Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: saproxylic beetles

25 Seasons and Saproxylic Beetles Biodiversity in an Urban Park in Tunisia

Authors: Zina Nasr, Faiek Errouissi


Forest ecosystems are known for its ability to contain a large diversity of fauna especially insects that represent a huge taxonomic group. A portion of forest insects are recognized as saproxylic including the group of organisms that ‘depend on dead or dying wood’ about them, 20% are beetles. We focused our study on saproxylic beetles in an old urban park ‘the park of Belvedere’, located in the north west of Tunis (36° 49'21’ N 10°10'24’ W). The vegetation is dominated by old trees (Eucalyptus, Olea, Aberia, Pinus) and many fallen wood exist. Saproxylic beetles were collected using three interception traps set in the park over one year (from June 2014 to May 2015) and recovered monthly. In total, we collected 189 beetles belonging to 20 families and 57 species. Several saproxylic families (Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Melyridae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae), and well known genus (Rhizopertha, Thrychoplerus, Otiorhychus, Dolichosoma, Epuraea, Anotylus) are recorded. We have retained the largest activity of beetles in spring and a very low richness in winter with zero insect per traps. This result was certainly caused by the variation of meteorological factors that mainly influenced the activity of these organisms. Therefore, we were interested on the saproxylic diversity in an urban ‘forest’, and these results will be more interesting when they are compared in the future with other works from natural forest.

Keywords: saproxylic beetles, seasons, urban park, wood

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24 Tunisian Dung Beetles Fauna: Composition and Biogeographic Affinities

Authors: Imen Labidi, Said Nouira


Dung beetles Scarabaeides of Tunisia constitute a major component of soil fauna, especially in the Mediterranean region. In the first phase of the present study, an intensive investigation of this group following the gathering of all the bibliographic, museological data and based on a recent collection of 17020 specimens in 106 localities in Tunisia, allowed to confirm with certainty the presence of 94 species distributed in 43 genera, 4 families and 3 sub-families. Only 81 species distributed in 38 genres, 4 families, and 3 sub-families, have been found during our prospections. The population of dung beetles Scarabaeides is composed of 58% of Aphodiidae, 39.51% of Scarabaeidae, and 8.64% of Geotrupidae. Biogeographic affinities of the species were determined and showed that 42% of the identified species have a wide Palaearctic distribution, the endemism is very low, only 3 species are endemic to Tunisia Mecynodes demoflysi, Neobodilus marani, and Thorectes demoflysi, 29 species have a wide distribution, 35 are northern and 17 are southern species. Moreover, others are dependent on very specific Biotopes like Sisyphus schaefferi linked to the northwest of Tunisia and Scarabaeus semipunctatus related to the coastal area north of Tunisia.

Keywords: dung beetles, Tunisia, composition, biogeography

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23 Evaluation of Pheromone and Tree Trap Efficiency in Orthotomicus erosus (Col: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Monitoring in Pine Forests of Iran

Authors: Sudabe Amini, Jamasb Nozari, Somaye Rahimi


Bark beetles are one of the most destructive groups of pests in the forest and green space. Mediterranean pine Engraver Orthotomicus erosus (Wollston) is the dominant species in the pine forests of Iran. Pine forests are considered a crucial region in the world and need high protection. Although there is no effective control method, mass trapping is the most common method to suppress the bark beetle population. Due to this, from 2018-to 2020, a survey was conducted on bark beetles mass trapping by using two kinds of traps, including pheromone and tree trap. These traps were evaluated in 10 different sites of pine forests. The statistical results proved that significant differences between the pheromone trap and tree trap were observed. It confirmed that the pheromone trap attracted more beetles than the tree trap. The results of this study suggest that the most effective and applicable method in bark beetle’s management of pines forest is using a pheromone trap that suppresses and maintains bark beetle’s population at an economic level, although tree traps attract bark beetles too. In the future, using tree-pheromone traps, which would synergist attraction of more bark beetles, is recommended.

Keywords: bark beetle, pines forest, Orthotomicus erosus, pheromone trap, tree trap

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22 Influence of Settlements and Human Activities on Beetle Diversity and Assemblage Structure at Small Islands of the Kepulauan Seribu Marine National Park and Nearby Java

Authors: Shinta Holdsworth, Jan Axmacher, Darren J. Mann


Beetles represent the most diverse insect taxon, and they contribute significantly to a wide range of vital ecological functions. Examples include decomposition by bark beetles, nitrogen recycling and dung processing by dung beetles or pest control by predatory ground beetles. Nonetheless, research into the distribution patterns, species richness and functional diversity of beetles particularly from tropical regions remains extremely limited. In our research, we aim to investigate the distribution and diversity patterns of beetles and the roles they play in small tropical island ecosystems in the Kepulauan Seribu Marine National Park and on Java. Our research furthermore provides insights into the effects anthropogenic activities have on the assemblage composition and diversity of beetles on the small islands. We recorded a substantial number of highly abundant small island species, including a substantial number of unique small island species across the study area, highlighting these islands’ potential importance for the regional conservation of genetic resources. The highly varied patterns observed in relation to the use of different trapping types - pitfall traps and flight interception traps (FITs) - underscores the need for complementary trapping strategies that combine multiple methods for beetle community surveys in tropical islands. The significant impacts of human activities have on the small island beetle faunas were also highlighted in our research. More island beetle species encountered in settlement than forest areas shows clear trend of positive links between anthropogenic activities and the overall beetle species richness. However, undisturbed forests harboured a high number of unique species, also in comparison to disturbed forests. Finally, our study suggests that, with regards to different feeding guilds, the diversity of herbivorous beetles on islands is strongly affected by the different levels of forest cover encountered.

