Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Zina Nasr

44 Seasons and Saproxylic Beetles Biodiversity in an Urban Park in Tunisia

Authors: Zina Nasr, Faiek Errouissi

Abstract:

Forest ecosystems are known for its ability to contain a large diversity of fauna especially insects that represent a huge taxonomic group. A portion of forest insects are recognized as saproxylic including the group of organisms that ‘depend on dead or dying wood’ about them, 20% are beetles. We focused our study on saproxylic beetles in an old urban park ‘the park of Belvedere’, located in the north west of Tunis (36° 49'21’ N 10°10'24’ W). The vegetation is dominated by old trees (Eucalyptus, Olea, Aberia, Pinus) and many fallen wood exist. Saproxylic beetles were collected using three interception traps set in the park over one year (from June 2014 to May 2015) and recovered monthly. In total, we collected 189 beetles belonging to 20 families and 57 species. Several saproxylic families (Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Melyridae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae), and well known genus (Rhizopertha, Thrychoplerus, Otiorhychus, Dolichosoma, Epuraea, Anotylus) are recorded. We have retained the largest activity of beetles in spring and a very low richness in winter with zero insect per traps. This result was certainly caused by the variation of meteorological factors that mainly influenced the activity of these organisms. Therefore, we were interested on the saproxylic diversity in an urban ‘forest’, and these results will be more interesting when they are compared in the future with other works from natural forest.

Keywords: saproxylic beetles, seasons, urban park, wood

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43 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: CFD, cold room, cooling rate, dDates, numerical simulation, k-ω (SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
42 Bio-Genetic Activities Associated with Resistant in Peppers to Phytophthora capsici

Authors: Mehdi Nasr-Esfahani, Leila Mohammad Bagheri, Ava Nasr-Esfahani

Abstract:

Root and collar rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici (Leonian) is one of the most serious diseases in pepper, Capsicum annuum L. In this study, a diverse collection of 37 commercial edible and ornamental pepper genotypes infected with P. capsici were investigated for biomass parameters and enzymatic activity of peroxidase or peroxide reductases (EC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPOs), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Seven candidate DEG genes were also evaluated on resistant and susceptible pepper cultivars, through measuring product formation, using spectrophotometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the five enzymes and seven defense-gene candidates were up-regulated in all inoculated pepper accessions to P. capsici. But, the enzymes and DEG genes were highly expressed in resistant cv. 19OrnP-PBI, 37ChillP-Paleo, and “23CherryP-Orsh". The expression level of enzymes were 1.5 to 5.6-fold higher in the resistant peppers, than the control non-inoculated genotypes. Also, the transcriptional levels of related candidate DEG genes were 3.16 to 5.90-fold higher in the resistant genotypes. There was a direct and high correlation coefficient between resistance, bio-mass parameters, enzymatic activity, and resistance gene expression. The related enzymes and candidate genes expressed herein will provide a basis for further gene cloning and functional verification studies, and also will aid in an understanding of the regulatory mechanism of pepper resistance to P. capsici.

Keywords: AP2/ERF, cDNA, enzymes, MIP gene, q-RTPCR, XLOC

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41 Performance of the Strong Stability Method in the Univariate Classical Risk Model

Authors: Safia Hocine, Zina Benouaret, Djamil A¨ıssani

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the performance of the strong stability method of the univariate classical risk model. We interest to the stability bounds established using two approaches. The first based on the strong stability method developed for a general Markov chains. The second approach based on the regenerative processes theory . By adopting an algorithmic procedure, we study the performance of the stability method in the case of exponential distribution claim amounts. After presenting numerically and graphically the stability bounds, an interpretation and comparison of the results have been done.

Keywords: Marcov chain, regenerative process, risk model, ruin probability, strong stability

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40 Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100 nm Technologies

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry

Abstract:

As CMOS technology scaling down, Silicon oxide thickness (SiO2) become very thin (few Nano meters). When SiO2 is less than 3nm, gate direct tunneling (DT) leakage current becomes a dormant problem that impacts the transistor performance. Floating gate MOSFET (FGMOSFET) has been used in many low-voltage and low-power applications. Most of the available simulation models of FGMOSFET for analog circuit design does not account for gate DT current and there is no accurate analysis for the gate DT. It is a crucial to use an accurate mode in order to get a realistic simulation result that account for that DT impact on FGMOSFET performance effectively.

