Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Dini Kurnia

21 Antioxidant Activity of Avocado Puree on Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine Level in White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Induced with Toxic Doses of Meloxicam

Authors: Amelia R. Anshar, Dini Kurnia, Muh A. Bahar

Abstract:

Nowadays, there are so many incidences had been reported in pet animals regarding drug overdose caused by incorrect doses of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), for instance, meloxicam. As supporting treatment, the avocado is used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent some health cases. The study was aimed at providing the basis for the antioxidant activity of avocado puree in animal medicine. Experimental animals used in this study were 24 male rats that were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6). Control Group I got 1 ml CMC 1% and control II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and 1 ml CMC 1%. Treatment group I got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 5 g/kgBB/day and treatment II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 10 g/kgBB/day. The study was conducted over 8 days, then the level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine of the white rats were examined in 1st day and 8th day. The results were analyzed by ANOVA Two Way With Replication, then followed by T-test (α = 0,05) if there were a difference. Comparison test among the four groups after treatment with avocado using Anova Two Way With Replication test showed that there were significant differences between the mean of the four groups either decreased levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine with p < 0,05. Treatment group I and II received treatment showed remarkable (p < 0,05) decreases ini Blood Urea Nitrogen level by 27,17 mg/dl and 17,83 mg/dl respectively. There was also significant decrease in the values of creatinine in Treatment group I and treatment group II by 0,983 mg/dl and 0,713 mg/dl respectively. The conclusion of this study was that avocado decreases level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine in white rats which are exposed to toxic doses of meloxicam.

Keywords: creatinine, avocado, blood urea nitrogen, meloxicam

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20 Embracing Inclusive Education: The Issues, Challenges, Dilemmas and Future Plans for Inclusive Secondary Schools in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Rinda Kurnia

Abstract:

Despite the differences and additional needs in the learning process, every individual has the right to receive educational services in order to enhance her/his abilities and potentials. This notion underlies the principle of inclusive education system, something many countries in the world are striving for since the UNESCO Salamanca Statement in 1994. This paper will consider different views that many theorists have published of the term inclusive, the issues, challenges, and dilemmas encountered during the practice, as well as some possible ways forward. It is being described, criticized and analyzed using the standpoint of a shadow teacher in an inclusive secondary school in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, inclusive education challenges, inclusive education dilemmas, inclusive education future plans, inclusive education issues

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19 Andrea's Lifestyle Changes in Lauren Weisberger's 'The Devil Wears Prada'

Authors: Dini Riandini

Abstract:

The research is aimed to find out the causes and effect of Andrea’s lifestyle changes and the other factors that contribute to Andrea’s lifestyle changes which influence Andrea’s behavior and personality in The Devil Wears Prada novel. The method of this research is descriptive qualitative method. Theory of Anderson (1999) about social psychology is used to figure out Andrea’s lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes are influenced by social and environment in which people live. Andrea changes her lifestyle from simple to luxurious because of society and environment in which she lives. Social interaction creates humans’ lifestyles which influence their personality and behavior.

Keywords: Behaviour, Personality, Lifestyle, lifestyle changes

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18 Microbiological Quality and Safety of Meatball Sold in Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia

Authors: Ferawati, H. Purwanto, Y. F. Kurnia, E. Purwati

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of meatball obtained from five different manufacturers around Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Microbiological analysis of meatball sample resulted in aerobic plate count range from 7 log CFU/gr to 8.623 log CFU/gr, respectively. Total coliform ranges from 1.041 log Most Probable Number (MPN)/gr to 3.380 log MPN/gr, respectively. Chemical analysis of meatball sample consisted of borax and formalin content. The result of qualitative detection of borax and formalin content on all meatball samples were not detected. Thus, it remains essential to include the significance of effective hygiene practices as an important safety measure in consumer education programmes.