Keywords: beetle diversity, forest disturbance, island biogeography, island settlement

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21 Species Diversity of Coleoptera (Insecta: Coleoptera) Damaging Saxaul (Chenopodiáceae: Haloxylon spp.) in the Deserts Area of South-East Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Mombayeva


In the deserts area of south east of Kazakhstan, 16 species of Coleoptera from 6 families and 12 genus of insects damaging Saxaul have been revealed. The vast number of species belong to the Cerambycidae familyCapricorn Beetle (4 species) and Hemlock Borer of Melanophila genus and 3 species of weevils and flea-beetles, and 1 species of coctsinelids and carrion beetle. Some of them cause appreciable harm, and sometimes very heavy damageto saxaul. According to food specialization they are divided into polyphages and - oligophages. According to the confinement to saxaul parts, registered beetles insects mainly feed on generative parts (11 species) and leaves (5 species). 9 species from them feed on roots, leaves and generative organs. They are scarablike beetle’s larvae (Apatophysismongolica Semenov., Tursmenigenavarentzovi Melg., Phytoecia (Opsilla) coerulescens Scopoli., Apatophysismongolica Semenov.), Jewel beetles (Julodis (s. Str.) Variolaris (Pallas), Sphenoptera (s. Str.) cuprina Motschulsky, S. (s. str.) exarata (Fischer), SphenopterapotaniniJak.) and some weevil (Barisartemisiae Hbst.). The larvae eat the roots and the imago - generative organs. Their feeding noticeably has its effect on the condition of saxaul. Beetles also slightlygnaw vegetative organs of plants. Among the harmful species the desert Capricorn Beetle Julodisvariolaris (Pallas) deserved attention. Its larvae live in the soil and cause harm to the roots of Saxaul and other pasture plants. In addition, the larvae of Sphenopterapotanini, S.punctatissima colonize the roots, trunk and branches of Haloxylon. In the spring Saxaul flowers are much damaged by Ladybeetle Bulaealichatchovi.

Keywords: saxaul, coleoptera, insecta, haloxylon

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20 Species Profiling of White Grub Beetles and Evaluation of Pre and Post Sown Application of Insecticides against White Grub Infesting Soybean

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey, Mayank Kumar


White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. Beetles feed on apple, apricot, plum, walnut etc. during night while, second and third instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non-cultivated crops. Collection and identification of scarab beetles through light trap was carried out at Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballab Pant University Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) during 2018. Field trials were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate pre and post sown application of different insecticides against the white grub infesting soybean. The insecticides like Carbofuran 3 Granule (G) (750 g a.i./ha), Clothianidin 50 Water Dispersal Granule (WG) (120 g a.i./ha), Fipronil 0.3 G (50 g a.i./ha), Thiamethoxam 25 WG (80 g a.i./ha), Imidacloprid 70 WG (300 g a.i./ha), Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G(100 g a.i./ha) and mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG (300 g a.i./ha) were applied at the time of sowing in pre sown experiment while same dosage of insecticides were applied in standing soybean crop during (first fortnight of July). Commutative plant mortality data were recorded after 20, 40, 60 days intervals and compared with untreated control. Total 23 species of white grub beetles recorded on the light trap and Holotrichia serrata Fabricious (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae) was found to be predominant species by recording 20.6% relative abundance out of the total light trap catch (i.e. 1316 beetles) followed by Phyllognathus sp. (14.6% relative abundance). H. rosettae and Heteronychus lioderus occupied third and fourth rank with 11.85% and 9.65% relative abundance, respectively. The emergence of beetles of predominant species started from 15th March, 2018. In April, average light trap catch was 382 white grub beetles, however, peak emergence of most of the white grub species was observed from June to July, 2018 i.e. 336 beetles in June followed by 303 beetles in the July. On the basis of the emergence pattern of white grub beetles, it may be concluded that the Peak Emergence Period (PEP) for the beetles of H. serrata was second fortnight of April for the total period of 15 days. In May, June and July relatively low population of H. serrata was observed. A decreasing trend in light trap catch was observed and went on till September during the study. No single beetle of H. serrata was observed on light trap from September onwards. The cumulative plant mortality data in both the experiments revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior in protection-wise (6.49-16.82% cumulative plant mortality) over untreated control where highest plant mortality was 17.28 to 39.65% during study. The mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective having lowest plant mortality i.e. 9.29 and 10.94% in pre and post sown crop, followed by Clothianidin 50 WG (120 g a.i. per ha) where the plant mortality was 10.57 and 11.93% in pre and post sown treatments, respectively. Both treatments were found significantly at par among each other. Production-wise, all the insecticidal treatments were found statistically superior (15.00-24.66 q per ha grain yields) over untreated control where the grain yield was 8.25 & 9.13 q per ha. Treatment Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective and significantly superior over Imidacloprid 70WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha.

Keywords: bio efficacy, insecticide, soybean, white grub

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19 Coprophagus Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera) of Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India

