Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: underlay

5 Artificial Bee Colony Optimization for SNR Maximization through Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Babar Sultan, Kiran Sultan, Waseem Khan, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi


In this paper, a novel idea for the performance enhancement of secondary network is proposed for Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). In Underlay CRNs, primary users (PUs) impose strict interference constraints on the secondary users (SUs). The proposed scheme is based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization for relay selection and power allocation to handle the highlighted primary challenge of Underlay CRNs. ABC is a simple, population-based optimization algorithm which attains global optimum solution by combining local search methods (Employed and Onlooker Bees) and global search methods (Scout Bees). The proposed two-phase relay selection and power allocation algorithm aims to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination while operating in an underlying mode. The proposed algorithm has less computational complexity and its performance is verified through simulation results for a different number of potential relays, different interference threshold levels and different transmit power thresholds for the selected relays.

Keywords: artificial bee colony, underlay spectrum sharing, cognitive radio networks, amplify-and-forward

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4 Combined Localization, Beamforming, and Interference Threshold Estimation in Underlay Cognitive System

Authors: Omar Nasr, Yasser Naguib, Mohamed Hafez


This paper aims at providing an innovative solution for blind interference threshold estimation in an underlay cognitive network to be used in adaptive beamforming by secondary user Transmitter and Receiver. For the task of threshold estimation, blind detection of modulation and SNR are used. For the sake of beamforming several localization algorithms are compared to settle on best one for cognitive environment. Beamforming algorithms as LCMV (Linear Constraint Minimum Variance) and MVDR (Minimum Variance Distortion less) are also proposed and compared. The idea of just nulling the primary user after knowledge of its location is discussed against the idea of working under interference threshold.

Keywords: cognitive radio, underlay, beamforming, MUSIC, MVDR, LCMV, threshold estimation

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3 Undercasts in Fracture Care: A Randomized Control Study

Authors: B. Kenny


There is currently no literature comparing undercasts in fracture care. This study is a randomised trial comparing the 4 commonly used undercasts in Australia. These are Webril, Sofban, Goretech and Delta-dry. The ideal undercast should be comfortable for the patient and not cause itchiness. It should be durable enough to withstand daily activities. The clinician/technician should find the undercast easy to apply and remove. It should provide adequate padding without compromising cast mouldability to obtain a good cast index and air index. 18 volunteering medical students were randomly allocated to receive 4 angular casts, one over each elbow and ankle(total of 72 casts). They were blinded to cast type. After an hour their casts were stressed by pouring 20ml Normal Saline onto the skin beneath. Each student filled a questionnaire about comfort, itchiness, weight and water resistance. Subsequently they ranked each cast 1 to 4 based on preference. Our preliminary results show Delta-dry is the most preferred undercast followed by Webril, Sofban and Goretech in that order. Underlay selection is important component of patient care with long immobilsation. Webril or Deltra-dry are by far the most preferred undercasts in our study.

Keywords: casts, fracture, treatment modality, patient compliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2 Insights into Insect Vectors: Liberibacter Interactions

Authors: Murad Ghanim


The citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing, caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) has resulted in tremendous losses and the death of millions of citrus trees worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri. The closely-related bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso), which is associated with vegetative disorders in carrots and the zebra chips disease in potatoes, is transmitted by other psyllid species including Bactericera trigonica in carrots and B. ckockerelli in potatoes. Chemical sprays are currently the prevailing method for managing these diseases for limiting psyllid populations; however, they are limited in their effectiveness. A promising approach to prevent the transmission of these pathogens is to interfere with the vector-pathogen interactions, but our understanding of these processes is very limited. CLas induces changes in the nuclear architecture in the midgut of ACP and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) in this organ. Strikingly, CLso displayed an opposite effect in the gut of B. trigonica, showing limited apoptosis, but widespread necrosis. Electron and fluorescent microscopy further showed that CLas induced the formation of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inclusion- and replication-like bodies, in which it increases and multiplies. ER involvement in bacterial replication is hypothesized to be the first stage of an immune response leading to the apoptotic and necrotic responses. ER exploitation and the subsequent events that lead to these cellular and stress responses might activate a cascade of molecular responses ending up with apoptosis and necrosis. Understanding the molecular interactions that underlay the necrotic/apoptotic responses to the bacteria will increase our knowledge of ACP-CLas, and BT-CLso interactions, and will set the foundation for developing novel, and efficient strategies to disturb these interactions and inhibit the transmission.

Keywords: Liberibacter, psyllid, transmission, apoptosis, necrosis

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1 Preparation of Silver and Silver-Gold, Universal and Repeatable, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Platforms from SERSitive

Authors: Pawel Albrycht, Monika Ksiezopolska-Gocalska, Robert Holyst


Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique of growing importance not only in purely scientific research related to analytical chemistry. It finds more and more applications in broadly understood testing - medical, forensic, pharmaceutical, food - and everywhere works perfectly, on one condition that SERS substrates used for testing give adequate enhancement, repeatability, and homogeneity of SERS signal. This is a problem that has existed since the invention of this technique. Some laboratories use as SERS amplifiers colloids with silver or gold nanoparticles, others form rough silver or gold surfaces, but results are generally either weak or unrepeatable. Furthermore, these structures are very often highly specific - they amplify the signal only of a small group of compounds. It means that they work with some kinds of analytes but only with those which were used at a developer’s laboratory. When it comes to research on different compounds, completely new SERS 'substrates' are required. That underlay our decision to develop universal substrates for the SERS spectroscopy. Generally, each compound has different affinity for both silver and gold, which have the best SERS properties, and that's what depends on what signal we get in the SERS spectrum. Our task was to create the platform that gives a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the largest number of compounds with very high repeatability - even at the expense of the intensity of the enhancement factor (EF) (possibility to repeat research results is of the uttermost importance). As specified above SERS substrates are offered by SERSitive company. Applied method is based on cyclic potentiodynamic electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles on the conductive surface of ITO-coated glass at controlled temperature of the reaction solution. Silver nanoparticles are supplied in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO₃, 10 mM), gold nanoparticles are derived from tetrachloroauric acid (10 mM) while sodium sulfite (Na₂O₃, 5 mM) is used as a reductor. To limit and standardize the size of the SERS surface on which nanoparticles are deposited, photolithography is used. We secure the desired ITO-coated glass surface, and then etch the unprotected ITO layer which prevents nanoparticles from settling at these sites. On the prepared surface, we carry out the process described above, obtaining SERS surface with nanoparticles of sizes 50-400 nm. The SERSitive platforms present highly sensitivity (EF = 10⁵-10⁶), homogeneity and repeatability (70-80%).

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanoparticles, Raman spectroscopy, SERS, SERSitive, SERS platforms, SERS substrates

Procedia PDF Downloads 58