Keywords: CMOS transistor, direct-tunneling current, floating-gate, gate-leakage current, simulation model

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39 Stability Bound of Ruin Probability in a Reduced Two-Dimensional Risk Model

Authors: Zina Benouaret, Djamil Aissani

Abstract:

In this work, we introduce the qualitative and quantitative concept of the strong stability method in the risk process modeling two lines of business of the same insurance company or an insurance and re-insurance companies that divide between them both claims and premiums with a certain proportion. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the ruin probability associate to the model considered, with a stationary distribution of a Markov random process called a reversed process. Our objective, after clarifying the condition and the perturbation domain of parameters, is to obtain the stability inequality of the ruin probability which is applied to estimate the approximation error of a model with disturbance parameters by the considered model. In the stability bound obtained, all constants are explicitly written.

Keywords: Markov chain, risk models, ruin probabilities, strong stability analysis

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38 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet

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This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: energy harvester, simultaneous, dual band, CMOS, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm

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37 Agronomic Value of Wastewater and Sugar Beet Lime Sludge Compost on Radish Crop

Authors: S. Rida, O. Saadani Hassani, Q. R’zina, N. Saadaoui, K. Fares

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment stations create large quantities of sludge, whose treatment is poorly underestimated in the draft installation. However, chemical analysis of sludge reveals their important concentration in fertilizer elements including nitrogen and phosphorus. The direct application of sludge can reveal contamination of the food chain because of their chemical and organic micropollutants load. Therefore, there is a need of treatment process before use. The treatment by composting of this sludge mixed with three different proportions of sugar beet lime sludge (0%, 20%,30%) and green waste permits to obtain a stable compost rich in mineral elements, having a pleasant smell and relatively hygienic. In addition, the use of compost in agriculture positively affects the plant-soil system. Thus, this study shows that the supply of compost improves the physical properties of the soil and its agronomic quality, which results in an increase in the biomass of cultivated radish plants and a larger crop.

Keywords: agriculture, composting, soil, sugar beet lime, wastewater

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36 Legal Study about Flagellation Punishment of Qanun Jinayah in Aceh Province

Authors: Yuyun Sri Wahyuni, Fathih Misbahuddin Islam

Abstract:

Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam is the special district with its long conflict history. The long conflict history started from The Free Aceh Movement’s intentions to implement Islamic principles in Aceh Province, it was actually contradicted with the principles of state. This long conflict was finally ended on 2005. Then, since 2005 Aceh had special authority to administer its local government affairs by applying Islamic principles (syariah), included criminal law matters. To administer it, Aceh Government enacted Law Number 6 of 2014 on the Jinayah. This law consists the criminal act (jarimah) and the punishment (uqubat). Khamr, maisir, khalwat, ikhtilath, zina, sexual harrasment, rape, qadzaf, liwath, and musahaqah are the kinds of the criminal act which are ruled within. Meanwhile, Hudud and Takdzir as the kinds of punishment (uqubat). After 2 years of the issuance of this law inflicting controversy from any sides and being discussed not only locally but also globally. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the fundamental value of the flagellation punishment within this law and Aceh Government review in formulating the law.

Keywords: Aceh province, flagellation punishment, Islamic Principle, Qanun Jinayah

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
35 Combined Localization, Beamforming, and Interference Threshold Estimation in Underlay Cognitive System

Authors: Omar Nasr, Yasser Naguib, Mohamed Hafez

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This paper aims at providing an innovative solution for blind interference threshold estimation in an underlay cognitive network to be used in adaptive beamforming by secondary user Transmitter and Receiver. For the task of threshold estimation, blind detection of modulation and SNR are used. For the sake of beamforming several localization algorithms are compared to settle on best one for cognitive environment. Beamforming algorithms as LCMV (Linear Constraint Minimum Variance) and MVDR (Minimum Variance Distortion less) are also proposed and compared. The idea of just nulling the primary user after knowledge of its location is discussed against the idea of working under interference threshold.

Keywords: cognitive radio, underlay, beamforming, MUSIC, MVDR, LCMV, threshold estimation

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34 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes

Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

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Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.