Authors: Subhankar Kumar Sarkar


Scarab beetles composing the family Scarabaeidae is one of the largest families in the order Coleoptera. The family is comprised of 11 subfamilies. Of these, the subfamily Scarabaeinae includes 13 tribes globally. Indian species are however considered within 2 tribes Scarabaeini and Coprini. Scarab beetles under this subfamily also known as Coprophagus beetles play an indispensable role in forestry and agriculture. Both adults and larvae of these beetles do a remarkable job of carrying excrement into the soil thus enriching the soil to a great extent. Eastern and North Eastern states of India are heavily rich in diversity of organisms as this region exhibits the tropical rain forests of the eastern Himalayas, which exhibits one of the 18 biodiversity hotspots of the world and one of the three of India. Buxa Tiger Reserve located in Dooars between latitudes 26°30” to 26°55” North & longitudes 89°20” to 89°35” East is one such fine example of rain forests of the eastern Himalayas. Despite this, the subfamily is poorly known, particularly from this part of the globe and demands serious revisionary studies. It is with this background; the attempt is being made to assess the Scarabaeinae fauna of the forest. Both extensive and intensive surveys were conducted in different beats under different ranges of Buxa Tiger Reserve. For collection sweep nets, bush beating and collection in inverted umbrella, hand picking techniques were used. Several pit fall traps were laid in the collection localities of the Reserve to trap ground dwelling scarabs. Dung of various animals was also examined to make collections. In the evening hours UV light, trap was used to collect nocturnal beetles. The collected samples were studied under Stereozoom Binocular Microscopes Zeiss SV6, SV11 and Olympus SZ 30. The faunistic investigation of the forest revealed in the recognition of 19 species under 6 genera distributed over 2 tribes. Of these Heliocopris tyrannus Thomson, 1859 was recorded new from the Country, while Catharsius javanus Lansberge, 1886, Copris corpulentus Gillet, 1910, C. doriae Harold, 1877 and C. sarpedon Harold, 1868 from the state. 4 species are recorded as endemic to India. The forest is dominated by the members of the Genus Onthophagus, of which Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) dama (Fabricius, 1798) is represented by highest number of individuals. Their seasonal distribution is most during Premonsoon followed by Monsoon and Postmonsoon. Zoogeographically all the recorded species are of oriental distribution.

Keywords: buxa tiger reserve, diversity, India, new records, scarabaeinae, scarabaeidae

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18 Exploring the Rhinoceros Beetles of a Tropical Forest of Eastern Himalayas

Authors: Subhankar Kumar Sarkar


Beetles of the subfamily Dynastinae under the family Scarabaeidae of the insect order Coleoptera are popularly known as ‘Rhinoceros beetles’ because of the characteristic horn borne by the males on their head. These horns are dedicated in mating battle against other males and have evolved as a result of phenotypic plasticity. Scarabaeidae is the largest of all families under Coleoptera and is composed of 11 subfamilies, of which the subfamily Dynastinae is represented by approximately 300 species. Some of these beetles have been reported to cause considerable damage to agriculture and forestry both in their larval and adult stages, while many of them are beneficial as they pollinate plants and recycle plant materials. Eastern Himalayas is regarded as one of the 35 biodiversity hotspot zones of the world and one of the four of India, which is exhibited by its rich and megadiverse tropical forests. However, our knowledge on the faunal diversity of these forests is very limited, particularly for the insect fauna. One such tropical forest of Eastern Himalayas is the ‘Buxa Tiger Reserve’ located between latitudes 26°30” to 26°55” North and Longitudes 89°20” to 89˚35” East of India and occupies an area of about 759.26 square kilometers. It is with this background an attempt has been made to explore the insect fauna of the forest. Insect sampling was carried out in each beat and range of Buxa Tiger Reserve in all the three seasons viz, Premonsoon, Monsoon, and Postmonsoon. Sample collections were done by sweep nets, hand picking technique and pit fall traps. UV light trap was used to collect the nocturnal insects. Morphological examinations of the collected samples were carried out with Stereozoom Binocular Microscopes (Zeiss SV6 and SV11) and were identified up to species level with the aid of relevant literature. Survey of the insect fauna of the forest resulted in the recognition of 76 scarab species, of which 8 belong to the subfamily dealt herein. Each of the 8 species represents a separate genus. The forest is dominated by the members of Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus) as is represented by highest number of individuals. The recorded taxa show about 12% endemism and are of mainly oriental in distribution. Premonsoon is the most favorable season for their occurrence and activity followed by Monsoon and Postmonsoon.

Keywords: Dynastinae, Scarabaeidae, diversity, Buxa Tiger Reserve

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17 Use of Fruit Beetles, Waxworms Larvae and Tiger Worms in Waste Conditioning for Composting

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen


In many countries, cow dung is used as farm manure and for biogas production. Several bacterial strains associated with cow dung such as Campylobacter, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli cause serious human diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of insect larvae including fruit beetle, waxworms and tiger worms to improve the breakdown of agricultural wastes and reduce their pathogen loads. Fresh cow faeces were collected from a cattle farm and distributed into plastic boxes (100 g/box). Each box was provided with 10 larvae of fruit beetle, Waxworms and Tiger worms, respectively. There were 3 replicates in each treatment including the control. Bacteria were isolated weekly from both control and cow faeces to which larvae were added to determine the bacterial populations. Results revealed that the bacterial load was higher in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetles than in the control, while the bacterial load was lower in the cow faeces treated with waxworms and tiger worms than in the control. The activities of the fruit beetle larvae led to the cow faeces being liquefied which provided a more conducive growing media for bacteria. Therefore, higher bacterial load in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetle might be attributed to the liquefaction of cow faeces.

Keywords: fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms, waste conditioning, composting

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16 Influence of the Location of Flood Embankments on the Condition of Oxbow Lakes and Riparian Forests: A Case Study of the Middle Odra River Beds on the Example of Dragonflies (Odonata), Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Plant Communities

Authors: Magda Gorczyca, Zofia Nocoń


Past and current studies from different countries showed that river engineering leads to environmental degradation and extinction of many species - often those protected by local and international wildlife conservation laws. Through the years, the main focus of rivers utilization has shifted from industrial applications to recreation and wildlife preservation with a focus on keeping the biodiversity which plays a significant role in preventing climate changes. Thus an opportunity appeared to recreate flooding areas and natural habitats, which are very rare in the scale of Europe. Additionally, river restoration helps to avoid floodings and periodic droughts, which are usually very damaging to the economy. In this research, the biodiversity of dragonflies and ground beetles was analyzed in the context of plant communities and forest stands structure. Results were enriched with data from past and current literature. A comparison was made between two parts of the Odra river. A part where oxbow lake and riparian forest were separated from the river bed by embankment and a part of the river with floodplains left intact. Validity assessment of embankments relocation was made based on the research results. In the period between May and September, insects were collected, phytosociological analysis were taken, and forest stand structure properties were specified. In the part of the river not separated by the embankments, rare and protected species of plants were spotted (e.g., Trapanatans, Salvinianatans) as well as greater species and quantitive diversity of dragonfly. Ground beetles fauna, though, was richer in the area separated by the embankment. Even though the research was done during only one season and in a limited area, the results can be a starting point for further extended research and may contribute to acquiring legal wildlife protection and restoration of the researched area. During the research, the presence of invasive species Impatiens parviflora, Echinocystislobata, and Procyonlotor were observed, which may lead to loss of the natural values of the researched areas.

