Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 839

Search results for: counter electrode

839 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos


Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

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838 Electrospinning in situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Copper Indium Disulfide Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Lidan Wang, Shuyuan Zhao, Jianxin He


In this paper, graphene-doped copper indium disulfide (rGO+CuInS2) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), copper dichloride (CuCl2), indium trichloride (InCl3), thiourea (C2H5NS) and graphene oxide nanosheets (Go) as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The average diameter of rGO+CuInS2 nanofibers were about 100 nm, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanocrystals 8-15 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The DSSC with a rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.93%; better than the corresponding values for a DSSC with a CuInS2 counter electrode, and comparable to that of a reference DSSC with a Pt counter electrode. The excellent photoelectric performance of the rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode was attributed to its high specific surface area, which facilitated permeation of the liquid electrolytes, promoted electron and ion transfer and provided numerous catalytically active sites for the oxidation reaction of the electrolytic (I- /I3-).

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, counter electrode, electrospinning, graphene

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837 Optimized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dye and Counter Electrode from Robusta Coffee Beans Peel Waste

Authors: Tomi Setiawan, Wahyu Y. Subekti, Siti S. Nur'Adya, Khusnul Ilmiah


Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is one type of solar cell, where solar cells function to convert light energy become the electrical energy. DSSC has two important parts of dye and counter electrode. Anthocyanin compounds in the coffee beans peel can be potential as natural dye and also counter electrodes as activated carbon in the DSSC system. The purpose of this research is to find out how to isolate Anthocyanin, manufacture of counter electrode, and to know the efficiency of counter electrode produced from the coffee pulp waste in DSSC prototype. In this research we used 2 x 2 cm FTO glass coated carbon paste with a thickness variation of 100 μL, 200 μL and 300 μL as counter electrode and other FTO glass coated with TiO₂ paste as work electrode, then two FTO glasses are connected to form a sandwich-liked structure and add Triiodide electrolyte solution in its gap, thus forming a DSSC prototype. The results showed that coffee pulp waste contains anthocyanin of 12.23 mL/80gr and it can produce activated carbon. The characterization performed shows that the UV-Vis Anthocyanin result is at wavelength of ultra violet area that is 219,50 nm with absorbance value equal to 1,469, and maximum wavelength at visible area is 720,00 nm with absorbance value equal to 0,013. The functional groups contained in the anthocyanin are O-H groups at wave numbers 3385.60 cm⁻¹, C = O groups at wave numbers 1618.63 cm⁻¹, and C-O-C groups at 1065.40 cm⁻¹ wave numbers. Morphological characterization using the SEM shows the activated carbon surface area becomes larger and evenly distributed. Voltage obtained on Counter Electrode 100 μL variation of 395mV, 200 μL of 334mV 100 μL of 254mV.

Keywords: DSSC, anthocyanin, counter electrode, solar cell, coffee pulp

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836 Preparation of Electrospun PLA/ENR Fibers

Authors: Jaqueline G. L. Cosme, Paulo H. S. Picciani, Regina C. R. Nunes


Electrospinning is a technique for the fabrication of nanoscale fibers. The general electrospinning system consists of a syringe filled with polymer solution, a syringe pump, a high voltage source and a grounded counter electrode. During electrospinning a volumetric flow is set by the syringe pump and an electric voltage is applied. This forms an electric potential between the needle and the counter electrode (collector plate), which results in the formation of a Taylor cone and the jet. The jet is moved towards the lower potential, the counter electrode, wherein the solvent of the polymer solution is evaporated and the polymer fiber is formed. On the way to the counter electrode, the fiber is accelerated by the electric field. The bending instabilities that occur form a helical loop movements of the jet, which result from the coulomb repulsion of the surface charge. Trough bending instabilities the jet is stretched, so that the fiber diameter decreases. In this study, a thermoplastic/elastomeric binary blend of non-vulcanized epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and poly(latic acid) (PLA) was electrospun using polymer solutions consisting of varying proportions of PCL and NR. Specifically, 15% (w/v) PLA/ENR solutions were prepared in /chloroform at proportions of 5, 10, 25, and 50% (w/w). The morphological and thermal properties of the electrospun mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The SEM images demonstrated the production of micrometer- and sub-micrometer-sized fibers with no bead formation. The blend miscibility was evaluated by thermal analysis, which showed that blending did not improve the thermal stability of the systems.

Keywords: epoxidized natural rubber, poly(latic acid), electrospinning, chemistry

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835 Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: Eka Maulana, Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Dody Fanditya, M. Julius


In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material. Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode. TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/ tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes and counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption measurements using a spectrophotometer at 200-800 nm light spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence were obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.