Keywords: feature extraction, internal features, punch shapes, sheet metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
33 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr

Abstract:

Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the function that called carrier content: on the latter it arises that emotions give the material reasoning that later transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. In this paper I argue that science education should start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if it is to form citizens with scientific or cultural future scientists.

Keywords: epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists., philosophy of emotions

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32 Copper Doping for Enhancing Photocatalytic Efficiency of Barium Ferrite in Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, H. A. Abbas, Rabab A. Nasr, Eman S. Mansor, Rose-Noëlle Vannier

Abstract:

The citrate manner (Pechini method) was utilized in elaboration of a novel Nano-sized BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 (x=0.01, 0.05 and 0.10). The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, TEM and the surface area. The prepared samples have a mixture of cubic perovskite structure (main) and orthorhombic phases. The effect of different loads of copper as dopant on the structural properties as well as the photocatalytic activity was demonstrated. The lattice parameter and the unit cell volume of the prepared materials are given. Doping with copper increased the photocatalytic activity of BaFeO3 several times in abstraction of hazardous atrazine that causes acute problems in drinking water treatment facilities. This may be reasoned to low band gap energy of copper doped BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 attributed to oxygen vacancies formation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, nano-sized, BaFeO3, copper doping, atrazine

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31 Showing Broccoli and Cabbage Genotypes Biodiversity Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)

Authors: M. M. A. Abdalla, M. H. Aboul-Nasr, Shimaa H. Mosallam

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Ten RAPD markers were used to detect the genetic variability and relationships among four broccoli and three cabbage genotypes. The results of RAPD analysis showed that all the five primers surveyed detected polymorphism for all broccoli genotypes. A total of 39 DNA bands were amplified by the 5 primers from all genotype and 21 of these fragments showed polymorphism (53.85%). The rest of these bands (46.15%) were common between the four genotypes. On the other hand, all of the 7 primers surveyed, used with cabbage, detected polymorphism among all cabbage genotype. A total of 69 DNA bands were amplified by the 7 primers from all genotypes and 23 of these fragments showed polymorphism (33.33%). The rest of these bands (66.67%) were common between the three genotypes. The investigation suggested that the RAPD approach showed considerable potential for identifying and discriminating broccoli and cabbage genotypes.

Keywords: Brassica oleracea, genotypes, genetic markers, varietal identification, DNA polymorphism, RAPD markers

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30 Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. G. Nasr

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Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, optimisation, shale, tight reservoir

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29 Endocrine Therapy-Induced Alopecia in Patients with Breast Cancer in Tunisia

Authors: Aref Zribi, Sonia Ben Nasr, Sana Fendri, Mahdi Balti, Abderazzek Haddaoui

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Background: Despite their benefit, Endocrine therapies (ET) are known to have substantial adverse events (AEs) such as hot flashes, mood disorders and osteoarticular pain. ET induced alopecia(EIA) is less frequently noted by patients and is less reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to report ET alopecia characteristics and their influence on patient and treatment observance. Method: We conducted a retrospective study including luminal BC patients treated in the oncology department of the military hospital of Tunis between January 2015 and December 2020. Patients treated with previous chemotherapy-inducing alopecia were excluded. Results: 145 female patients were included. The median age was 59 years. EIA was reported in 44% of cases. Alopecia was attributed to aromatase inhibitors in 53% and tamoxifen in 21%. Severity was grade 1 in 80% and grade 2 in the remaining cases. ET discontinuation because of alopecia was noted in 6.5 % of patients. Moderate improvement of alopecia was observed with topical minoxidil and Thallium metallicum 9CH homeopathy during ET in 60% of patients. Conclusions: EIA is frequent in BC patients and should be considered to improve treatment observance and patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: endocrine therapy, alopecia, breast cancer, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
28 Optimization of Groundwater Utilization in Fish Aquaculture