Keywords: carabidae, floodplains, middle Odra river, Odonata, oxbow lakes, riparian forests

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15 Identification and Characterization of Novel Genes Involved in Quinone Synthesis in the Odoriferous Defensive Stink Glands of the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

Authors: B. Atika, S. Lehmann, E. Wimmer


The defense strategy is very common in the insect world. Defensive substances play a wide variety of functions for beetles, such as repellents, toxicants, insecticides, and antimicrobics. Beetles react to predators, invaders, and parasitic microbes with the release of toxic and repellent substances. Defensive substances are directed against a large array of potential target organisms or may function for boiling bombardment or as surfactants. Usually, Coleoptera biosynthesize and store their defensive compounds in a complex secretory organ, known as odoriferous defensive stink glands. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), uses these glands to produce antimicrobial p-benzoquinones and 1-alkenes. In the past, the morphology of stink gland has been studied in detail in tenebrionid beetles; however, very little is known about the genes that are involved in the production of gland secretion. In this study, we studied a subset of genes that are essential for the benzoquinone production in red flour beetle. In the first phase, we selected 74 potential candidate genes from a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screen named 'iBeetle.' All these 74 candidate genes were functionally characterized by RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Therefore, they were selected for a subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of secretion volatiles in respective RNAi knockdown glands. 33 of them were observed to alter the phenotype of stink gland. In the GC-MS analysis, 7 candidate genes were noted to display a strongly altered gland, in terms of secretion color and chemical composition, upon knockdown, showing their key role in the biosynthesis of gland secretion. Morphologically altered stink glands were found for odorant receptor and protein kinase superfamily. Subsequent GC-MS analysis of secretion volatiles revealed reduced benzoquinone levels in LIM domain, PDZ domain, PBP/GOBP family knockdowns and a complete lack of benzoquinones in the knockdown of sulfatase-modifying factor enzyme 1, sulfate transporter family. Based on stink gland transcriptome data, we analyzed the function of sulfatase-modifying factor enzyme 1 and sulfate transporter family via RNAi-mediated gene knockdowns, GC-MS, in situ hybridization, and enzymatic activity assays. Morphologically altered stink glands were noted in knockdown of both these genes. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of secretion volatiles showed a complete lack of benzoquinones in the knockdown of these two genes. In situ hybridization showed that these two genes are expressed around the vesicle of certain subgroup of secretory stink gland cells. Enzymatic activity assays on stink gland tissue showed that these genes are involved in p-benzoquinone biosynthesis. These results suggest that sulfatase-modifying factor enzyme 1 and sulfate transporter family play a role specifically in benzoquinone biosynthesis in red flour beetles.

Keywords: Red Flour Beetle, defensive stink gland, benzoquinones, sulfate transporter, sulfatase-modifying factor enzyme 1

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14 Behavioral and Electroantennographic Responses of the Tea Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus, Eichhoff (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) to Volatiles Compounds of Montanoa bipinnatifida (Compositae: Asteraceae) and Development of a Kairomone Trap

Authors: Sachin Paul James, Selvasundaram Rajagopal, Muraleedharan Nair, Babu Azariah


The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (= Xyleborus fornicatus) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) is one of the major pests of tea in southern India and Sri Lanka. The partially dried cut stem of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida (C.Koch) (Compositae: Asteraceae) reported to attract shot hole borer beetles in the field. Collection, isolation, identification and quantification of the emitted volatiles from the partially dried cut stems of M. bipinnatifida using dynamic head space and GC-MS revealed the presence of seven compounds viz. α- pinene, β- phellandrene, β - pinene, D- limonene, trans-caryophyllene, iso- caryophyllene and germacrene– D. Behavioural bioassays using electroantennogram (EAG) and wind tunnel proved that, among these identified compounds only α - pinene, trans-caryophyllene, β – phellandrene and germacrene-D evoked significant behavioral response and maximum response was obtained to a specific blend of these four compounds @ 10:1:0.1:3. Field trapping experiments of this blend conducted in the SHB infested field using multiple funnel traps further proved the efficiency of the blend with a mean trap catch of 176.7 ± 13.1 beetles. Mass trapping studies in the field helped to develop a kairomone trap for the management of SHB in the tea fields of southern India.

Keywords: electroantennogram, kairomone trap, Montanoa bipinnatifida, tea shot hole borer

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13 Cataloguing Beetle Fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) of India: Estimating Diversity, Distribution, and Taxonomic Challenges

Authors: Devanshu Gupta, Kailash Chandra, Priyanka Das, Joyjit Ghosh


Beetles, in the insect order Coleoptera are the most species-rich group on this planet today. They represent about 40% of the total insect diversity of the world. With a considerable range of landform types including significant mountain ranges, deserts, fertile irrigational plains, and hilly forested areas, India is one of the mega-diverse countries and includes more than 0.1 million faunal species. Despite having rich biodiversity, the efforts to catalogue the beetle diversity of the extant species/taxa reported from India have been less. Therefore, in this paper, the information on the beetle fauna of India is provided based on the data available with the museum collections of Zoological Survey of India and taxa extracted from zoological records and published literature. The species were listed with their valid names, synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and their distribution in states and biogeographic zones of India. The catalogue also incorporates the bibliography on Indian Coleoptera. The exhaustive species inventory, prepared by us include distributional records from Himalaya, Trans Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, Northeast, Islands, and Coastal areas of the country. Our study concludes that many of the species are still known from their type localities only, so there is need to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the taxonomic evaluation of those species. There are species which exhibit single locality records, and taxa-specific biodiversity assessments are required to be undertaken to understand the distributional range of such species. The primary challenge is taxonomic identifications of the species which were described before independence, and the type materials are present in overseas museums. For such species, taxonomic revisions of the different group of beetles are required to solve the problems of identification and classification.

