Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Binaya Tamang

6 Vitamin D Levels in Relation to Thyroid Disorders

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhhi Raj Pokhrel, Narayan Gautam


Background: There may be a connection between thyroid function and vitamin D status since both bind to similar nuclear hormone receptors and have similar response regions on gene promoters. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and vitamin D levels in females who were attending a tertiary care center in western Nepal and were either hypothyroid or euthyroid. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2020 and March 2021 by the Biochemistry department of the Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairahawa, Province No. 5, Nepal, in cooperation with Internal medicine. Prior to the study, institutional review committee approval (UCMS/IRC/008/20) was acquired from UCMS. Women who visited the Internal Medicine OPD of UCMS and were advised to get a thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study population. Only those who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled after the goals and advantages of the study had been explained to them. Participants who had recently used vitamin D supplements and medications that affected thyroid hormones were excluded. The participants gave their consent verbally and in writing. After getting the consent, a convenient sample technique was applied. Serum was isolated after drawing 3 ml of blood in a plain vial. Chemiluminescence assay was used to analyze vitamin D and thyroid hormones (MAGLUMI 2000). SPSS version 16.0 for Windows was used to conduct the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value < 0.05. Results: Majority of the study population (n=214, 71%) had insufficient serum vitamin D levels. Among the thyroid groups, the median Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid (16.88 ng/ml) as compared to the euthyroid groups (25.01 ng/ml) (P<0.001). Similarly, serum Vitamin D levels were considerably lower in the obese population (16.86 ng/ml) as compared to the normal BMI group (24.90 ng/ml) (P<0.001) as well as in the vegetarian (15.43 than mixed diet consumer (24.89 ng/ml) (P<0.01). Even after the adjustment for these variables, the Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in the hypothyroid population than in the euthyroid group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Comparing the hypothyroid population to the euthyroid, the median serum vitamin D levels were considerably lower. We were alarmed to see that the majority of euthyroid participants also had low levels of vitamin D. Therefore if left untreated, low vitamin D levels in hypothyroid patients could worsen their health further.

Keywords: vitamin D, thyroid hormones, euthyroid, hypothyroid, Nepal

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5 Microalbuminuria in Patients with Hypertension Visiting Tertiary Care Centre, Western Nepal

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhi R. Pokharel, Narayan Gautam, Puspa R. Dhakal, Yuresh Twayana


Background and Objective: Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to hypertension, with an increased risk for renal diseases. The present study was designed to find the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients by determining albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the association of ACR and microalbuminuria status with different stages and duration of hypertension (HTN). Also, to establish the correlation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with various parameters viz; ACR, urinary microalbumin (UMA), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary creatinine (Ucreat), serum creatinine (Screat), and find out their significance among HTN and ACR status. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Internal Medicine, UCMS, Bhairahawa, Nepal from April 2019 to September 2019 after obtaining ethical approval from institutional review committee (IRC), UCMS. A total of 120 hypertensive patients were enrolled whose blood, and spot urine samples were taken. eGFR was calculated by using Cockcroft-Gault formula after determining Screat while ACR was calculated after measuring Ucreat and UMA from the spot urine sample. Creatinine was estimated from modified jaffes’ reaction, whereas urinary micro albumin was done by Mispa i3 analyzer. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. 20 using p-value ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In our study, the highest enrolled were grade II HTN (36.7%) followed by normal (33.3%), grade I (20.8%) and grade III (9.2%). Evaluating the ACR status, 19.2% were microalbuminuria, and the rest were normal. Though the ACR status (normal and microalbuminuria) was not statistically significant with HTN status (P=0.860) and the duration of HTN status (P=0.165), 5 (45.5%) out of 11 grade III HTN were microalbuminuria and the prevalence was also higher for longer duration .i.e., more than 10 years. In microalbuminuria, both the SBP (p=0.023, r=0.471) and DBP (P=0.034, r= 0.444) were strongly and positively correlated with Screat, in contrast to eGFR, which was negatively but weakly correlated. With the significant difference between the HTN group, the mean ACR (P=0.047) and UMA (P=0.02) were found to be highest among grade III patients, i.e., 84.3 ± 113.3 mg/gm. and 88.4 ± 83.9 mg/l respectively. The mean eGFR (64.2 ± 24.8 vs 77.2 ± 18.1 ml/min) was considerably lower in microalbuminuria ( p=0.026) than the normal in contrast to the SBP (160 ± 33.7 vs. 146.6 ± 19.5 mm of Hg) which was significantly higher (P=0.008). Among the different BMI category, the mean ACR was found to be significantly different (P= 0.01) with the highest value in underweight (115.2 ± 51.5 mg/gm.) and lowest in overweight (31.8 ± 4.3 mg/gm.). Conclusion: The study recommends that the microalbuminuria can be a very useful and imperative predictor of deranged kidney functions in hypertensive patients. The high value of ACR and UMA in hypertensive patients along with significant increased Screat, SBP whereas decreased eGFR in microalbuminuria patients explicitly supports the above statement.