Authors: M. Ahmed Eldesouky, S. Nasr, A. Beltagy

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Groundwater is generally considered as the best source for aquaculture as it is well protected from contamination. The most common problem limiting the use of groundwater in Egypt is its high iron, manganese and ammonia content. This problem is often overcome by applying the treatment before use. Aeration in many cases is not enough to oxidize iron and manganese in complex forms with organics. Most of the treatment we use potassium permanganate as an oxidizer followed by a pressurized closed green sand filter. The aim of present study is to investigate the optimum characteristics of groundwater to give lowest iron, manganese and ammonia, maximum production and quality of fish in aquaculture in El-Max Research Station. The major design goal of the system was determined the optimum time for harvesting the treated water, pH, and Glauconite weight to use it for aquaculture process in the research site and achieve the Egyptian law (48/1982) and EPA level required for aquaculture. The water characteristics are [Fe = 0.116 mg/L, Mn = 1.36 mg/L,TN = 0.44 mg/L , TP = 0.07 mg/L , Ammonia = 0.386 mg/L] by using the glauconite filter we obtained high efficiency for removal for [(Fe, Mn and Ammonia] ,but in the Lab we obtained result for (Fe, 43-97), ( Mn,92-99 ), and ( Ammonia, 66-88 )]. We summarized the results to show the optimum time, pH, Glauconite weight, and the best model for design in the region.

Keywords: aquaculture, ammonia in groundwater, groundwater, iron and manganese in water, groundwater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
27 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie

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Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
26 Environmental Study on Urban Disinfection Using an On-site Generation System

Authors: Víctor Martínez del Rey, Kourosh Nasr Esfahani, Amir Masoud Samani Majd

Abstract:

In this experimental study, the behaviors of Mixed Oxidant solution components (MOS) and sodium hypochlorite (HYPO) as the most commonly applied surface disinfectant were compared through the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection as a function of the contact time and residual chlorine. In this regard, the variation of pH, free available chlorine (FAC) concentration, and electric conductivity (EC) of disinfection solutions in different concentrations were monitored over 48 h contact time. In parallel, the plant stress activated by chlorine-based disinfectants was assessed by comparing MOS and HYPO. The elements of pH and EC in the plant-soil and their environmental impacts, spread by disinfection solutions were analyzed through several concentrations of FAC including 500 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, and 5000 mg/L in irrigated water. All the experiments were carried out at the service station of Sant Cugat, Spain. The outcomes indicated lower pH and higher durability of MOS than HYPO at the same concentration of FAC which resulted in promising stability of FAC within MOS. Furthermore, the pH and EC value of plant-soil irrigated by NaOCl solution were higher than that of MOS solution at the same FAC concentration. On-site generation of MOS as a safe chlorination option might be considered an imaginary future of smart cities.

Keywords: disinfection, free available chlorine, on-site generation, sodium hypochlorite

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
25 Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Heavy Metal Tolerance in Sweet Basil Plants

Authors: Aboul-Nasr Amal, Sabry Soraya, Sabra Mayada

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The effects of phosphorus amendments and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus intraradices on the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), chemical composition and percent of volatile oil, and metal accumulation in plants and its availability in soil were investigated in field experiment at two seasons 2012 and 2013 under contaminated soil with Pb and Cu. The content of essential oil and shoot and root dry weights of sweet basil was increased by the application of mineral phosphorus as compared to control. Inoculation with AM fungi reduced the metal concentration in shoot, recording a lowest value of (33.24, 18.60 mg/kg) compared to the control (46.49, 23.46 mg/kg) for Pb and Cu, respectively. Availability of Pb and Cu in soil were decreased after cultivation in all treatments compared to control. However, metal root concentration increased with the inoculation, with highest values of (30.15, 39.25 mg/kg)compared to control (22.01, 33.57mg/kg) for Pb and Cu, respectively. The content of linalool and methyl chavicol in basil oil was significantly increased in all treatments compared to control. We can thus conclude that the AM-sweet basil symbiosis could be employed as an approach to bioremediate polluted soils and enhance the yield and maintain the quality of volatile oil of sweet basil plants.

Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, heavy metals, sweet basil, oil composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
24 Effect of Thinning Practice on Carbon Storage in Soil Forest Northern Tunisia

Authors: Zouhaier Nasr, Mohamed Nouri

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The increase in greenhouse gases since the pre-industrial period is a real threat to disrupting the balance of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Along with the oceans, forest soils are considered to be the planet's second-largest carbon sink. North African forests have been subject to alarming degradation for several decades. The objective of this investigation is to determine and quantify the effect of thinning practiced in pine forests in northern Tunisia on the storage of organic carbon in the trees and in the soil. The plot planted in 1989 underwent thinning in 2005 on to plots; the density is therefore 1600 trees/ha in control and 400 trees/ha in thinning. Direct dendrometric measurements (diameter, height, branches, stem) were taken. In the soil part, six profiles of 1m / 1m / 1m were used for soil and root samples and biomass and organic matter measurements. The measurements obtained were statistically processed by appropriate software. The results clearly indicate that thinning improves tree growth, so the diameter increased from 24.3 cm to 30.1 cm. Carbon storage in the trunks was 35% more and 25% for the whole tree. At ground level, the thinned plot shows a slight increase in soil organic matter and quantity of carbon per tree, exceeding the control by 10 to 25%.

Keywords: forest, soil, carbon, climate change, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
23 Gas Lift Optimization Using Smart Gas Lift Valve

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, M. Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift is one of the most common forms of artificial lift, particularly for offshore wells because of its relative down hole simplicity, flexibility, reliability, and ability to operate over a large range of rates and occupy very little space at the well head. Presently, petroleum industry is investing in exploration and development fields in offshore locations where oil and gas wells are being drilled thousands of feet below the ocean in high pressure and temperature conditions. Therefore, gas-lifted oil wells are capable of failure through gas lift valves which are considered as the heart of the gas lift system for controlling the amount of the gas inside the tubing string. The gas injection rate through gas lift valve must be controlled to be sufficient to obtain and maintain critical flow, also, gas lift valves must be designed not only to allow gas passage through it and prevent oil passage, but also for gas injection into wells to be started and stopped when needed. In this paper, smart gas lift valve has been used to investigate the effect of the valve port size, depth of injection and vertical lift performance on well productivity; all these aspects have been investigated using PROSPER simulator program coupled with experimental data. The results show that by using smart gas lift valve, the gas injection rate can be controlled which leads to improved flow performance.

Keywords: Effect of gas lift valve port size, effect water cut, vertical flow performance

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22 Silymarin Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation, Optimization, Pharmacodynamic and Oral Multi-Dose Safety Assessment

Authors: Sarah Nasr, Maha M. A. Nasra, Ossama Y. Abdallah

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The present work aimed to prepare Silymarin loaded MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and to assess the system’s solubility enhancement ability on the pharmacodynamic performance of Silymarin as a hepatoprotective agent. MSNs prepared by soft-templating technique, were loaded with Silymarin, characterized for particle size, zeta potential, surface properties, DSC and XRPD. DSC and specific surface area data confirmed deposition of Silymarin in an amorphous state in MSNs’ pores. In-vitro drug dissolution testing displayed enhanced dissolution rate of Silymarin upon loading on MSNs. High dose Acetaminophen was then used to inflict hepatic injury upon albino male Wistar rats simultaneously receiving either free Silymarin, Silymarin loaded MSNs or blank MSNs. Plasma AST, ALT, albumin and total protein and liver homogenate content of TBARs or LDH as measures of antioxidant drug action were assessed for all animal groups. Results showed a significant superiority of Silymarin loaded MSNs to free drug in almost all parameters. Meanwhile prolonged administration of blank MSNs had no evident toxicity on rats.

Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles, safety, solubility enhancement, silymarin

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21 Psychodidactic Strategies to Facilitate Flow of Logical Thinking in Preparation of Academic Documents

Authors: Deni Stincer Gomez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr, Luis Pérez Alvarez

Abstract:

The preparation of academic documents such as thesis, articles and research projects is one of the requirements of the higher educational level. These documents demand the implementation of logical argumentative thinking which is experienced and executed with difficulty. To mitigate the effect of these difficulties this study designed a thesis seminar, with which the authors have seven years of experience. It is taught in a graduate program in Psychology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In this study the authors use the Toulmin model as a mental heuristic and for the application of a set of psychodidactic strategies that facilitate the elaboration of the plot and culmination of the thesis. The efficiency in obtaining the degree in the groups exposed to the seminar has increased by 94% compared to the 10% that existed in the generations that were not exposed to the seminar. In this article the authors will emphasize the psychodidactic strategies used. The Toulmin model alone does not guarantee the success achieved. A set of actions of a psychological nature (almost psychotherapeutic) and didactics of the teacher also seem to contribute. These are actions that derive from an understanding of the psychological, epistemological and ontogenetic obstacles and the most frequent errors in which thought tends to fall when it is demanded a logical course. The authors have grouped the strategies into three groups: 1) strategies to facilitate logical thinking, 2) strategies to strengthen the scientific self and 3) strategies to facilitate the act of writing the text. In this work the authors delve into each of them.