Keywords: checklist, taxonomy, museum collections, biogeographic zones

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12 Species Profiling of Scarab Beetles with the Help of Light Trap in Western Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey


White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), locally known as Kurmula, Pagra, Chinchu, is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India. Various crops like cereals (up land paddy, wheat, and barley), vegetables (capsicum, cabbage, tomato, cauliflower, carrot etc) and some pulse (like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram) are grown with limited availability of primary resources. Among the various limitations in successful cultivation of these crops, white grub has been proved a major constraint in for all crops grown in hilly area. The losses incurred due to white grubs are huge in case of commercial crops like sugarcane, groundnut, potato, maize and upland rice. Moreover, it has been proved major constraint in potato production in mid and higher hills of India. Adults emerge in May-June following the onset of monsoon and thereafter defoliate the apple, apricot, plum, and walnut during night while 2nd and 3rd instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non cultivated crops from August to January. Survey was conducted in hilly (Pauri and Tehri) as well as plain area (Haridwar district) of Uttarakhand state. Collection of beetle was done from various locations from August to September of five consecutive years with the help of light trap and directly from host plant. The grub was also collected by excavating one square meter area from different locations and reared in laboratory to find out adult. During the collection, the diseased or dead cadaver were also collected and brought in the laboratory and identified the causal organisms. Total 25 species of white grub was identified out of which Holotrichia longipennis, Anomala dimidiata, Holotrichia lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis, Brahmina sp. make complex problem in different area of Uttarakhand where they cause severe damage to various crops. During the survey, it was observed that white grubs beetles have variation in preference of host plant, even in choice of fruit and leaves of host plant. It was observed that, a white grub species, which identified as Lepidiota mansueta Burmeister., was causing severe havoc to sugarcane crop grown in major sugarcane growing belt of Haridwar district. The study also revealed that Bacillus cereus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis are major disease causing agents in immature stage of white grub under rain-fed condition of Uttarakhand which caused 15.55 to 21.63 percent natural mortality of grubs with an average of 18.91 percent. However, among the microorganisms, B. cereus found to be significantly more efficient (7.03 percent mortality) then the entomopathogenic fungi (3.80 percent mortality) and nematodes (3.20 percent mortality).

Keywords: Lepidiota, profiling, Uttarakhand, whitegrub

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11 Foraging Ecology and Diet of the Philippine Spotted Flying Lizard, Draco Spilopterus (Wiegmann, 1834), in Luzon Biogeographic Region

Authors: Michael A. Tabug, Arvin C. Diesmos


The foraging ecology of the Philippine endemic Draco spilopterus was studied through a combination of in-situ field observations and laboratory examinations of specimens of the species. A total of four populations of the species were studied across the Luzon Biogeographic Region between June 2017 and March 2019. Of the 59 lizards captured, gut contents of 54 individuals were studied. A total of 2933 food items were sorted into seven types, such as Formicidae (ants) (96%), Araneae (spiders) (0.034%), Coleoptera (beetles) (0.579%), Hemiptera (scale insects) (0.102%), Isoptera (termites) (2.796%), Lepidoptera (larvae) (0.307%), and Diplopoda (millipede) (0.102%). Diet analysis revealed that D. spilopterus fed mainly on insect arthropods and were dominated by ants (Formicidae). Of the four populations studied, lizards consumed a relatively high proportion of ants (96%), which strongly implies that D. spilopterus is a specialist predator and a sit-and-wait active forager. The observed feeding activities of D. spilopterus also show that it is diurnal forager and actively hunts for prey from 0830 hr to 1658 hr, with decreasing activity during midday. Draco spilopterus lizards were also observed to use a wide spectrum of perch heights while foraging, regardless of the dimension of trees.

Keywords: ant specialists, diet analysis, flying lizards, foraging ecology, Luzon Biogeographic Region

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10 Study on Biodeterioration of Proteinous Objects in Museums and Toxic Efficacy of Myristica Fragrans and Syzygium Aromaticum Oils against the Larvae of Anthrenus verbasci

Authors: Fatma Faheem, K. Abduraheem


Museums are custodians of natural and cultural heritage. Objects like tribal dresses, headgears, weapons, musical instruments, manuscripts and other ethnocultural materials housed in museums are prized possessions of intellectual and cultural property of people. Tropical countries like India have a favorable climatic condition for biodeterioration. Organic materials such as leather and parchment objects which form a substantial part of natural history collections of museums across the world are promptly infested by insects like dermestid beetles, tenebrionides, silver fishes, cockroaches and other micro-organisms. The environmental problems caused due to the overuse of pesticides and other non-degradable chemicals have been the matter of serious concern for both the scientists and public in recent years. Synthetic pesticides are very expensive and also highly toxic for humans and its environment. Due to its high health risk factor government has taken severe initiatives on policy of banning it. In order to overcome the problems of biodeterioration, natural biocides should be applied. In this paper, comparative study has been done to investigate the toxic efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum oil in variation with contact and stomach toxicity against larvae of Anthrenus verbasci.