Keywords: DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell), natural dye, chlorophyll, absorption

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834 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad


A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: gold electrode, electroanalysis, electrocatalysis, monolayers, self-assembly, cysteine, dopamine, ascorbic acid

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833 An Automated Sensor System for Cochlear Implants Electrode Array Insertion

Authors: Lei Hou, Xinli Du, Nikolaos Boulgouris


A cochlear implant, referred to as a CI, is a small electronic device that can provide direct electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. During cochlear implant surgery, atraumatic electrode array insertion is considered to be a crucial step. However, during implantation, the mechanical behaviour of an electrode array inside the cochlea is not known. The behaviour of an electrode array inside of the cochlea is hardly identified by regular methods. In this study, a CI electrode array capacitive sensor system is proposed. It is able to automatically determine the array state as a result of the capacitance variations. Instead of applying sensors to the electrode array, the capacitance information from the electrodes will be gathered and analysed. Results reveal that this sensing method is capable of recognising different states when fed into a pre-shaped model.

Keywords: cochlear implant, electrode, hearing preservation, insertion force, capacitive sensing

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832 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh


This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

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831 Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Paste Electrode on Paper-Based Analytical Device for Simultaneous Determination of Norepinephrine and Serotonin

Authors: Siriwan Nantaphol, Robert B. Channon, Takeshi Kondo, Weena Siangproh, Orawon Chailapakul, Charles S. Henry


In this work, we demonstrate a novel electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified boron-doped diamond paste (BDDP) electrode on paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for simultaneous determination of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The BDD paste electrode was easily constructed by filling BDD paste in small channels, which made in transparency film sheets using a CO₂ laser etching 
system. The counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on paper by in-house screen-printing and then combined with BDD paste microelectrode. The electrochemical characterization of the device was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for the simultaneous determination of NE and 5-HT. The ERGO-modified BDDP electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of NE and 5-HT and strong function for resolving the overlapping voltammetric responses of NE and 5-HT into two well-defined voltammetric peaks. This device was capable of simultaneously detecting NE and 5-HT in wide concentration ranges and with a low limit of detections. In addition, it has the advantages in terms of ease of use, low cost, and disposability.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond paste electrode, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide, norepinephrine, paper-based analytical device, serotonin

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830 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin


The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

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829 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh


In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

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828 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper (II) at the Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) MWCNT Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim


A highly selective and sensitive electrode for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was proposed. The electrode was made of the paste of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) at 100:5 (w/w). Under optimal conditions the electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu (II) and limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M Cu (II). The relative standard deviation (n = 5) of response to 1.0 × 10–6 M Cu(II) was 0.036. The interferences of cations such as Ni(II), Mg(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) are negligible except from Pb (II). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favorable. Result of analysis of Cu(II) in several water samples agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed electrode was then recommended as an alternative to spectroscopic technique in analyzing Cu (II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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827 Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid

Authors: Noshin Mehrabian, Mohammad Reza Abedi, Hassan Ali Zamani


A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.

Keywords: potentiometry, PVC membrane, sensor, ion-selective electrode

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826 Sensitive Determination of Copper(II) by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim


A highly selective and sensitive carbon paste electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) complex was used for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The influences of experimental variables on the proposed electrode such as pH, supporting electrolyte, preconcentration potential and time, and square wave parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu(II) with a limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) for a solution containing 1.0 × 10– 6 M of Cu(II) was 0.036. The presence of various cations (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) did not interfere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favourable. The proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in several water samples. Results agreed very well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The modified electrode was then proposed as an alternative for determination of Cu(II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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825 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen


We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

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824 Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

Authors: Tarela J. Ike


Over the years, the hemorrhagic acts of Boko Haram have led to the adoption of counter-terrorism measures which mostly takes the form of military repressive measures. These measures have wrought flagrant violation of human rights worthy of concern. Hence, the need to examine the efficacy of the counter-terrorism measures adopted by the Nigeria government in combatting terrorism. This article addresses this issue by relying on a systematic literature review which examines the impact of Nigeria counter-terrorism measures from 2009 to 2016 in combating terrorism. The review of literature includes 42 article. Of the 42 articles, 14 met the peer-reviewed requirement which finds that most of Nigeria’s counter-terrorism policies are geared toward the use of state repressive military approach which violates the human right. Thus, the study concludes that to effectively address the terrorist uprising; Nigeria should adopt a non-aggressive counter-terrorism approach which incorporates religious clerics, and community active engagement strategy in combatting terrorism as opposed to military retaliation which violates human right and so far proved ineffective.