Keywords: psychodidactic strategies, logical thinking, academic documents, Toulmin model

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20 50/50 Oil-Water Ratio Invert Emulsion Drilling Mud Using Vegetable Oil as Continuous Phase

Authors: P. C. Ihenacho, M. Burby, G. G. Nasr, G. C. Enyi

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Formulation of a low oil-water ratio drilling mud with vegetable oil continuous phase without adversely affecting the mud rheology and stability has been a major challenge. A low oil-water ratio is beneficial in producing low fluid loss which is essential for wellbore stability. This study examined the possibility of 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud using a vegetable oil continuous phase. Jatropha oil was used as continuous phase. 12 ml of egg yolk which was separated from the albumen was added as the primary emulsifier additive. The rheological, stability and filtration properties were examined. The plastic viscosity and yield point were found to be 36cp and 17 Ib/100 ft2 respectively. The electrical stability at 48.9ºC was 353v and the 30 minutes fluid loss was 6ml. The results compared favourably with a similar formulation using 70/30 oil - water ratio giving plastic viscosity of 31cp, yield point of 17 Ib/100 ft2, electrical stability value of 480v and 12ml for the 30 minutes fluid loss. This study indicates that with a good mud composition using guided empiricism, 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud is feasible with a vegetable oil continuous phase. The choice of egg yolk as emulsifier additive is for compatibility with the vegetable oil and environmental concern. The high water content with no fluid loss additive will also minimise the cost of mud formulation.

Keywords: environmental compatibility, low cost of mud formulation, low fluid loss, wellbore stability

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19 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr

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Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

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18 Numerical Investigation of Material Behavior During Non-Equal Channel Multi Angular Extrusion

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Asfoury, Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed N. A. Nasr

Abstract:

The current study uses finite element modeling to investigate and analyze a modified form of the from the conventional equal channel multi-angular pressing (ECMAP), using non-equal channels, on the workpiece material plastic deformation. The modified process non-equal channel multi-angular extrusion (NECMAE) is modeled using two-dimensional plane strain finite element model built using the commercial software ABAQUS. The workpiece material used is pure aluminum. The model was first validated by comparing its results to analytical solutions for single-pass equal channel angular extrusion (ECAP), as well as previously published data. After that, the model was used to examine the effects of different % of reductions of the area (for the second stage) on material plastic deformation, corner gap, and required the load. Three levels of reduction in the area were modeled; 10%, 30%, and 50%, and compared to single-pass and double-pass ECAP. Cases with a higher reduction in the area were found to have smaller corner gaps, higher and much uniform plastic deformation, as well as higher required loads. The current results are mainly attributed to the back pressure effects exerted by the second stage, as well as strain hardening effects experienced during the first stage.

Keywords: non-equal channel angular extrusion, multi-pass, sever plastic deformation, back pressure, Finite Element Modelling (FEM)

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17 Estimation of Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressures in Shale Using Simulation Method

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. Nasr

Abstract:

Relative permeabilities are practical factors that are used to correct the single phase Darcy’s law for application to multiphase flow. For effective characterisation of large-scale multiphase flow in hydrocarbon recovery, relative permeability and capillary pressures are used. These parameters are acquired via special core flooding experiments. Special core analysis (SCAL) module of reservoir simulation is applied by engineers for the evaluation of these parameters. But, core flooding experiments in shale core sample are expensive and time consuming before various flow assumptions are achieved for instance Darcy’s law. This makes it imperative for the application of coreflooding simulations in which various analysis of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures of multiphase flow can be carried out efficiently and effectively at a relative pace. This paper presents a Sendra software simulation of core flooding to achieve to relative permeabilities and capillary pressures using different correlations. The approach used in this study was three steps. The first step, the basic petrophysical parameters of Marcellus shale sample such as porosity was determined using laboratory techniques. Secondly, core flooding was simulated for particular scenario of injection using different correlations. And thirdly the best fit correlations for the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure was obtained. This research approach saves cost and time and very reliable in the computation of relative permeability and capillary pressures at steady or unsteady state, drainage or imbibition processes in oil and gas industry when compared to other methods.