Keywords: biodeterioration, contact toxicity, cultural heritage, natural biocides, natural heritage, stomach toxicity

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9 Entomological Study of Pests of Olive Trees in the Region of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Smail Chafaa, Abdelkrim Si Bachir


Our work aims to study the insect diversity based on bioclimatic levels of pests in olive cultures (Olea europea L.) in the area of Batna (arid and semi arid north eastern Algeria) during the period from January 2011 to May 2011. Several sampling techniques were used, those of hunting on sight, visual inspection, hatches traps, colored traps, Japanese umbrella and sweep net. We have identified in total, 2311 individuals with results in inventory 206 species divided to 74 families and 11 orders, including Coleoptera order is quantitatively the most represented with 47.1%. The most dominant diet in our inventory is the phytophagous. Between the herbivorous insects that we have listed and which are the main olive pest of olive cultivation; we quote the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), cochineal purple olive (Parlatoria oleae) the psyllid olive (Euphyllura olivina) and olive Trips (Liothrips oleae). The distribution of species between stations shows that Boumia resort with the most number of species (113) compared to other resorts and beetles are also better represented in three groves. Total wealth is high in Boumia station compared with the others stations. The values of (H') exceeding 3.9 bits for all the stations studied indicate a specific wealth and diversity of ecological nests in insect species. The values of equitability are near the unit; that suggests a balance between the numbers of insect populations sampled in the various stations.

Keywords: entomology, olive, grove, batna, Algeria

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8 Occurrence and Habitat Status of Osmoderma barnabita in Lithuania

Authors: D. Augutis, M. Balalaikins, D. Bastyte, R. Ferenca, A. Gintaras, R. Karpuska, G. Svitra, U. Valainis


Osmoderma species complex (consisting of Osmoderma eremita, O. barnabita, O. lassallei and O. cristinae) is a scarab beetle serving as indicator species in nature conservation. Osmoderma inhabits cavities containing sufficient volume of wood mould usually caused by brown rot in veteran deciduous trees. As the species, having high demands for the habitat quality, they indicate the suitability of the habitat for a number of other specialized saproxylic species. Since typical habitat needed for Osmoderma and other species associated with hollow veteran trees is rapidly declining, the species complex is protected under various legislation, such as Bern Convention, EU Habitats Directive and the Red Lists of many European states. Natura 2000 sites are the main tool for conservation of O. barnabita in Lithuania, currently 17 Natura 2000 sites are designated for the species, where monitoring is implemented once in 3 years according to the approved methodologies. Despite these monitoring efforts in species reports, provided to EU according to the Article 17 of the Habitats Directive, it is defined on the national level, that overall assessment of O. barnabita is inadequate and future prospects are poor. Therefore, research on the distribution and habitat status of O. barnabita was launched on the national level in 2016, which was complemented by preparatory actions of LIFE OSMODERMA project. The research was implemented in the areas equally distributed in the whole area of Lithuania, where O. barnabita was previously not observed, or not observed in the last 10 years. 90 areas, such as Habitats of European importance (9070 Fennoscandian wooded pastures, 9180 Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes, and ravines), Woodland key habitats (B1 broad-leaved forest, K1 single giant tree) and old manor parks, were chosen for the research after review of habitat data from the existing national databases. The first part of field inventory of the habitats was carried out in 2016 and 2017 autumn and winter seasons, when relative abundance of O. barnabita was estimated according to larval faecal pellets in the tree cavities or around the trees. The state of habitats was evaluated according to the density of suitable and potential trees, percentage of not overshadowed trees and amount of undergrowth. The second part of the field inventory was carried out in the summer with pheromone traps baited with (R)-(+)-γ –decalactone. Results of the research show not only occurrence and habitat status of O. barnabita, but also help to clarify O. barnabita habitat requirements in Lithuania, define habitat size, its structure and distribution. Also, it compares habitat needs between the regions in Lithuania and inside and outside Natura 2000 areas designated for the species.

Keywords: habitat status, insect conservation, Osmoderma barnabita, veteran trees

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7 Desertification of Earth and Reverting Strategies

Authors: V. R. Venugopal


Human being evolved 200,000 years ago in an area which is now the Sahara desert and lived all along in the northern part of Africa. It was around 10,000 to15,00 years that he moved out of Africa. Various ancient civilizations – mainly the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indus valley and the Chinese yellow river valley civilizations - developed and perished till the beginning of the Christian era. Strangely the regions where all these civilizations flourished are no deserts. After the ancient civilizations the two major religions of the world the Christianity and Islam evolved. These too evolved in the regions of Jerusalem and Mecca which are now in the deserts of the present Israel and Saudi Arabia. Human activity since ancient age right from his origin was in areas which are now deserts. This is only because wherever Man lived in large numbers he has turned them into deserts. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the ancient days alone. Over the last 500 years the forest cover on the earth is reduced by 80 percent. Even more currently Just over the last forty decades human population has doubled but the number of bugs, beetles, worms and butterflies (micro fauna) have declined by 45%. Deforestation and defaunation are the first signs of desertification and Desertification is a process parallel to the extinction of life. There is every possibility that soon most of the earth will be in deserts. This writer has been involved in the process of forestation and increase of fauna as a profession since twenty years and this is a report of his efforts made in the process, the results obtained and concept generated to revert the ongoing desertification of this earth. This paper highlights how desertification can be reverted by applying these basic principles. 1) Man is not owner of this earth and has no right destroy vegetation and micro fauna. 2) Land owner shall not have the freedom to do anything that he wishes with the land. 3) The land that is under agriculture shall be reduced at least by a half. 4) Irrigation and modern technology shall be used for the forest growth also. 5) Farms shall have substantial permanent vegetation and the practice of all in all out shall stop.

