim, Ambri Mohamed, Iskandar Yahya

Abstract:

Human serum albumin plays a significant part in the physiological functions of the human body system (HSA).HSA level monitoring is critical for early detection of HSA-related illnesses. The goal of this study is to show that a field effect transistor (FET)-based immunosensor can assess HSA using high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes network (CNT) as a transducer. The CNT network were deposited using air brush technique, and the FET device was made using a shadow mask process. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and a current-voltage measurement system were used to examine the morphology and electrical properties of the CNT network, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the surface alteration of the CNT. The detection process is based on covalent binding interactions between an antibody and an HSA target, which resulted in a change in the manufactured biosensor's drain current (Id).In a linear range between 1 ng/ml and 10zg/ml, the biosensor has a high sensitivity of 0.826 mA (g/ml)-1 and a LOD value of 1.9zg/ml.HSA was also identified in a genuine serum despite interference from other biomolecules, demonstrating the CNT-FET immunosensor's ability to quantify HSA in a complex biological environment.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes network, biosensor, human serum albumin

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4224 Use of Serum Creatinine as an Incentive to Increase Prep Uptake Among Key Population Groups in South-South Nigeria

Authors: Akhigbe Mark, Abang Roger, Mwoltu Nanaribet, Edet Blessing

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Introduction.: The introduction of pre- exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a biomedical prevention method for HIV/AIDS has been around for more than a decade since the first confirmed evidence of its effectiveness when used daily as an oral pill. It is now a very valuable addition for people who are at higher risk of contracting HIV. Although globalacceptanceof PrEP hasincreased, PrEP is still highly concentrated in a small number of countries and within a small sub-population, with Kenya and South Africa accounting for only 19% of people who have received PrEP in Africa region, there is still a significant regionGap in PrEP availability and use, with only 28% of the target of 3 million in low-and middle countries currently using PrEP. Description: The purpose of this study is to find out if serum creatinine could be used as an incentive to improve PrEP uptake among Key population.Numerous approaches to increasing the uptake ofPrEP as a prevention mechanism for HIV in KPs has beenemployed, and one of them is serum creatinine. This approach is a biomarker of renal function, which was used in study as an incentive to increase PrEP uptake among key population groups (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, persons who inject drugs, transgender) in 3 states from South-South Nigeria. Whole blood samples are collected from clients, analysis of the samples is done using the clinical chemistry analyzer before they are initiated onto PrEP. Lessons learned and Recommendations: Secondary data was extracted from 3 states of HALG Implementing facilities in Southern part of Nigeria, PrEP uptake before and afterthe introduction of serum creatinine between March 2020 and August 2020 among key populationsin Nigeria. A total of 5664 patients were initiated on PrEP before, and after the introduction of serum creatinine, the PrEP uptake rate before (March 2020 to May 2020) introduction of serum creatinine accounted for only 5% of the total onset, and after (June 2020 to August 2020) introduction of serum creatinine, the uptake rate accounted for 95% of the total onset. These finding shows that increased uptake of PrEP before/after serum creatineindicates that serum creatine may be an effective stimulus for promoting PrEP in key populations.

Keywords: serum creatinine, incentives, PrEP, key populations, Nigeria

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4223 Antioxidant Activity of Avocado Puree on Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine Level in White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Induced with Toxic Doses of Meloxicam

Authors: Amelia R. Anshar, Dini Kurnia, Muh A. Bahar

Abstract:

Nowadays, there are so many incidences had been reported in pet animals regarding drug overdose caused by incorrect doses of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), for instance, meloxicam. As supporting treatment, the avocado is used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent some health cases. The study was aimed at providing the basis for the antioxidant activity of avocado puree in animal medicine. Experimental animals used in this study were 24 male rats that were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6). Control Group I got 1 ml CMC 1% and control II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and 1 ml CMC 1%. Treatment group I got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 5 g/kgBB/day and treatment II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 10 g/kgBB/day. The study was conducted over 8 days, then the level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine of the white rats were examined in 1st day and 8th day. The results were analyzed by ANOVA Two Way With Replication, then followed by T-test (α = 0,05) if there were a difference. Comparison test among the four groups after treatment with avocado using Anova Two Way With Replication test showed that there were significant differences between the mean of the four groups either decreased levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine with p < 0,05. Treatment group I and II received treatment showed remarkable (p < 0,05) decreases ini Blood Urea Nitrogen level by 27,17 mg/dl and 17,83 mg/dl respectively. There was also significant decrease in the values of creatinine in Treatment group I and treatment group II by 0,983 mg/dl and 0,713 mg/dl respectively. The conclusion of this study was that avocado decreases level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine in white rats which are exposed to toxic doses of meloxicam.