Keywords: relative permeabilty, porosity, 1-D black oil simulator, capillary pressures

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16 Access To Natural Resources In The Cameroonian Part Of The Logone Basin: A Driver And Mitigation Tool To Ethnical Conflicts

Authors: Bonguen Onouck Rolande Carole, Ndongo Barthelemy

Abstract:

The climate change effects on the Lake Chad, coupled with population growth, have pushed large masses of people of various origins towards the lower part of the lower Logonewatershed in search of the benefits of environmental services, causing pressure on the environment and its resources. Economic services are therefore threatened, and the decrease in resources contributes to the deterioration of the social wellbeing resulting to conflicts among/between local communities, immigrants, displaced people, and foreigners. This paper is an information contribution on ethnical conflicts drivers in the area and the provided local management mechanisms such can help mitigate present or future conflicts in similar areas. It also prints out the necessity to alleviate water access deficit and encourage good practices for the population wellbeing. In order to meet the objective, in 2018, through the interface of the World Bank-Cameroon project-PULCI, data were collected on the field directly by discussing with the population and visiting infrastructures, indirectly by a questionnaire survey. Two administrative divisions were chosen (Logoneet Chari, Mayo-Danay) in which targeted localities were Zina, Mazera, Lahai, Andirni near the Waza Park and Yagoua, Tekele, Pouss, respectively. Due to some sociocultural and religious reasons, some information were acquired through the traditional chiefs. A desk study analysis based on resources access and availability conflicts history, and management mechanism was done. As results, roots drivers of ethnical conflicts are struggles over natural resources access, and the possibility of conflicts increases as the scarcity and vulnerabilities persist, creating more sociocultural gaps and tensions. The mitigation mechanisms though fruitful, are limited. There is poor documentation on the topic, the resources management policies of this basin are unsuitable and ineffective for some. Therefore, the restoration of environmental and ecosystems, the mitigation of climate change effects, and food insecurity are the challenges that must be met to alleviate conflicts in these localities.

Keywords: ethnic, communities, conflicts, mitigation mechanisms, natural resources, logone basin

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15 Susceptibility Assessment and Genetic Diversity of Iranian and CIMMYT Wheat Genotypes to Common Root Rot Disease Bipolaris sorokiniana

Authors: Mehdi Nasr Esfahani, Abdal-Rasool Gholamalian, Abdelfattah A. Dababat

Abstract:

Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. is one of the most important and strategic crops in the human diet. Several diseases threaten this particular crop. Common root rot disease of wheat by a fungal agent, Bipolaris sorokiniana is one of the important diseases, causing considerable losses worldwide. Resistant sources are the only feasible and effective method of control for managing diseases. In this study, the response of 33 domestic and exotic wheat genotypes, including cultivars and promising lines were screened to B. sorokiniana at greenhouse and field conditions, based on five scoring scale indexes of 0 to 100 severity percentage. The screening was continued on resistant wheat genotypes and repeated several times to confirm the greenhouse and field results. Statistical and cluster analysis of data was performed using SAS and SPSS software, respectively. The results showed that, the response of wheat genotypes to the disease in the greenhouse and field conditions was highly significant. The highest rate of common root rot disease infection, B. sorokiniana in the greenhouse and field, was of CVS. Karkheh and Beck Cross-Roshan with 60.83% and 59.16% disease severity respectively, and the lowest one were in cv. Alvand with 18.33%, followed by cv. Baharan with 19.16% disease severity, with a highly significant difference respectively. The remaining wheat genotypes were located in between these two highest and lowest infected groups to B. sorokiniana significantly. There was a high correlation coefficient between the related statistical groups and cluster analysis.

Keywords: wheat, rot, root, crown, fungus, genotype, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 48