Keywords: Microbiological Quality, meatball, borax, formalin

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17 Policy and Strategy to Combatting Terrorism in Indonesia: Analysis Socio Juridical Counter and Contra Terrorism

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

Abstract:

In the past decades, Indonesia has suffered severe terrorist attacks, faced major terrorism challenges and has made impressive progress in countering it. The trend of terrorist groups operating in Indonesia is to focus on ‘soft’ targets. Indonesia has made notable progress in strengthening the legal regime against terrorism, in conformity with the international treaties against terrorism. Further measures are however needed to complete the legal regime building processes. This paper will demonstrate analyze socio yuridical contra and counter terrorism by Indonesia Government.

Keywords: Strategy, Policy, combatting terrorism, socio juridical, counter and contra terrorism

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16 Formulation Policy of Criminal Sanction in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

Abstract:

This One of criminal sanctions that are often imposed by the judge is imprisonment. The issue on the imposition of imprisonment has been subject of contentious debate and criticism among various groups for a long time. In practice, the problematics of imprisonment lead to complicated problems. The impact of the reckless imposition of the imprisonment includes among others overcapacity of the correctional institution and increasing crimes within the correctional facilities. Therefore, there is a need for renewal of the existing condemnation paradigm, considering the developing phenomena associated with the penal imposition. Imprisonment as one element of the Indonesian penal system is an important and integral part of the other elements. The philosophy of the current penal system, which still refers to the Criminal Code, still carries the values of retaliation and fault-finding toward the offender. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a new thought in order to realize a penal system that is represented in the formulation of a more humanistic criminal sanction

Keywords: criminal code, criminal sanction, Indonesian legal system, reconstruction of thought

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15 A Descriptive Study of Self-Compassion in Polytechnic Students in Indonesia

Authors: Emma Dwi Ariyani, Dini Hadiani

Abstract:

This article reports the descriptive analysis of self-compassion in polytechnic students. It has been long believed that self-compassion can improve students’ motivation in completing their studies. This research was conducted with the aim to see the degree of self-compassion in polytechnic students in Indonesia by using Neff's Self-Compassion Scale (short form) measurement tool consisting of 12 items. The research method used was descriptive study with survey technique on 255 students. The results showed that 78% of students had low self-compassion and 22% had high self-compassion. This revealed that polytechnic students still criticize themselves harshly, make a poor judgment and bad self-appraisal, and they also cannot accept their imperfection and consider it as a self-judgment. The students also tend to think that they are the only ones that experience failure and suffering. This can lead to a sense of isolation (self-isolation). Furthermore, the students are often too concerned with aspects that are not liked both in themselves and in life (over-identification). Improving the students’ level of self-compassion can be done by building an educational climate that not only criticizes the students but provides feedback as well. This should focus on the students’ real behavior rather than the students’ general character.

Keywords: Indonesia, descriptive study, self-compassion, polytechnic students

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14 Archive's Accessibility of University Archive: Case Study at Universitas Gadjah Mada Archives

Authors: Berlian Eka Kurnia, Mohamad Very Setiawan, Rahmat Fadhli

Abstract:

Archives play an important role in organization’s continuity, especially related to the learning activities in the past. Archive management is considered accessible when the archive can be used when needed. University archive can support research activities for institutions, besides, archive management services also have to pay attention to the accessibility that became a barometer of how easy users get the data or information from an archive, use and understand it. This study identifies about the accessibility of archive services at the Universitas Gadjah Mada, with case study method. Universitas Gadjah Mada archives not only provide a service to the academicians, but also for public. Universitas Gadjah Mada archive can be traced online and offline. Online searching archives can be acceessed through an application “SIKS” and offline searching can be accessed by "finding aids" printed. Although Universitas Gadjah Mada Archives has its own procedures to access the archive directly, but they also remain guided by National Archive of Indonesia.