Keywords: avocado, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, meloxicam

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4222 Anti-Inflammatory Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N. Ukwuani, M. G. Abubakar, S. W. Hassan

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Grewia crenata is used locally in the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of G. crenata leaves was investigated using egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema model in albino rat. The extract produced a time-dependent inhibition of egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema at 30th minutes up to 150th minutes in all the groups compared to the control. Significant reduction (p<0.05) of hind paw oedema was observed 150 minutes after egg albumin injection. The percentage inhibition produced by the extract at 200 mg/kg (22.1%) was comparable to that produced by 10 mg/kg indomethacin (24.9%) at the 150th minutes of post-egg albumin injection. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. The results obtained in this study suggest that Grewia crenata can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agent and validates its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, anti-inflammatory, hind paw, oedema

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4221 Adsorptive Media Selection for Bilirubin Removal: An Adsorption Equilibrium Study

Authors: Vincenzo Piemonte

Abstract:

The liver is a complex, large-scale biochemical reactor which plays a unique role in the human physiology. When liver ceases to perform its physiological activity, a functional replacement is required. Actually, liver transplantation is the only clinically effective method of treating severe liver disease. Anyway, the aforementioned therapeutic approach is hampered by the disparity between organ availability and the number of patients on the waiting list. In order to overcome this critical issue, research activities focused on liver support device systems (LSDs) designed to bridging patients to transplantation or to keep them alive until the recovery of native liver function. In recirculating albumin dialysis devices, such as MARS (Molecular Adsorbed Recirculating System), adsorption is one of the fundamental steps in albumin-dialysate regeneration. Among the albumin-bound toxins that must be removed from blood during liver-failure therapy, bilirubin and tryptophan can be considered as representative of two different toxin classes. The first one, not water soluble at physiological blood pH and strongly bounded to albumin, the second one, loosely albumin bound and partially water soluble at pH 7.4. Fixed bed units are normally used for this task, and the design of such units requires information both on toxin adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. The most common adsorptive media used in LSDs are activated carbon, non-ionic polymeric resins and anionic resins. In this paper, bilirubin adsorption isotherms on different adsorptive media, such as polymeric resin, albumin-coated resin, anionic resin, activated carbon and alginate beads with entrapped albumin are presented. By comparing all the results, it can be stated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of the five different media increases in the following order: Alginate beads < Polymeric resin < Albumin-coated resin < Activated carbon < Anionic resin. The main focus of this paper is to provide useful guidelines for the optimization of liver support devices which implement adsorption columns to remove albumin-bound toxins from albumin dialysate solutions.

Keywords: adsorptive media, adsorption equilibrium, artificial liver devices, bilirubin, mathematical modelling

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4220 Liquid Chromatography Microfluidics for Detection and Quantification of Urine Albumin Using Linear Regression Method

Authors: Patricia B. Cruz, Catrina Jean G. Valenzuela, Analyn N. Yumang

Abstract:

Nearly a hundred per million of the Filipino population is diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The early stage of CKD has no symptoms and can only be discovered once the patient undergoes urinalysis. Over the years, different methods were discovered and used for the quantification of the urinary albumin such as the immunochemical assays where most of these methods require large machinery that has a high cost in maintenance and resources, and a dipstick test which is yet to be proven and is still debated as a reliable method in detecting early stages of microalbuminuria. This research study involves the use of the liquid chromatography concept in microfluidic instruments with biosensor as a means of separation and detection respectively, and linear regression to quantify human urinary albumin. The researchers’ main objective was to create a miniature system that quantifies and detect patients’ urinary albumin while reducing the amount of volume used per five test samples. For this study, 30 urine samples of unknown albumin concentrations were tested using VITROS Analyzer and the microfluidic system for comparison. Based on the data shared by both methods, the actual vs. predicted regression were able to create a positive linear relationship with an R2 of 0.9995 and a linear equation of y = 1.09x + 0.07, indicating that the predicted values and actual values are approximately equal. Furthermore, the microfluidic instrument uses 75% less in total volume – sample and reagents combined, compared to the VITROS Analyzer per five test samples.

Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, Linear Regression, Microfluidics, Urinary Albumin

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4219 Toxicity of Solenstemma Argel (Hargal ) on Nubian Goats

Authors: Amna B. Medani, M. A. Elbadwi Samia, Hassan A. Khalid

Abstract:

In our study, nine Nubian goat kids were obtained, allotted into three groups, and healthily adapted in pens within the premises of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Khartoum to be given the oral doses of the dried herb shoots at daily doses of 1 and 5 gm/kg/day with drinking water, while the kids of the control group were left undosed. All goats were slaughtered,if not died, after 35 days. S. argel at the given doses caused signs of arched posture, ruffled hair, shivering and paralysis of limbs. On post mortem, lesions were seen to be hepatic fatty changes, renal necrosis, congested lungs and inflamed intestines. Serum chemistry investigations revealed significant increase (P< 0.05-0.01) in the activities of ALP(alkaline phosphates) and AST( aspartate-aminotransferase) in goats dosed with 5 gm /kg/ day. Also observed were significant increases in inorganic phosphorus and urea concentrations (P < 0.05-0.01) in both dosed goat groups. .Other investigations including the activity of GGT( gamma glutamyltransferase), creatinine, calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. On haematological evaluation , the goat kids dosed with 5 gm/kg/dayshowed a decrease in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count of (P < 0.05-0.01).Both groups of dosed goats showed a higher packed cell volume values of (P < 0.05) when compared to the control goats .Mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were not different from those of the control kids. S. argel at the given doses caused signs of arched posture, ruffled hair, shivering and paralysis of limbs. On post mortem, lesions were seen to be hepatic fatty changes, renal necrosis, congested lungs and inflamed intestines. Serum chemistry investigations revealed significant increase (P < 0.05-0.01) in the activities of ALP(alkaline phosphates) and AST( aspartate-aminotransferase) in goats dosed with 5 gm /kg/ day. Also observed were significant increases in inorganic phosphorus and urea concentrations (P < 0.05-0.01) in both dosed goat groups. .Other investigations including the activity of GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase), creatinine, calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. On haematological evaluation , the goat kids dosed with 5 gm/kg/dayshowed a decrease in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count of (P < 0.05-0.01).Both groups of dosed goats showed a higher packed cell volume values of (P < 0.05) when compared to the control goats .Mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were not different from those of the control kids. Data obtained were then discussed to find S. argel irritable to intestines , toxic to the kidney and liver and a haematological mild toxin.Suggestions for future were forwarded.

Keywords: hargal, nubian goats, solenstemma argel, toxicity

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4218 Modelling Ibuprofen with Human Albumin

Authors: U. L. Fulco, E. L. Albuquerque, José X. Lima Neto, L. R. Da Silva

Abstract:

The binding of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) to human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within a fragmentation strategy. Crystallographic data for the IBU–HSA supramolecular complex shows that the ligand is confined to a large cavity at the subdomain IIIA and at the interface between the subdomains IIA and IIB, whose binding sites are FA3/FA4 and FA6, respectively. The interaction energy between the IBU molecule and each amino acid residue of these HSA binding pockets was calculated using the Molecular Fractionation with Conjugate Caps (MFCC) approach employing a dispersion corrected exchange–correlation functional. Our investigation shows that the total interaction energy of IBU bound to HSA at binding sites of the fatty acids FA3/FA4 (FA6) converges only for a pocket radius of at least 8.5 °A, mainly due to the action of residues Arg410, Lys414 and Ser489 (Lys351, Ser480 and Leu481) and residues in nonhydrophobic domains, namely Ile388, Phe395, Phe403, Leu407, Leu430, Val433, and Leu453 (Phe206, Ala210, Ala213, and Leu327), which is unusual. Our simulations are valuable for a better understanding of the binding mechanism of IBU to albumin and can lead to the rational design and the development of novel IBU-derived drugs with improved potency.