Keywords: albumin creatinine ratio, hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal disease

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4 Resume Ranking Using Custom Word2vec and Rule-Based Natural Language Processing Techniques

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Rajendra Sapkota, Aakash Tamang, Shushant Pudasaini, Sujan Adhikari, Sajjan Adhikari


Lots of efforts have been made in order to measure the semantic similarity between the text corpora in the documents. Techniques have been evolved to measure the similarity of two documents. One such state-of-art technique in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is word to vector models, which converts the words into their word-embedding and measures the similarity between the vectors. We found this to be quite useful for the task of resume ranking. So, this research paper is the implementation of the word2vec model along with other Natural Language Processing techniques in order to rank the resumes for the particular job description so as to automate the process of hiring. The research paper proposes the system and the findings that were made during the process of building the system.

Keywords: chunking, document similarity, information extraction, natural language processing, word2vec, word embedding

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3 Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in Bridim Village Development Committee in Langtang National Park, Nepal

Authors: Ila Shrestha


Bridim Village Development Committee (VDC) is one of the medicinal plants hot spots of Nepal. It is located on a ridge above the lower Langtang Khola, steep and narrow spot in between 1944 m to 4833 m altitude. The study area is homogeneously inhabited by Tamang communities. An investigation on folk herbal medicine on the basis of traditional uses of medicinal plants was done in 2014. The local traditional healers, elder men and women, traders and teachers, were consulted as key informants for documentation of indigenous knowledge on the medicinal plants. It was found that altogether seventy-one medicinal plant species belonging to sixty genera and thirty-three families were used by local people for twenty-seven diseases. Roots of thirty-four species were the most frequently used plant parts and bigger numbers of species were found to be used in fever of ten species. Most medicines were prepared in the form of juice of forty species. The attempt of the study was to document ethno medicinal practices to treat different diseases in the study area for conservation of indigenous knowledge.

Keywords: Bridim village, ethnomedicine, national park, plants

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2 Intracranial Hypertension without CVST in Apla Syndrome: An Unique Association

Authors: Camelia Porey, Binaya Kumar Jaiswal


BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) syndrome is an autoimmune disorder predisposing to thrombotic complications affecting CNS either by arterial vasooclusion or venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) secondarily causes raised intracranial pressure (ICP). However, intracranial hypertension without evidence of CVST is a rare entity. Here we present two cases of elevated ICP with absence of identifiable CVST. CASE SUMMARY: Case 1, 28-year female had a 2 months history of holocranial headache followed by bilateral painless vision loss reaching lack of light perception over 20 days. CSF opening pressure was elevated. Fundoscopy showed bilateral grade 4 papilledema. MRI revealed a partially empty sella with bilateral optic nerve tortuosity. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) was diagnosed. With acetazolamide, there was complete resolution of the clinical and radiological abnormalities. 5 months later she presented with acute onset right-sided hemiparesis. MRI was suggestive of acute left MCA infarct.MR venogram was normal. APLA came positive with high titres of Anticardiolipin and Beta 2 glycoprotein both IgG and IgM. Case 2, 23-year female, presented with headache and diplopia of 2 months duration. CSF pressure was elevated and Grade 3 papilledema was seen. MRI showed bilateral optic nerve hyperintensities with nerve head protrusion with normal MRV. APLA profile showed elevated beta 2 glycoprotein IgG and IgA. CONCLUSION: This is an important non thrombotic complication of APLA syndrome and requires further large-scale study for insight into the pathogenesis and early recognition to avoid future complications.

Keywords: APLA syndrome, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, MR venogram, papilledema

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1 Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Man Kumar Tamang, Uday Narayan Yadav


Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.

Keywords: elderly, eastern Nepal, malnutrition, nutritional status

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