Keywords: archival institution, university archive, archive’s accessibility, archive management

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13 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: Pesticide residue, non-destructive, detect, leaf mustard

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12 Analysis of Pollution in Agriculture Land Using Decagon Em-50 and Rock Magnetism Method

Authors: Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine, Dini Fitriani

Abstract:

This measurement has been done to analyze the impact of industrial pollution on the environment. Our research is to indicate the soil which has contained some pollution by industrial activity around the area, especially in Sumedang, West Java. The parameter phsyics such as total dissolved solid, volumetric water content, electrical conductivity bulk and FD have shown that the soil has polluted and measured by Decagon EM 50. Decagon EM 50 is one of the geophysical environment instrumentation that is used to interpret the soil condition. This experiment has given a result of these parameter physics, these are: Volumetric water content (m³/m³) = 0,154 – 0,384; Electrical Conductivity Bulk (dS/m) = 0,29 – 1,11 ; Dielectric Permittivity (DP) = 77,636 – 78, 339.Based on these data, we have got the conclusion that the area has, in fact, been contaminated by dangerous materials. VWC is parameter physics that has shown water in soil. The data show the pollution of the soil at the place, of which the specifications are PH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) bigger (>>) and Frequency Dependent (FD) smaller (<<); that means the soil is alkali with big grain and has high salt concentration.

Keywords: Pollution, land, Industrial Textiles, Electrical Conductivity, Decagon EM 50

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11 Identification of Location Parameters for Different User Types of the Inner-City Building Stock: An Austrian Example

Authors: Bernhard Bauer, Thomas Meixner, Amir Dini, Detlef Heck

Abstract:

The inner city building stock is characterized by different types of buildings of different decades and centuries and different types of historical constructions. Depending on the natural growth of a city, those types are often located in downtown areas and the surrounding suburbs. Since the population is becoming older and the variation of the different social requirements spread with the so-called 'Silver Society', city quarters have to be seen alternatively. If an area is very attractive for young students to live there because of the busy nightlife, it might not be suitable for the older society. To identify 'Location Types A, B, C' for different user groups, qualitative interviews with 24 citizens of the city of Graz (Austria) have been carried out, in order to identify the most important values for making a location or city quarter 'A', 'B', or 'C'. Furthermore these acknowledgements have been put into a softwaretool for predicting locations that are the most suitable for certain user groups. On the other hands side, investors or owners of buildings can use the tool for determining the most suitable user group for the location of their building or construction project in order to adapt the project or building stock to the requirements of the users.

Keywords: Built Environment, building stock, location parameters, inner city population

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10 Factors Related to the Success of Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Cross Sectional Study among Mothers in Cirebon City, Indonesia

Authors: Witri Pratiwi, Shopa Nur Fauzah, Dini Norviatin

Abstract:

WHO recommends breastfeeding exclusively for infants aged 0 to 6 months because breast milk is the best nutrition. There are several factors associated with the success of exclusive breastfeeding. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the success of exclusive breastfeeding. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 6 community health centers in Cirebon City, Indonesia. Primary data were obtained from a validated questionnaire given to mothers who have children aged 6 to 24 months. A total of 326 mothers participated in this study. Two hundred and eighteen (66.9%) mothers gave exclusive breastfeeding to their babies, and 108 (33.1%) did not give exclusive breastfeeding. The baby gender (p=0.240), birth weight (p=0.436), and place of birth (0.137) were not related to exclusive breastfeeding. Mode of delivery (p=0.029) and early initiation of breastfeeding (p=0.001) were significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Infants with early initiation of breastfeeding are three times more likely to get exclusive breastfeeding compared to those who do not get breastfeeding early (p=0.001; OR=3.696 [95% CI 1.764 – 7.746]). Early initiation of breastfeeding is the most important factor in determining the success of exclusive breastfeeding. Promotion and education on the importance of early breastfeeding initiation to prospective mothers, families, and health workers are expected to be improved.

Keywords: Indonesia, exclusive breastfeeding, mode of delivery, early initiation of breastfeeding

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9 Delineation of Soil Physical Properties Using Electrical Conductivity, Case Study: Volcanic Soil Simulation Model

Authors: Eleonora Agustine, Dini Fitriani, Twin Aji Kusumagiani

Abstract:

The value changes of soil physical properties in the agricultural area are giving impacts on soil fertility. This can be caused by excessive usage of inorganic fertilizers and imbalances on organic fertilization. Soil physical parameters that can be measured include soil electrical conductivity, water content volume, soil porosity, dielectric permittivity, etc. This study used the electrical conductivity and volume water content as the measured physical parameters. The study was conducted on volcanic soil obtained from agricultural land conditioned with NPK fertilizer and salt in a certain amount. The dimension of the conditioned soil being used is 1 x 1 x 0.5 meters. By using this method, we can delineate the soil electrical conductivity value of land due to changes in the provision of inorganic NPK fertilizer and the salinity in the soil. Zone with the additional 1 kg of salt has the dimension of 60 cm in width, 20 cm in depth and 1 cm in thickness while zone with the additional of 10 kg NPK fertilizer has the dimensions of 70 cm in width, 20 cm in depth and 3 cm in thickness. This salt addition resulted in EC values changes from the original condition. Changes of the EC value tend to occur at a depth of 20 to 40 cm on the line 1B at 9:45 dS/cm and line 1C of 9.35 dS/cm and tend to have the direction to the Northeast.

Keywords: Salt, Electrical Conductivity, VWC, volume water content, NPK fertilizer, volcanic soil

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8 Preliminary Study of Sponge Spicule to Understand Paleobathymetry, Sentolo Formation, Kulon Progo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

Authors: Akmaluddin, Aulia Agus Patria, Adniwan Shubhi Banuzaki, Lucia Hardiana Kurnia Pratiwi

Abstract:

The phylum Porifera, commonly known as sponges, is a group of primitive animals living since Paleozoic-recent, currently have over 8300 described species, where the majority lives in the marine environment and sessile or in situ. Sponge spicule is one part of the body that secreted by sponge; this spicule can be well preserved because it composed of silicate material. Sponge spicule was identified based on morphological form, which was classified into two main classes, Megasclere and Microsclere. Any form of spicule morphology will indicate a particular sponge species, and it also related to the sponge living environment. Therefore, understanding the paleobathymetry using spicules can be done and more detailed because of sponge living in situ. The methods used in this paper are stratigraphic measurement, continuous sampling, and sieve preparation to dissolve calcareous and siliciclastics materials. Then, each spicule was picked by picking method for every 100 grams of each sample and identified the morphological form to determine the order and abundance of spicule. 10 samples have analyzed, 1489 spicules were identified, there were two classes of Porifera, Demospongiae, and Hexactinellida. Five orders of Porifera also identified in the research area, Haplosclerida, Hadromerida, Agelasida, Lithistids, and Lyssacinosida. The results from descriptive analysis and spicule abundance can be understood that the paleobathymetry of research area was in intertidal zone. Furthermore, the variation and abundance of sponge spicule can be used to understand the paleobathymetry and depositional environment.

Keywords: sponge, paleobathymetry, Sentolo formation, spicule

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7 Reconstructing the Trace of Mesozoic Subduction and Its Implication on Stratigraphy Correlation between Deep Marine Sediment and Granite: Case Study of Garba Complex, South Sumatera

Authors: Fadlan Atmaja Nursiwan, Ugi Kurnia Gusti

Abstract:

Garba Hill, located in Tekana Village, South Sumatera Province is comprised to South Sumatra Basin and classified as back arc basin. This area is entered as an active margin of Sundaland which experiences subduction several times since Mesozoic to recent time. The traces of Mesozoic subduction in the southern part of Sumatra island are exposed in Garba Hill area. The aim of this investigation is to study the tectonic changes in the first phase in Mesozoic era at the active margin of Sundaland which causes the rocks assemblage in Garba hill consist of continental and oceanic plate rocks which the correlation between those rocks show indistinct relation. This investigation is conducted by field observation in Tekana village and Lubar Village, Muara Dua, South Sumatra along with laboratory analysis included fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert, petrography analysis of granite and basalt, and structural modelling. Fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert and geochemistry of granite rocks shown the relation between the two rocks and Mesozoic subduction of Woyla terrane on western margin of Sundaland. Petrography analysis from granite and basalt depict the tectonic affinity of rocks. Moreover, structural analysis showed the changes of lineation direction from N-S to WNW-ESE.

