Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Tetsuya Matsumoto

19 Changes of pH and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Growth in Liquid Media

Authors: Sayaka Ono, Ryutaro Imai, Tomoko Ehara, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Hajime Matsumura

Abstract:

Background: Wound pH affects a number of important factors in wound healing. We previously measured the pH value of the exudates collected from second-degree burns and found that the increase in pH was observed in the burn wounds in which colonized by Staphylococcus spp., and the increase in pH was evident prior to the clinical findings of local infection. To investigate the relationship between the changes of pH value and bacterial growth, we performed in vitro study using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and liquid medium as a locally infected wound equivalent model. Methods: Pseudomonas aeruginosa standard strain (ATCCR 10145TM) was cultured at 37 °C environment in Luria Broth Miller medium. The absorbance rate which means the amount of bacteria was measured by a microplate reader 2300EnSpireTM). The pH was measured using pH-indicator strips (MColorpHastTM). The statistical analysis was performed using the product-moment correlation coefficient of Pearson's. Results: The absorbance rate and pH value were increased along with culture period. There was a positive correlation between pH value and absorbance rate (n = 27, Pearson's r = 0.985). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between pH value and the culture period (n = 18, Pearson's r = 0.901). The bacteria was well growth in the media from pH 6.6 to pH 8.0 and the pH of culture media converged at 8 -9 along with the bacterial growth. Conclusion: From these results, we conclude that pH value of the wound is correlated with the number of viable bacteria and bacterial growth periods.

Keywords: colonization, potential of hydrogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wound

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18 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

Abstract:

This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

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17 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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16 A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station

Authors: Naoya Ozaki, Takuya Watanabe, Ryosuke Matsumoto, Noriko Fukasawa

Abstract:

In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.

Keywords: attractiveness of the station, estimation method, number of passengers of the station, redevelopment around the station, renovation of the station

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15 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, residual energy, virtual rail, wireless sensor network

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14 Analyzing the Market Growth in Application Programming Interface Economy Using Time-Evolving Model

Authors: Hiroki Yoshikai, Shin’ichi Arakawa, Tetsuya Takine, Masayuki Murata

Abstract:

Application Programming Interface (API) economy is expected to create new value by converting corporate services such as information processing and data provision into APIs and using these APIs to connect services. Understanding the dynamics of a market of API economy under the strategies of participants is crucial to fully maximize the values of the API economy. To capture the behavior of a market in which the number of participants changes over time, we present a time-evolving market model for a platform in which API providers who provide APIs to service providers participate in addition to service providers and consumers. Then, we use the market model to clarify the role API providers play in expanding market participants and forming ecosystems. The results show that the platform with API providers increased the number of market participants by 67% and decreased the cost of developing services by 25% compared to the platform without API providers. Furthermore, during the expansion phase of the market, it is found that the profits of participants are mostly the same when 70% of the revenue from consumers is distributed to service providers and API providers. It is also found that, when the market is mature, the profits of the service provider and API provider will decrease significantly due to their competition, and the profit of the platform increases.

Keywords: API economy, ecosystem, platform, API providers

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13 Carbothermic Reduction of Phosphoric Acid Extracted from Dephosphorization Slags to Produce Yellow Phosphorus

Authors: Ryoko Yoshida, Jyunpei Yoshida, Hua Fang Yu, Yasushi Sasaki, Tetsuya Nagasaka

Abstract:

Phosphorous is an important element for agriculture and industry and is a non-renewable resource. Especially, yellow phosphorus is an essential material in advanced industrial technology, but phosphorus resources were not produced in Japan at all, and all depend on imports. It has been suggested, however, that the remaining accessible reserves of phosphate ore will be depleted within 50 years. Therefore, alternative resources for phosphate ore must be found. In this research, we have developed a process that enables the production of high-purity yellow phosphorus from domestic unused phosphorus resources such as steelmaking slags. The process consists of two parts: (1) the production of crude phosphoric acid from wastes such as steelmaking slag; (2) producing high-purity yellow phosphorus by low-temperature carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The details of the carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid are presented in this paper. Yellow phosphorus is commercially produced by carbothermic reduction of phosphate ore in an electric arc furnace at more than 1673K. In the newly developed system, gaseous P4O10 evaporated from H3PO4 is successfully reduced to yellow phosphorus by using carbon packed bed at less than 1273K. To meet the depletion of phosphate ore, the proposed process in this study to produce yellow phosphorus by carbothermic reduction of H3PO4 that are extracted from dephosphorization slags will be one of the effective and economical solutions.