Keywords: Boko Haram, counter-terrorism, human rights, military retaliation

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823 The Chemical Transport Mechanism of Emitter Micro-Particles in Tungsten Electrode: A Metallurgical Study

Authors: G. Singh, H.Schuster, U. Füssel


The stability of electric arc and durability of electrode tip used in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding demand a metallurgical study about the chemical transport mechanism of emitter oxide particles in tungsten electrode during its real welding conditions. The tungsten electrodes doped with emitter oxides of rare earth oxides such as La₂O₃, Th₂O₃, Y₂O₃, CeO₂ and ZrO₂ feature a comparatively lower work function than tungsten and thus have superior emission characteristics due to lesser surface temperature of the cathode. The local change in concentration of these emitter particles in tungsten electrode due to high temperature diffusion (chemical transport) can change its functional properties like electrode temperature, work function, electron emission, and stability of the electrode tip shape. The resulting increment in tip surface temperature results in the electrode material loss. It was also observed that the tungsten recrystallizes to large grains at high temperature. When the shape of grain boundaries are granular in shape, the intergranular diffusion of oxide emitter particles takes more time to reach the electrode surface. In the experimental work, the microstructure of the used electrode's tip surface will be studied by scanning electron microscope and reflective X-ray technique in order to gauge the extent of the diffusion and chemical reaction of emitter particles. Besides, a simulated model is proposed to explain the effect of oxide particles diffusion on the electrode’s microstructure, electron emission characteristics, and electrode tip erosion. This model suggests metallurgical modifications in tungsten electrode to enhance its erosion resistance.

Keywords: rare-earth emitter particles, temperature-dependent diffusion, TIG welding, Tungsten electrode

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822 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow's urine, electrodes, non-conventional

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821 Semi-Transparent Dye-Sensitized Solar Panels for Energy Autonomous Greenhouses

Authors: A. Mourtzikou, D. Sygkridou, T. Georgakopoulos, G. Katsagounos, E. Stathatos


Over 60% highly transparent quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with dimension of 50x50 cm2 were fabricated via inkjet printing process using nanocomposite inks as raw materials and tested under outdoor illumination conditions. The cells were electrically characterized, and their possible application to the shell of greenhouses was also examined. The panel design was in Z-interconnection, where the working electrode was inkjet printed on one conductive glass and the counter electrode on a second glass in a sandwich configuration. Silver current collective fingers were printed on the glasses to make the internal electrical connections. In that case, the adjacent cells were connected in series via silver fingers and finally insulated using a UV curing resin to protect them from the corrosive (I-/I3-) redox couple of the electrolyte.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar panels, inkjet printing, quasi-solid state electrolyte, semi-transparency, scale up

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820 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: AFM, sensor, membrane, pores, proteins

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819 Environmental Pb-Free Cu Front Electrode for Si-Base Solar Cell Application

Authors: Wen-Hsi Lee, C.G. Kao


In this study, Cu paste was prepared and printed with narrow line screen printing process on polycrystalline Si solar cell which has already finished the back Al printing and deposition of double anti-reflection coatings (DARCs). Then, two-step firing process was applied to sinter the front electrode and obtain the ohmic contact between front electrode and solar cell. The first step was in air atmosphere. In this process, PbO-based glass frit etched the DARCs and Ag recrystallized at the surface of Si, constructing the preliminary contact. The second step was in reducing atmosphere. In this process, CuO reduced to Cu and sintered. Besides, Ag nanoparticles recrystallized in the glass layer at interface due to the interactions between H2, Ag and PbO-based glass frit and the volatility of Pb, constructing the ohmic contact between electrode and solar cell. By experiment and analysis, reaction mechanism in each stage was surmised, and it was also proven that ohmic contact and good sheet resistance for front electrode could both be obtained by applying newly-invented paste and process.

Keywords: front electrode, solar cell, ohmic contact, screen printing, paste

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818 Social Media as a Source of Radicalization; A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Manam Hanfi


Pakistan is a victim of terrorism since 9/11 attacks. Since then it is a home for violence and extremism. One of the major reasons behind rising violence and extremism in Pakistan is radicalization. Pakistan has seen and suffered from the modification of terrorism from old to new. In new terrorism, the terrorist organizations incorporated internet to disseminate propaganda, to recruit and train people. The study focuses on the relationship between Pakistan and new terrorism and examines how the internet is being used by terrorist organizations. The study investigates radicalization through social media by terrorist organizations in Pakistan with the help of case studies. The study suggests five ways to counter radicalization, including, counter narrative on social media, content analysis of the data on the internet, curriculum and madrassa reforms, teaching peace education in the educational institutions and use of technical software such as eGLYPH to quickly remove violent data from social media. Lastly, the research attempted to contribute in counter-radicalization by combining the media dependency model and ideas for counter-radicalization. The dependency model elaborates the impact of mass media content on the audience. If media dependency is high, it will cause cognitive, affective and behavioral changes. In order to counter radicalization through social media, it is important to make cognitive, affective and behavioral changes with the help of counter-radicalization suggestions.