Keywords: ibuprofen, human serum albumin, density functional theory, binding energies

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4217 Nephroprotective Effect of Asparagus falcatus Leaf Extract on Adriamycin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats: A Dose Response Study

Authors: A. M. S. S. Amarasiri, A. P. Attanayake, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa

Abstract:

Adriamycin (ADR) is an effective anthracyclin antitumor drug, but its clinical use is limited due to renal toxicity. The leaves of Asparagus falcatus (Family: Liliaceae) have been used in the management of renal diseases since antiquity. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus was evaluated for acute nephroprotective activity in ADR induced nephrotoxic rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in healthy male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of ADR 20 mg/kg. The lyophilized powder of the aqueous refluxed (4h) leaf extract of A. falcatus was administered orally at three selected doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for three consecutive days. Fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. Administration of the plant extract and the standard drug was commenced 24 hours after the induction of nephrotoxicity to rats. The nephroprotective effect was determined by selected biochemical parameters and by the assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections. The results were compared to a group of control rats with ADR induced nephrotoxicity. A group of rats administered with the equivalent volume of normal saline served as the healthy control. Administration of ADR 20 mg/kg produced a significant increase in the concentrations of serum creatinine (61%) and urine protein (73%) followed by a significant decrease in serum total protein (21%) and albumin (44%) of the plant extract treated animals compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract of Asparagus falcatus at the three doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and the standard drug were found to decrease the elevation of concentrations of serum creatinine (33%, 51%, 54% and 42%) and urine protein (8%, 63%, 80% and 86%) respectively. The serum concentrations of total protein (12%, 17%, 29% and 12%) and albumin (3%, 17%, 17% and 16%) were significantly increased compared to the nephrotoxic control group respectively. Assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections demonstrated that ADR induced renal injury, as evidenced by loss of brush border, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknosis in renal tubular epithelial cells, haemorrhages, glomerular congestion and presence of hyaline casts. Treatment with the plant extract and the standard drug resulted in attenuation of the morphological destruction in rats. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus possesses significant nephroprotective activity against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity. The improved kidney functions were supported with the results of selected biochemical parameters and histological changes observed on H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues in Wistar rats.

Keywords: adriamycin induced nephrotoxicity, asparagus falcatus, biochemical assessment, histopathological assessment, nephroprotective activity

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4216 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki

Abstract:

30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: albumin, amylase, cholesterol, crack, HDL, LDL, lipase, protein, rat, triglycerides, VLDL

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4215 Estimation of Microbial-N Supply to Small Intestine in Angora Goats Fed by Different Roughage Sources

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to estimate the microbial-N flow to small intestine based on daily urinary purine derivatives(PD) mainly xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid and allantoin excretion in Angora goats fed by grass hay and concentrate (Period I); barley straw and concentrate (Period II). Daily urine samples were collected during last 3 days of each period from 10 individually penned Angora bucks( LW 30-35 Kg, 2-3 years old) receiving ad libitum grass hay or barley straw and 300 g/d concentrate. Fresh water was always available. 4N H2SO4 was added to collected daily urine .samples to keep pH under 3 to avoid of uric acid precipitation. Diluted urine samples were stored at -20°C until analysis. Urine samples were analyzed for xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin and creatinine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method (HPLC). Urine was diluted 1:15 in ratio with water and duplicate samples were prepared for HPLC analysis. Calculated mean levels (n=60) for urinary xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin, total PD and creatinine excretion were 0.39±0.02 , 0.26±0.03, 0.59±0.06, 5.91±0.50, 7.15±0.57 and 3.75±0.40 mmol/L for Period I respectively; 0.35±0.03, 0.21±0.02, 0.55±0.05, 5.60±0.47, 6.71±0.46 and 3.73±0.41 mmol/L for Period II respectively.Mean values of Period I and II were significantly different (P< 0.05) except creatinine excretion. Estimated mean microbial-N supply to the small intestine for Period I and II in Angora goats were 5.72±0.46 and 5.41±0.61 g N/d respectively. The effects of grass hay and barley straw feeding on microbial-N supply to small intestine were found significantly different (P< 0.05). In conclusion, grass hay showed a better effect on the ruminal microbial protein synthesis compared to barley straw, therefore; grass hay is suggested as roughage source in Angora goat feeding.