Keywords: carbothermic reduction, phosphoric acid, dephosphorization slags, yellow phosphorus

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12 Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016

Authors: Giang Tran Thi Huong, Hieu Dong Van, Tung Dao Duy, Saadanov Iskender, Isakeev Mairambek, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yuki Ozeki, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai

Abstract:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.

Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Newcastle disease, genotype, genome characterization

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11 A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume

Authors: Takashi Kaburagi, Masashi Takenaka, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Matsumoto

Abstract:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.

Keywords: frontal lobe, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, state-trait anxiety inventory score, stress

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10 A Challenge to Acquire Serious Victims’ Locations during Acute Period of Giant Disasters

Authors: Keiko Shimazu, Yasuhiro Maida, Tetsuya Sugata, Daisuke Tamakoshi, Kenji Makabe, Haruki Suzuki

Abstract:

In this paper, we report how to acquire serious victims’ locations in the Acute Stage of Large-scale Disasters, in an Emergency Information Network System designed by us. The background of our concept is based on the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11th, 2011. Through many experiences of national crises caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, we have established advanced communication systems and advanced disaster medical response systems. However, Japan was devastated by huge tsunamis swept a vast area of Tohoku causing a complete breakdown of all the infrastructures including telecommunications. Therefore, we noticed that we need interdisciplinary collaboration between science of disaster medicine, regional administrative sociology, satellite communication technology and systems engineering experts. Communication of emergency information was limited causing a serious delay in the initial rescue and medical operation. For the emergency rescue and medical operations, the most important thing is to identify the number of casualties, their locations and status and to dispatch doctors and rescue workers from multiple organizations. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, the dispatching mechanism and/or decision support system did not exist to allocate the appropriate number of doctors and locate disaster victims. Even though the doctors and rescue workers from multiple government organizations have their own dedicated communication system, the systems are not interoperable.

Keywords: crisis management, disaster mitigation, messing, MGRS, military grid reference system, satellite communication system

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9 Molecular Dissection of Late Flowering under a Photoperiod-Insensitive Genetic Background in Soybean

Authors: Fei Sun, Meilan Xu, Jianghui Zhu, Maria Stefanie Dwiyanti, Cheolwoo Park, Fanjiang Kong, Baohui Liu, Tetsuya Yamada, Jun Abe

Abstract:

Reduced or lack of sensitivity to long daylengths is a key character for soybean, a short-day crop, to adapt to higher latitudinal environments. However, the photoperiod-insensitivity often results in a reduction of the duration of vegetative growth and final yield. To overcome this limitation, a photoperiod insensitive line (RIL16) was developed in this study that delayed flowering from the recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a photoperiod-insensitive cultivar AGS292 and a late-flowering Thai cultivar K3. Expression analyses under SD and LD conditions revealed that the expression levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) orthologues, FT2a and FT5a, were lowered in RIL16 relative to AGS292, although the expression of E1, a soybean-specific suppressor for FTs, was inhibited in both conditions. A soybean orthologue of TARGET OF EAT1 (TOE1), another suppressor of FT, showed an upregulated expression in RIL16, which appeared to reflect a lower expression of miR172a. Our data suggest that the delayed flowering of RIL16 most likely is controlled by genes involved in an age-dependent pathway in flowering. The QTL analysis based on 1,125 SNPs obtained from Restriction Site Associated DNA Sequencing revealed two major QTLs for flowering dates in Chromosome 16 and two minor QTLs in Chromosome 4, all of which accounted for 55% and 48% of the whole variations observed in natural day length and artificially-induced long day length conditions, respectively. The intervals of the major QTLs harbored FT2a and FT5a, respectively, on the basis of annotated genes in the Williams 82 reference genome. Sequencing analysis further revealed a nonsynonymous mutation in FT2a and an SNP in the 3′ UTR region of FT5a. A further study may elucidate a detailed mechanism underlying the QTL for late flowering. The alleles from K3 at the two QTLs can be used singly or in combination to retain an appropriate duration of vegetative growth to maximize the final yield of photoperiod-insensitive soybeans.