Keywords: granite, mesozoic, radiolarian, subduction traces

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6 Effect of Iron Fortification on the Antibacterial Activity of Synbiotic Fermented Milk

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Euis Nurdiyawati, Joko Susilo, Endri Yuliati, Siti Fadhilatun Nashriyah, Kurnia Widyastuti

Abstract:

Background: Iron fortification is one of the most effective and sustainable strategies to overcome anemia. It contradictively, has negative effect on gut microbiota balance. Pathogenic bacteria required iron for their growth. The iron source have greatly affect iron absorption in the intestine. Probiotic can inhibit the growth of pathogen. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, Indonesian local isolate provides many benefits for health while fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) provides selective substrates for probiotics’ growth. Objective: To determine the effect of iron fortification (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) on antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk. Methods: The antibacterial activity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Paper discs were soaked in three kinds of synbiotic fermented milk, which are: 1) fortified with NaFeEDTA, 2) FeSO4 and 3) control. Escherichia coli was inoculated on nutrient agar medium. The ability of inhibition was shown by the formation of clear zone around the paper disc and measured in diameter (mm). Results: Synbiotic fermented milk fortified with iron (either NaFeEDTA or FeSO4) had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with diameter of clear zone were 6.53 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to control (10.73 mm), synbiotic fermented milk fortified with FeSO4 had similar antibacterial activity (p>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro, synbiotic fermented milk fortified with NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 had different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Iron fortification compound affected the antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, FOS, NaFeEDTA, FeSO4

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5 Architectural Design Strategies: Enhance Train Station Performance as the Catalyst of Transit Oriented Development in Jakarta, Case Study of Beos Commuter Line Station

Authors: Shinta Ardiana Sari, Dini Puti Angelia

Abstract:

A high number of urban population in Jakarta has been a substantial issue for mobility strategy. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) becomes one of the strategies to improve community livability based on the design of transit place and the system of its context. TOD principle is trying to win over pedestrian motorization habit, makes people would rather transit and travel more than using private vehicle. Train station takes the main role as the catalyst to emerge TOD, in Jakarta this role will be taken by Commuter line and the future MRT. For advancing its development, architectural design perspective is needed to perform evaluation while seeking for the strategies between accessibility transportation modes with convenience and safety for increasing human behavioral intention. This paper discovers design strategy for transit place that appropriates with Jakarta condition use the basic theories of liminal space and transit-oriented development goal. This paper use evidence-based approach with typology method to analyze the present condition of Commuter Line station in Jakarta and precedent of Asian Cities, Tokyo and Seoul, as the secondary sources, and also with numbers of valid questionnaires. Furthermore, the result of this paper aims to the emerging of a transit-oriented community by giving design requirements and suggestion transportation policies preparing for the operational of MRT in the future Jakarta and other similar cities.

Keywords: Urban, station design, transit place, transit-oriented development

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4 The Perspective of Waria Transgenders in Singaraja on Their Reproduction Health

Authors: Bambang Purwanto, Made Kurnia Widiastuti Giri, Nyoman Kanca, Arie Swastini

Abstract:

Aim: Waria transgenders are a phenomenon whose existence is undeniable. The sexual behaviours of waria transgenders belong to the groups of high-risk STDs infections, especially HIV/AIDS. The present study was aimed at finding out the general idea of the existence of waria transgenders in Singaraja, their sexual transactions, their sexual behaviours, and at exploring the factors affecting their sexual behaviours along with their participation in regular reproduction health control. Methods: The subjects of the present research were male-to-female transgenders living in the town of Singaraja. The research applied a qualitative approach. Data collection in this research was conducted through in-depth interview and observation. Results: The results of the study exposed 1) the existence of waria transgender community in Singaraja observed from their active participation in social events such as taking the roles of counsellors in the campaign of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS with the Local Commission of AIDS Control and other foundations; 2) the sexual services provided by waria transgenders which were performed in squeeze method, oral and anal sex which could be categorized as HIV/AIDS high-risk sexual behaviours, while the consistency in doing safe sex among the trangenders in Singaraja showed that most of the waria transgenders (80%) were aware of the urgency of using condoms during sexual intercourse; and 3) the low participation of the waria transgenders in Singaraja in regular reproduction health check up at the local Centre of Public Health Service was caused by their negative perception about being examined by female doctors. Conclucions: Waria in singaraja categorized as HIV/AIDS high-risk sexual behaviours but they do have consistency in doing safe sex by using condoms. They have a negative psychological perception about being examined by female doctors.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, waria transgenders, sexual behaviours, reproduction health