Keywords: counter radicalization, extremism, social media, terrorism

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817 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu


Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, virtual electrode

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816 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
815 In-Vitro Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of PEDOT:PSS Coated Microelectrodes for Chronic Recording and Electrical Stimulation

Authors: A. Schander, T. Tessmann, H. Stemmann, S. Strokov, A. Kreiter, W. Lang


For the chronic application of neural prostheses and other brain-computer interfaces, long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which has lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity compared to noble metals like gold and platinum. However the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes. For this purpose a highly flexible electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode array, based on the polymer polyimide, is used. This array consists of circular gold electrodes with a diameter of 560 µm (0.25 mm2). In total 25 electrodes of this array were coated simultaneously with the polymer PEDOT:PSS in a cleanroom environment using a galvanostatic electropolymerization process. After the coating the array is additionally sterilized using a steam sterilization process (121°C, 1 bar, 20.5 min) to simulate autoclaving prior to the implantation of such an electrode array. The long-term measurements were performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at the constant body temperature of 37°C. For the in-vitro electrical stimulation a one channel bipolar current stimulator is used. The stimulation protocol consists of a bipolar current amplitude of 5 mA (cathodal phase first), a pulse duration of 100 µs per phase, a pulse pause of 50 µs and a frequency of 1 kHz. A PEDOT:PSS coated gold electrode with an area of 1 cm2 serves as the counter electrode. The electrical stimulation is performed continuously with a total amount of 86.4 million bipolar current pulses per day. The condition of the PEDOT coated electrodes is monitored in between with electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results of this study demonstrate that the PEDOT coated electrodes are stable for more than 3.6 billion bipolar current pulses. Also the unstimulated electrodes show currently no degradation after the time period of 5 months. These results indicate an appropriate long-term stability of this electrode coating for chronic recording and electrical stimulation. The long-term measurements are still continuing to investigate the life limit of this electrode coating.

Keywords: chronic recording, electrical stimulation, long-term stability, microelectrodes, PEDOT

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814 Electrochemical Behavior of Cocaine on Carbon Paste Electrode Chemically Modified with Cu(II) Trans 3-MeO Salcn Complex

Authors: Alex Soares Castro, Matheus Manoel Teles de Menezes, Larissa Silva de Azevedo, Ana Carolina Caleffi Patelli, Osmair Vital de Oliveira, Aline Thais Bruni, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira


Considering the problem of the seizure of illicit drugs, as well as the development of electrochemical sensors using chemically modified electrodes, this work shows the study of the electrochemical activity of cocaine in carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO salcn complex. In this context, cyclic voltammetry was performed on 0.1 mol.L⁻¹ KCl supporting electrolyte at a scan speed of 100 mV s⁻¹, using an electrochemical cell composed of three electrodes: Ag /AgCl electrode (filled KCl 3 mol.L⁻¹) from Metrohm® (reference electrode); a platinum spiral electrode, as an auxiliary electrode, and a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO complex (as working electrode). Two forms of cocaine were analyzed: cocaine hydrochloride (pH 3) and cocaine free base form (pH 8). The PM7 computational method predicted that the hydrochloride form is more stable than the free base form of cocaine, so with cyclic voltammetry, we found electrochemical signal only for cocaine in the form of hydrochloride, with an anodic peak at 1.10 V, with a linearity range between 2 and 20 μmol L⁻¹ had LD and LQ of 2.39 and 7.26x10-5 mol L⁻¹, respectively. The study also proved that cocaine is adsorbed on the surface of the working electrode, where through an irreversible process, where only anode peaks are observed, we have the oxidation of cocaine, which occurs in the hydrophilic region due to the loss of two electrons. The mechanism of this reaction was confirmed by the ab-inito quantum method.

Keywords: ab-initio computational method, analytical method, cocaine, Schiff base complex, voltammetry

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813 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Tze-Sian Pui, Aung Than, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe


A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: dopamine, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor, carbon nanotube

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812 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi


This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

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811 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman


The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutans, pharmaceuticals

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810 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu


This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: bioheat transfer, electrode, neuroprosthetics, TENS, transcutaneous stimulation

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