Keywords: desertification, extinction, micro fauna, reverting

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6 Population Dynamics and Diversity of Beneficial Arthropods in Pummelo (Citrus maxima) under Perennial Peanut, Arachis pintoi Cover Crop

Authors: Larry V. Aceres, Jesryl B. Paulite, Emelie M. Pelicano, J. B. Anciano, J. A. Esteban


Enhancing the population of beneficial arthropods under less diverse agroecosystem is the most sought by many researchers and plant growers. This strategy was done through the establishment of pintoi peanut, Arachis pintoi as live mulch or cover crop in pummelo orchard of the University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), Mabini, Compostela Valley Province, Philippines. This study was conducted to compare and compute population dynamics and diversity of beneficial arthropods in pummelo in with and without Arachis pintoi cover crop. Data collections were done for the 12-month period (from June 2013 to May 2014) at the pummelo orchard of USeP Mabini Campus, COMVAL Province, Philippines and data were analyzed using the Independent Samples T-Test to compare the effect of the presence and absence of Arachis pintoi on beneficial arthropods incidence in pummelo orchard. Moreover, diversity and family richness analyses were computed using the Margalef’s diversity index for family richness; the Shannon index of general diversity and the evenness index; and the Simpson index of dominance. Results revealed numerically and statistically higher density of important beneficial arthropods such as microhymenopterans, macrohymenopterans, spiders, tachinid flies and ground beetles were recorded in pummelo orchard with Arachis pintoi than from without Arachis pintoi cover crop for the 12-month observation period. Further, the result of the study revealed the high family richness and diversity index with more or less even distribution of individuals within the family and low dominance index were documented in pummelo with Arachis pintoi cover crop than from pummelo without Arachis pintoi cover crop. The study revealed that planting A. pintoi in pummelo orchard could enhance natural enemy populations.

Keywords: Arachis pintoi, cover crop, beneficial arthropods, pummelo

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5 Diapause Incidence in Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

Authors: Fazil Hasan, M. Shafiq Ansari, Mohammad Muslim


Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an exotic insect and effective biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). Our study aimed to determine the induction and termination of diapause, in response to abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) and the effect of diapause on adult longevity and female fecundity. The adults burrowed into the soil about 1–6 cm below the surface for diapause at any time from July to December with a peak of 70% in the 2nd week of December at Aligarh region, India. The termination of diapause took place in May and June with the commencement of monsoon rains. Non-diapausing adults were also capable of breeding during winter under laboratory conditions. There was a significantly increased in the percentage of diapaused adults in subsequent generation i.e. 4% in F1 generation and 90% in F7 generation. The percentage of diapause was also significantly increased with age of adults. It has a positive effect on female fecundity as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapaused duration. Experiments proved that soil moisture played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. The adults which undergone diapause in January and February were continuously exposed to 35º, 40º and 45º C for one week and a daily dose of 10 and 8 hours for 6 and 5 days, respectively resulting in termination of diapause. This method may be used to initiate mass multiplication for carrying out releases early in the season. Exposure of adults to extremely low temperatures i.e. 5º and 10º C induced 94.3% and 92.5% diapause, respectively with no adult mortality. Therefore, low temperatures can also be used as a medium for the storage of mass reared beetles for a long time without having negative effect on their longevity and fecundity. Thus, our findings are of great utility in the biological suppression of P. hysterophorus as it will enhance the effectiveness of this beetle through manipulation of diapause.

Keywords: Zygogramma bicolorata, environmental factors, age, sex, diapause, Parthenium hysterophorus, biocontrol

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4 Dynamic of an Invasive Insect Gut Microbiome When Facing to Abiotic Stress

Authors: Judith Mogouong, Philippe Constant, Robert Lavallee, Claude Guertin


The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic wood borer insect native from China, which is associated with important environmental and economic damages in North America. Beetles are known to be vectors of microbial communities related to their adaptive capacities. It is now established that environmental stress factors may induce physiological events on the host trees, such as phytochemical changes. Consequently, that may affect the establishment comportment of herbivorous insect. Considering the number of insects collected on ash trees (insects’ density) as an abiotic factor related to stress damage, the aim of our study was to explore the dynamic of EAB gut microbial community genome (microbiome) when facing that factor and to monitor its diversity. Insects were trapped using specific green Lindgren© traps. A gradient of the captured insect population along the St. Lawrence River was used to create three levels of insects’ density (low, intermediate, and high). After dissection, total DNA extracted from insect guts of each level has been sent for amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS2 region. The composition of microbial communities among sample appeared largely diversified with the Simpson index significantly different across the three levels of density for bacteria. Add to that; bacteria were represented by seven phyla and twelve classes, whereas fungi were represented by two phyla and seven known classes. Using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on Bray Curtis distances of 16S rRNA sequences, we observed a significant variation between the structure of the bacterial communities depending on insects’ density. Moreover, the analysis showed significant correlations between some bacterial taxa and the three classes of insects’ density. This study is the first to present a complete overview of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the gut of EAB base on culture-independent methods, and to correlate those communities with a potential stress factor of the host trees.