Keywords: FT genes, miR72a, photoperiod-insensitive, soybean flowering

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8 Relationship-Centred Care in Cross-Linguistic Medical Encounters

Authors: Nami Matsumoto

Abstract:

This study explores the experiences of cross-linguistic medical encounters by patients, and their views of receiving language support therein, with a particular focus on Japanese-English cases. The aim of this study is to investigate the reason for the frequent use of a spouse as a communication mediator from a Japanese perspective, through a comparison with that of English speakers. This study conducts an empirical qualitative analysis of the accounts of informants. A total of 31 informants who have experienced Japanese-English cross-linguistic medical encounters were recruited in Australia and Japan for semi-structured in-depth interviews. A breakdown of informants is 15 English speakers and 16 Japanese speakers. In order to obtain a further insight into collected data, additional interviews were held with 4 Australian doctors who are familiar with using interpreters. This study was approved by the Australian National University Human Research Ethics Committee, and written consent to participate in this study was obtained from all participants. The interviews lasted up to over one hour. They were audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed by the author. Japanese transcriptions were translated into English by the author. An analysis of interview data found that patients value relationship in communication. Particularly, Japanese informants, who have an English-speaking spouse, value trust-based communication interventions by their spouse, regardless of the language proficiency of the spouse. In Australia, health care interpreters are required to abide by the national code of ethics for interpreters. The Code defines the role of an interpreter exclusively to be language rendition and enshrines the tenets of accuracy, confidentiality and professional role boundaries. However, the analysis found that an interpreter who strictly complies with the Code sometimes fails to render the real intentions of the patient and their doctor. Findings from the study suggest that an interpreter should not be detached from the context and should be more engaged in the needs of patients. Their needs are not always communicated by an interpreter when they simply follow a professional code of ethics. The concept of relationship-centred care should be incorporated in the professional practice of health care interpreters.

Keywords: health care, Japanese-English medical encounters, language barriers, trust

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7 Historical Development of Bagh-e Dasht in Herat, Afghanistan: A Comprehensive Field Survey of Physical and Social Aspects

Authors: Khojesta Kawish, Tetsuya Ando, Sayed Abdul Basir Samimi

Abstract:

Bagh-e Dasht area is situated in the northern part of Herat, an old city in western Afghanistan located on the Silk Road which has received a strong influence from Persian culture. Initially, the Bagh-e Dasht area was developed for gardens and palaces near Joy-e Injil canal during the Timurid Empire in the 15th century. It is assumed Bagh-e Dasht became a settlement in the 16th century during the Safavid Empire. The oldest area is the southern part around the canal bank which is characterized by Dalans, sun-dried brick arcades above which houses are often constructed. Traditional houses in this area are built with domical vault roofs constructed with sun-dried bricks. Bagh-e Dasht is one of the best-preserved settlements of traditional houses in Herat. This study examines the transformation of the Bagh-e Dasht area with a focus on Dalans, where traditional houses with domical vault roofs have been well-preserved until today. The aim of the study is to examine the extent of physical changes to the area as well as changes to houses and the community. This research paper contains original results which have previously not been published in architectural history. The roof types of houses in the area are investigated through examining high resolution satellite images. The boundary of each building and space is determined by both a field survey and aerial photographs of the study area. A comprehensive field survey was then conducted to examine each space and building in the area. In addition, a questionnaire was distributed to the residents of the Dalan houses and interviews were conducted with the Wakil (Chief) of the area, a local historian, residents and traditional builders. The study finds that the oldest part of Bagh-e Dasht area, the south, contains both Dalans and domical vault roof houses. The next oldest part, which is the north, only has domical vault roof houses. The rest of the area only has houses with modernized flat roofs. This observation provides an insight into the process of historical development in the Bagh-e Dasht area.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Bagh-e Dasht, Dalan, domical vault, Herat, over path house, traditional house

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6 Effect of Total Body Irradiation for Metastatic Lymph Node and Lung Metastasis in Early Stage

Authors: Shouta Sora, Shizuki Kuriu, Radhika Mishra, Ariunbuyan Sukhbaatar, Maya Sakamoto, Shiro Mori, Tetsuya Kodama

Abstract:

Lymph node (LN) metastasis accounts for 20 - 30 % of all deaths in patients with head and neck cancer. Therefore, the control of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) is necessary to improve the life prognosis of patients with cancer. In a classical metastatic theory, tumor cells are thought to metastasize hematogenously through a bead-like network of lymph nodes. Recently, a lymph node-mediated hematogenous metastasis theory has been proposed, in which sentinel LNs are regarded as a source of distant metastasis. Therefore, the treatment of MLNs at the early stage is essential to prevent distant metastasis. Radiation therapy is one of the primary therapeutic modalities in cancer treatment. In addition, total body irradiation (TBI) has been reported to act as activation of natural killer cells and increase of infiltration of CD4+ T-cells to tumor tissues. However, the treatment effect of TBI for MLNs remains unclear. This study evaluated the possibilities of low-dose total body irradiation (L-TBI) and middle-dose total body irradiation (M-TBI) for the treatment of MLNs. Mouse breast cancer FM3A-Luc cells were injected into subiliac lymph node (SiLN) of MXH10/Mo/LPR mice to induce the metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node (PALN) and lung. Mice were irradiated for the whole body on 4 days after tumor injection. The L-TBI and M-TBI were defined as irradiations to the whole body at 0.2 Gy and 1.0 Gy, respectively. Tumor growth was evaluated by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. In the non-irradiated group, tumor activities on SiLN and PALN significantly increased over time, and the metastasis to the lung from LNs was confirmed 28 days after tumor injection. The L-TBI led to a tumor growth delay in PALN but did not control tumor growth in SiLN and metastasis to the lung. In contrast, it was found that the M-TBI significantly delayed the tumor growth of both SiLN and PALN and controlled the distant metastasis to the lung compared with non-irradiated and L-TBI groups. These results suggest that the M-TBI is an effective treatment method for MLNs in the early stage and distant metastasis from lymph nodes via blood vessels connected with LNs.

Keywords: metastatic lymph node, lung metastasis, radiation therapy, total body irradiation, lymphatic system

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5 Thoughts Regarding Interprofessional Work between Nurses and Speech-Language-Hearing Therapists in Cancer Rehabilitation: An Approach for Dysphagia

Authors: Akemi Nasu, Keiko Matsumoto

Abstract:

Rehabilitation for cancer requires setting up individual goals for each patient and an approach that properly fits the stage of cancer when putting into practice. In order to cope with the daily changes in the patients' condition, the establishment of a good cooperative relationship between the nurses and the physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and speech-language-hearing therapists (therapists) becomes essential. This study will focus on the present situation of the cooperation between nurses and therapists, especially the speech-language-hearing therapists, and aim to elucidate what develops there. A semi-structured interview was conducted targeted at a physical therapist having practical experience in working in collaboration with nurses. The contents of the interview were transcribed and converted to data, and the data was encoded and categorized with sequentially increasing degrees of abstraction to conduct a qualitative explorative factor analysis of the data. When providing ethical explanations, particular care was taken to ensure that participants would not be subjected to any disadvantages as a result of participating in the study. In addition, they were also informed that their privacy would be ensured and that they have the right to decline to participate in the study. In addition, they were also informed that the results of the study would be announced publicly at an applicable nursing academic conference. This study has been approved following application to the ethical committee of the university with which the researchers are affiliated. The survey participant is a female speech-language-hearing therapist in her forties. As a result of the analysis, 6 categories were extracted consisting of 'measures to address appetite and aspiration pneumonia prevention', 'limitation of the care a therapist alone could provide', 'the all-inclusive patient- supportive care provided by nurses', 'expand the beneficial cooperation with nurses', 'providing education for nurses on the swallowing function utilizing videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing', 'enhancement of communication including conferences'. In order to improve the team performance, and for the teamwork competency necessary for the provision of safer care, mutual support is essential. As for the cooperation between nurses and therapists, this survey indicates that the maturing of the cooperation between professionals in order to improve nursing professionals' knowledge and enhance communication will lead to an improvement in the quality of the rehabilitation for cancer.

Keywords: cancer rehabilitation, nurses, speech-language-hearing therapists, interprofessional work

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4 Electromagnetic-Mechanical Stimulation on PC12 for Enhancement of Nerve Axonal Extension

Authors: E. Nakamachi, K. Matsumoto, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita, H. Sakamoto

Abstract:

In recently, electromagnetic and mechanical stimulations have been recognized as the effective extracellular environment stimulation technique to enhance the defected peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a new hybrid bioreactor by adopting 50 Hz uniform alternative current (AC) magnetic stimulation and 4% strain mechanical stimulation. The guide tube for nerve regeneration is mesh structured tube made of biodegradable polymer, such as polylatic acid (PLA). However, when neural damage is large, there is a possibility that peripheral nerve undergoes necrosis. So it is quite important to accelerate the nerve tissue regeneration by achieving enhancement of nerve axonal extension rate. Therefore, we try to design and fabricate the system that can simultaneously load the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation and the stretch stimulation to cells for enhancement of nerve axonal extension. Next, we evaluated systems performance and the effectiveness of each stimulation for rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). First, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field system and the stretch stimulation system. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we focused on the use of pole piece structure to carry out in-situ microscopic observation. We designed an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element analyses and the response surface methodology. We fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system as a bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined design specifications. We measured magnetic flux density that is generated by the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system. We confirmed that measurement values show good agreement with analytical results, where the uniform magnetic field was observed. Second, we fabricated the cyclic stretch stimulation device under the conditions of particular strains, where the chamber was made of polyoxymethylene (POM). We measured strains in the PC12 cell culture region to confirm the uniform strain. We found slightly different values from the target strain. Finally, we concluded that these differences were allowable in this mechanical stimulation system. We evaluated the effectiveness of each stimulation to enhance the nerve axonal extension using PC12. We confirmed that the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic stimulation was increased by 16 % at 96 h in our bio-reactor. We could not confirm that the axonal extension enhancement under the stretch stimulation condition, where we found the exfoliating of cells. Further, the hybrid stimulation enhanced the axonal extension. Because the magnetic stimulation inhibits the exfoliating of cells. Finally, we concluded that the enhancement of PC12 axonal extension is due to the magnetic stimulation rather than the mechanical stimulation. Finally, we confirmed that the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation for the nerve axonal extension using PC12 cells.

Keywords: nerve cell PC12, axonal extension, nerve regeneration, electromagnetic-mechanical stimulation, bioreactor

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3 The Effect of Vibration Amplitude on Tissue Temperature and Lesion Size When Using a Vibrating Cardiac Catheter

Authors: Kaihong Yu, Tetsui Yamashita, Shigeaki Shingyochi, Kazuo Matsumoto, Makoto Ohta

Abstract:

During cardiac ablation, high power delivery for deeper lesion formation is limited by electrode-tissue interface overheating which can cause serious complications such as thrombus. To prevent this overheating, temperature control and open irrigation are often used. In temperature control, radiofrequency generator is adjusted to deliver the maximum output power, which maintains the electrode temperature at a target temperature (commonly 55°C or 60°C). Then the electrode-tissue interface temperature is also limited. The electrode temperature is a result of heating from the contacted tissue and cooling from the surrounding blood. Because the cooling from blood is decreased under conditions of low blood flow, the generator needs to decrease the output power. Thus, temperature control cannot deliver high power under conditions of low blood flow. In open irrigation, saline in room temperature is flushed through the holes arranged in the electrode. The electrode-tissue interface is cooled by the sufficient environmental cooling. And high power delivery can also be done under conditions of low blood flow. However, a large amount of saline infusions (approximately 1500 ml) during irrigation can cause other serious complication. When open irrigation cannot be used under conditions of low blood flow, a new overheating prevention may be required. The authors have proposed a new electrode cooling method by making the catheter vibrating. The previous work has introduced that the vibration can make a cooling effect on electrode, which may result form that the vibration could increase the flow velocity around the catheter. The previous work has also proved that increasing vibration frequency can increase the cooling by vibration. However, the effect of the vibration amplitude is still unknown. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of vibration amplitude on tissue temperature and lesion size. An agar phantom model was used as a tissue-equivalent material for measuring tissue temperature. Thermocouples were inserted into the agar to measure the internal temperature. Porcine myocardium was used for lesion size measurement. A normal ablation catheter was set perpendicular to the tissue (agar or porcine myocardium) with 10 gf contact force in 37°C saline without flow. Vibration amplitude of ± 0.5, ± 0.75, and ± 1.0 mm with a constant frequency (31 Hz or 63) was used. A temperature control protocol (45°C for agar phantom, 60°C for porcine myocardium) was used for the radiofrequency applications. The larger amplitude shows the larger lesion sizes. And the higher tissue temperatures in agar phantom are also shown with the higher amplitude. With a same frequency, the larger amplitude has the higher vibrating speed. And the higher vibrating speed will increase the flow velocity around the electrode more, which leads to a larger electrode temperature decrease. To maintain the electrode at the target temperature, ablator has to increase the output power. With the higher output power in the same duration, the released energy also increases. Consequently, the tissue temperature will be increased and lead to larger lesion sizes.