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3 The Effect of Manggong Bamboo Leaves Extract (Gigantochloa manggong) on Rat (Rattus novergicus) Blood Profile

Authors: Sri Rahayu, Supriyatin, Yuli Rahma Dini

Abstract:

One of the consequences of excess physical activity is the oxidative stress which resulted in damage to blood cells. Oxidative stress condition can be reduced by an exogenous antioxidant. The natural exogenous antioxidant can be extracted from Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong). This research was aim to evaluate the effect of physical exercise and Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong) leaf extract on blood profile of rats. This research was conducted in July 2013 to May 2014 using experimental method with completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors, physical exercise and Manggong bamboo leaf extract. The rats blood profile to be measured were the level of erythrocyte cells, leucocyte cells and hemoglobin. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical 2-way ANOVA test (α = 0.05). Manggong bamboo leaf extract was non toxic and contained flavonoid, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. There was an effect of physical exercise and manggong bamboo leaf extract on blood profile of rats. Data obtained on physical activity, giving erythrocyte cells (2.5 million/µl) and hemoglobin (12,42g/dL) declined compared to the number of leucocyte cells increases (6,500cells/L). Extract treatment was increased the erythrocytes (5,13 million/µl) and hemoglobin level (14,72 g/dL.) while the leukocytes level were decreased (1.591,67 cells/L). The extract and physical activity treatment showed an increase in erythrocytes (2,96 million/µl) and hemoglobin (14,3 g/dL) but decrease the number of leukocytes (1.291,67 cells/L). The conclusion was that physical activity and Manggong bamboo leafs extract gaves effect on the blood profile of white rat.

Keywords: antioxidant, leukocytes, blood profile of rats, Manggong bamboo leaf extract

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2 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: immobilization, lipase, adsorption-cross linking, resin

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1 Jurisdiction of Military Court for Military Members Who Committed General Crimes in Indonesia's Military Justice System and Comparison with Another Countries

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

Abstract:

Military Court which is a judicial institution within the military institution has a heavy duty. Military court has to ensuring a fair legal process for military personnel (due process of law) and enforces military discipline. Military justice must also ensure protects the rights of military personnel. In Indonesia tren of military court changes in vision. The debate is happened on the jurisdiction of military court that allegedly has the potential existence of impunity. The Decree of People’s Consultative Assembly Number VII/MPR/2000 which states that the army general who committed the crime should not be tried in military court is one that underlies the proposed amendment limits the jurisdiction of military court. For the identify of the background in a specific format that is limited to juridical review. The goals this research is to gain knowledge, deep understanding and the concept of jurisdiction of military courts for military members who committed general crimes in adjudication procedure from the perspective of legal reform as alternative to establish independency of military judiciary. This research using Rule of Law as Grand Theory, Development Legal Theory as a Middle Theory and Criminal Justice System and concept of jurisdiction as supporting as Applied Theory. This study using a normative juridical approach, and equipped by primary data juridical approach of historical and comparative approach. The author uses descriptive analytical specifications. The main data used in this research is secondary data, which includes primary legal materials, secondary legal material and legal materials tertiary. Analysis primary data and qualitative data is done legally. Technique checking the validity of the data in this study used multiple methods with the research triangulation. This paper will demonstrate the problems concerning the jurisdiction of military courts for military personnel who committed general crimes in perspective of military justice reform Indonesia and adjudication procedures for military member who committed general crimes in the military justice system in Indonesia, as alternative to establish independency of judiciary in military justice in Indonesia. Comparative approached the military justice system from another countries is aimed to development military justice in Indonesia.

Keywords: Jurisdiction, military courts, military justice, independency of judiciary

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