Keywords: gut microbiome, DNA, 16S rRNA sequences, emerald ash borer

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3 Efficacy of Coconut Shell Pyrolytic Oil Distillate in Protecting Wood Against Bio-Deterioration

Authors: K. S. Shiny, R. Sundararaj


Coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.) are grown in many parts of India and world because of its multiple utilities. During pyrolysis, coconut shells yield oil, which is a dark thick liquid. Upon simple distillation it produces a more or less colourless liquid, termed coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate (CSPOD). This manuscript reports and discusses the use of coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate as a potential wood protectant against bio-deterioration. Since botanical products as ecofriendly wood protectant is being tested worldwide, the utilization of CPSOD as wood protectant is of great importance. The efficacy of CSPOD as wood protectant was evaluated as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in terms of its antifungal, antiborer, and termiticidal activities. Specimens of Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in six replicate each for two treatment methods namely spraying and dipping (48hrs) were employed. CSPOD was found to impart total protection against termites for six months compared to control under field conditions. For assessing the efficacy of CSPOD against fungi, the treated blocks were subjected to the attack of two white rot fungi Tyromyces versicolor (L.) Fr. and Polyporus sanguineus (L.) G. Mey and two brown rot fungi, Polyporus meliae (Undrew.) Murrill. and Oligoporus placenta (Fr.) Gilb. & Ryvarden. Results indicated that treatment with CSPOD significantly protected wood from the damage caused by the decay fungi. Efficacy of CSPOD against wood borer Lyctus africanus Lesne was carried out using six pairs of male and female beetles and it gave promising results in protecting the treated wood blocks when compared to control blocks. As far as the treatment methods were concerned, dip treatment was found to be more effective when compared to spraying. The results of the present investigation indicated that CSPOD is a promising botanical compound which has the potential to replace synthetic wood protectants. As coconut shell, pyrolytic oil is a waste byproduct of coconut shell charcoal industry, its utilization as a wood preservative will expand the economic returns from such industries.

Keywords: coconut shell pyrolytic oil distillate, eco-friendly wood protection, termites, wood borers, wood decay fungi

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2 Insecticidal and Repellent Efficacy of Clove and Lemongrass Oils Against Museum Pest, Lepisma Saccharina (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae)

Authors: Suboohi Nasrin, MHD. Shahid, Abduraheem K.


India is a tropical country, and it is estimated that biological and abiological agents are the major factors in the destruction and deterioration of archival materials like herbarium, paper, cellulose, bookbinding, etc. Silverfish, German Cockroaches, Termites, Booklice, Tobacco beetle and Carpet beetles are the common insect's pests in the museum, which causes deterioration to collections of museum specimens. Among them, silverfish is one of the most notorious pests and primarily responsible for the deterioration of Archival materials. So far, the investigation has been carried to overcome this existing problem as different management strategies such as chemical insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, etc., have been applied. Moreover, Synthetic molecules lead to affect the ecological balance, have a detrimental effects on human health, reduce the beneficial microbial flora and fauna, etc. With a view, numbers of chemicals have been banned and advised not to be used due to their long-lasting persistency in soil ecosystem, water and carcinogenic. That’s why the authors used natural products with biocidal activity, cost-effective and eco-friendly approaches. In this study, various concentrations (30, 60 and 90 ml/L) of clove and lemongrass essential oil at different treatment duration (30, 60, 90 and 120-minutes) were investigated to test its properties as a silverfish repellent and insecticidal effect. The result of two ways ANOVA revealed that the mortality was significantly influenced by oil concentration, treatment duration and interaction between two independent factors was also found significant. The mortality rate increased with increasing the oil concentration in clove oil, and 100 % mortality was recorded in 0.9 ml at 120-minute. It was also observed that the treatment duration has the highest effect on the mortality rate of silverfish. The clove oil had the greatest effect on the silverfish in comparison to lemongrass. While in the case of percentage, repellency of adult silverfish was oil concentration and treatment duration-dependent, i.e., increase in concentration and treatment duration resulted in higher repellency percentage. The clove oil was found more effective, showing maximum repellency of 80.00% at 0.9ml/cm2 (highest) concentration, and in lemongrass highest repellency was observed at 33.4% at 0.9 ml/cm2 concentration in the treated area.

Keywords: adult silverfish, oils, oil concentration, treatment duration, mortality (%) and repellency

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1 Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Red and Green Emitting Luciferase Enzymes

Authors: Wael M. Rabeh, Cesar Carrasco-Lopez, Juliana C. Ferreira, Pance Naumov


Bioluminescence, the emission of light from a biological process, is found in various living organisms including bacteria, fireflies, beetles, fungus and different marine organisms. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a two steps oxidation of luciferin in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP to produce oxyluciferin and releases energy in the form of light. The luciferase assay is used in biological research and clinical applications for in vivo imaging, cell proliferation, and protein folding and secretion analysis. The luciferase enzyme consists of two domains, a large N-terminal domain (1-436 residues) that is connected to a small C-terminal domain (440-544) by a flexible loop that functions as a hinge for opening and closing the active site. The two domains are separated by a large cleft housing the active site that closes after binding the substrates, luciferin and ATP. Even though all insect luciferases catalyze the same chemical reaction and share 50% to 90% sequence homology and high structural similarity, they emit light of different colors from green at 560nm to red at 640 nm. Currently, the majority of the structural and biochemical studies have been conducted on green-emitting firefly luciferases. To address the color emission mechanism, we expressed and purified two luciferase enzymes with blue-shifted green and red emission from indigenous Brazilian species Amydetes fanestratus and Phrixothrix, respectively. The two enzymes naturally emit light of different colors and they are an excellent system to study the color-emission mechanism of luciferases, as the current proposed mechanisms are based on mutagenesis studies. Using a vapor-diffusion method and a high-throughput approach, we crystallized and solved the crystal structure of both enzymes, at 1.7 Å and 3.1 Å resolution respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The free enzyme adopted two open conformations in the crystallographic unit cell that are different from the previously characterized firefly luciferase. The blue-shifted green luciferase crystalized as a monomer similar to other luciferases reported in literature, while the red luciferases crystalized as an octamer and was also purified as an octomer in solution. The octomer conformation is the first of its kind for any insect’s luciferase, which might be relate to the red color emission. Structurally designed mutations confirmed the importance of the transition between the open and close conformations in the fine-tuning of the color and the characterization of other interesting mutants is underway.

Keywords: bioluminescence, enzymology, structural biology, x-ray crystallography

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