Keywords: cardiac ablation, electrode cooling, lesion size, tissue temperature

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2 Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy (BCBT) in a Japanese School Setting: Preliminary Outcomes on a Single Arm Study

Authors: Yuki Matsumoto, Yuma Ishimoto

Abstract:

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) with children has shown effective application to various problems such as anxiety and depression. Although there are barriers to access to mental health services including lack of professional services in communities and parental concerns about stigma, school has a significant role to address children’s health problems. Schools are regarded as a suitable arena for prevention and early intervention of mental health problems. In this line, CBT can be adaptable to school education and useful to enhance students’ social and emotional skills. However, Japanese school curriculum is rigorous so as to limit available time for implementation of CBT in schools. This paper describes Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy (BCBT) with children in a Japanese school setting. The program has been developed in order to facilitate acceptability of CBT in schools and aimed to enhance students’ skills to manage anxiety and difficult behaviors. The present research used a single arm design in which 30 students aged 9-10 years old participated. The authors provided teachers a CBT training workshop (two hours) at two primary schools in Tokyo metropolitan area and recruited participants in the research. A homeroom teacher voluntarily delivered a 6-session BCBT program (15 minutes each) in classroom periods which is called as Kaerinokai, a meeting before leaving school. Students completed a questionnaire sheet at pre- and post-periods under the supervision of the teacher. The sheet included the Spence Child Anxiety Scale (SCAS), the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRS), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The teacher was asked for feedback after the completion. Significant positive changes were found in the total and five of six sub-scales of the SCAS and the total difficulty scale of the SDQ. However, no significant changes were seen in Physical Injury Fear sub-scale of the SCAS, in the DSRS or the Prosocial sub-scale of the SDQ. The effect sizes are mostly between small and medium. The teacher commented that the program was easy to use and found positive changes in classroom activities and personal relationships. This preliminary research showed the feasibility of the BCBT in a school setting. The results suggest that the BCBT offers effective treatment for reduction in anxiety and in difficult behaviors. There is a good prospect of the BCBT suggesting that BCBT may be easier to be delivered than CBT by Japanese teachers to promote child mental health. The study has limitations including no control group, small sample size, or a short teacher training. Future research should address these limitations.

Keywords: brief cognitive behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, mental health services in schools, teacher training workshop

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1 Study of a Decentralized Electricity Market on Awaji Island

Authors: Arkadiusz P. Wójcik, Tetsuya Sato, Shin-Ichiro Shima, Mateusz Malanowski

Abstract:

Over the last decades, new technologies have significantly changed the way information is transmitted and stored. Renewable energy sources have become prevalent and affordable. Cooperation of the Information and Communication Technology industry and Renewable Energy industry makes it possible to create a next generation, decentralized power grid. In this context, the study seeks to identify the wider benefits to the local Japanese economy as a result of the development of a decentralised electricity market. Our general approach aims to integrate an economic analysis (monetary appraisal of costs and benefits to society) with externalities that are not quantifiable in monetary terms (e.g. social impact, environmental impact). The study also highlights opportunities and sets out recommendations for the citizens of the island and the local government. The simulation is the scientific basis for economic impact analysis. Various types of sources of energy have been taken into account: residential wind farm, residential wind turbine, solar farm, residential solar panels and private solar farms. Analysis of local geographic and economic conditions allowed creating a customized business model. Very often farmers on Awaji Island are using crop cycle. During each cycle, one part of the field is resting and replenishing nutrients. In the next year another part of the field is resting. Portable solar panels could be freely set up in this part of the field. At the end of the crop cycle, portable solar panels would be moved to the next resting part. Because of spacious area, for a single household 500 square meters of portable solar panels has been proposed and simulated. The devised simulation shows that the Rate of Return on Investment for solar panels, which are on the island, could reach up to 37.21%. Supposing that about 20% of households install solar panels they could produce 49.11% of the electric energy consumed by households on the island. The analysis shows that rest of the energy supply can be produced by currently existing one huge solar farm and two wind farms to meet 97.59% of demand on electricity for households on the island. Although there are more than 7,000 agricultural fields on the island, young people tend to avoid agricultural work and prefer to move from the island to big cities, live there in little mansions and work until late night. The business model proposed in this study could increase farmer’s monthly income by ¥200,000 - ¥300,000 (1,600 euro – 2,400 euro). Young people could work less and have a higher standard of living than in a city. Creation of a decentralized electricity market can unlock significant benefits in other industries (e.g. electric vehicles), providing a welcome boost to economic growth, jobs and quality of life.

Keywords: digital twin, Matlab, model-based systems engineering, simulink, smart grid, systems engineering

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