Keywords: angora goat, HPLC method, microbial-N supply to small intestine, urinary purine derivatives

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4214 Role of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Media in Alleviating Kidney Injury via Inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin System in Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Pardis Abolghasemi, Benyamin Hatamsaz

Abstract:

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious health problem described by specific kidney structure and functional disturbance. Renoprotective effects of the stem cells secretase have been shown in many kidney diseases. The aim is to evaluate the capability of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (hWJMSCs-CM) to alleviate DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: Diabetic nephropathy was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) in twenty rats. Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs at third passages. At week 8, diabetic rats were divided into two groups: treated (hWJMSCs-CM, 500 μl/rat for three weeks, IP) and not treated (DN). In the 11th week, three groups (control, DN and DN+hWJMSCs-CM) were kept in metabolic cages and urine was collected for 24h. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. The serum samples were maintained for measuring BUN, Cr and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The left kidney was kept at -80°C for ACE activity assessment. The right kidney and pancreas were used for histopathologic evaluation. Result: Diabetic nephropathy was detected by microalbuminuria and increased albumin/creatinine ratio, as well as the pancreas and renal structural disturbance. Glomerular filtration rate, BP and HR increased in the DN group. The ACE activity was elevated in the serum and kidneys of the DN group. Administration of hWJMSCs-CM modulated the renal functional and structural disturbance and decreased the ACE activity. Conclusion: Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs may have a Renoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy. This may happen through regulation of ACE activity and renin-angiotensin system inhibition.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, mesenchymal stem cells, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation

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4213 Development of a Novel Score for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Hatem A. El-Mezayen, Hossam Darwesh

Abstract:

Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of VEGF and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: VEGF was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-VEGF score)=1.26 (numerical constant) + 0.05 ×AFP (U L-1)+0.038 × VEGF(ng ml-1)+0.004× INR –1.02 × Albumin (g l-1)–0.002 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-VEGF score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 4.4 (ie less than 4.4 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-VEGF score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, tumor markers

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4212 Diagnostic Performance of Tumor Associated Trypsin Inhibitor in Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Aml M. El-Sharkawy, Hossam M. Darwesh

Abstract:

Abstract— Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between tumor associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of TATI and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: TATI was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-TATI score) = 3.1 (numerical constant) + 0.09 ×AFP (U L-1) + 0.067 × TATI (ng ml-1) + 0.16 × INR – 1.17 × Albumin (g l-1) – 0.032 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-TATI score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 6.5 (ie less than 6.5 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-TATI score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, TATI

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4211 Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohamed F. Ahmed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabha

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days) , group 3: treated with L‐carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the above-mentioned parameters as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of the kidney associated with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: gentamicin, nephrotoxicity, L‐carnitine, kidney disease

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4210 Laboratory Findings as Predictors of St2 and NT-Probnp Elevations in Heart Failure Clinic, National Cardiovascular Centre Harapan Kita, Indonesia

Authors: B. B. Siswanto, A. Halimi, K. M. H. J. Tandayu, C. Abdillah, F. Nanda , E. Chandra

Abstract:

Nowadays, modern cardiac biomarkers, such as ST2 and NT-proBNP, have important roles in predicting morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients. Abnormalities of serum electrolytes, sepsis or infection, and deteriorating renal function will worsen the conditions of patients with heart failure. It is intriguing to know whether cardiac biomarkers elevations are affected by laboratory findings in heart failure patients. We recruited 65 patients from the heart failure clinic in NCVC Harapan Kita in 2014-2015. All of them have consented for laboratory examination, including cardiac biomarkers. The findings were recorded in our Research and Development Centre and analyzed using linear regression to find whether there is a relationship between laboratory findings (sodium, potassium, creatinine, and leukocytes) and ST2 or NT-proBNP. From 65 patients, 26.9% of them are female, and 73.1% are male, 69.4% patients classified as NYHA I-II and 31.6% as NYHA III-IV. The mean age is 55.7+11.4 years old; mean sodium level is 136.1+6.5 mmol/l; mean potassium level is 4.7+1.9 mmol/l; mean leukocyte count is 9184.7+3622.4 /ul; mean creatinine level is 1.2+0.5 mg/dl. From linear regression logistics, the relationship between NT-proBNP and sodium level (p<0.001), as well as leukocyte count (p=0.002) are significant, while NT-proBNP and potassium level (p=0.05), as well as creatinine level (p=0.534) are not significant. The relationship between ST2 and sodium level (p=0.501), potassium level (p=0.76), leukocyte level (p=0.897), and creatinine level (p=0.817) are not significant. To conclude, laboratory findings are more sensitive in predicting NT-proBNP elevation than ST2 elevation. Larger studies are needed to prove that NT-proBNP correlation with laboratory findings is more superior than ST2.

Keywords: heart failure, laboratory, NT-proBNP, ST2

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4209 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez

Abstract:

This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers, textile design, designs

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4208 Spectrofluorometric Studies on the Interactions of Bovine Serum Albumin with Dimeric Cationic Surfactants

Authors: Srishti Sinha, Deepti Tikariha, Kallol K. Ghosh

Abstract:

Over the past few decades protein-surfactant interactions have been a subject of extensive studies as they are of great importance in wide variety of industries, biological, pharmaceutical and cosmetic systems. Protein-surfactant interactions have been explored the effect of surfactants on structure of protein in the form of solubilization and denaturing or renaturing of protein. Globular proteins are frequently used as functional ingredients in healthcare and pharmaceutical products, due to their ability to catalyze biochemical reactions, to be adsorbed on the surface of some substance and to bind other moieties and form molecular aggregates. One of the most widely used globular protein is bovine serum albumin (BSA), since it has a well-known primary structure and been associated with the binding of many different categories of molecules, such as dyes, drugs and toxic chemicals. Protein−surfactant interactions are usually dependent on the surfactant features. Most of the research has been focused on single-chain surfactants. More recently, the binding between proteins and dimeric surfactants has been discussed. In present study interactions of one dimeric surfactant Butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide) (16-4-16, 2Br-) and the corresponding single-chain surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been investigated by surface tension and spectrofluoremetric methods. It has been found that the bindings of all gemini surfactant to BSA were cooperatively driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The gemini surfactant carrying more charges and hydrophobic tails, showed stronger interactions with BSA than the single-chain surfactant.

Keywords: bovine serum albumin, gemini surfactants, hydrophobic interactions, protein surfactant interaction

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4207 Glycation of Serum Albumin: Cause Remarkable Alteration in Protein Structure and Generation of Early Glycation End Products

Authors: Ishrat Jahan Saifi, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, M. R. Ajmal

Abstract:

Glycation of protein is very important as well as a harmful process, which may lead to develop DM in human body. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood and it is highly prone to glycation by the reducing sugars. 2-¬deoxy d-¬Ribose (dRib) is a highly reactive reducing sugar which is produced in cells as a product of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. It is generated during the degradation of DNA in human body. It may cause glycation in HSA rapidly and is involved in the development of DM. In present study, we did in¬vitro glycation of HSA with different concentrations of 2-¬deoxy d-¬ribose and found that dRib glycated HSA rapidly within 4h incubation at 37◦C. UV¬ Spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) technique have been done to determine the structural changes in HSA upon glycation. Results of this study suggested that dRib is the potential glycating agent and it causes alteration in protein structure and biophysical properties which may lead to development and progression of Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: 2-deoxy D-ribose, human serum albumin, glycation, diabetes mellitus

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