Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: Babak Safaei

66 Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran

Authors: Nima Safaei, Arezoo Masoud, Babak Safaei

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.

Keywords: BMI, linear regression, transportation, walking, work trips

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
65 Optimal Design of Redundant Hybrid Manipulator for Minimum Singularity

Authors: Arash Rahmani, Ahmad Ghanbari, Abbas Baghernezhad, Babak Safaei

Abstract:

In the design of parallel manipulators, usually mean value of a dexterity measure over the workspace volume is considered as the objective function to be used in optimization algorithms. The mentioned indexes in a hybrid parallel manipulator (HPM) are quite complicated to solve thanks to infinite solutions for every point within the workspace of the redundant manipulators. In this paper, spatial isotropic design axioms are extended as a well-known method for optimum design of manipulators. An upper limit for the isotropy measure of HPM is calculated and instead of computing and minimizing isotropy measure, minimizing the obtained limit is considered. To this end, two different objective functions are suggested which are obtained from objective functions of comprising modules. Finally, by using genetic algorithm (GA), the best geometric parameters for a specific hybrid parallel robot which is composed of two modified Gough-Stewart platforms (MGSP) are achieved.

Keywords: hybrid manipulator, spatial isotropy, genetic algorithm, optimum design

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
64 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study we have investigated axial buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to discretize the governing differential equations along with four commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, axial buckling, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
63 Nonlocal Beam Models for Free Vibration Analysis of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Various End Supports

Authors: Babak Safaei, Ahmad Ghanbari, Arash Rahmani

Abstract:

In the present study, the free vibration characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are investigated. The small-scale effects are taken into account using the Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The nonlocal elasticity equations are implemented into the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT) to analyze the free vibrations of DWCNTs in which each wall of the nanotubes is considered as individual beam with van der Waals interaction forces. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to discretize the governing differential equations of each nonlocal beam model along with four commonly used boundary conditions. Then molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed for a series of armchair and zigzag DWCNTs with different aspect ratios and boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those of nonlocal beam models to extract the appropriate values of the nonlocal parameter corresponding to each type of chirality, nonlocal beam model and boundary condition. It is found that the present nonlocal beam models with their proposed correct values of nonlocal parameter have good capability to predict the vibrational behavior of DWCNTs, especially for higher aspect ratios.

Keywords: double-walled carbon nanotubes, nonlocal continuum elasticity, free vibrations, molecular dynamics simulation, generalized differential quadrature method

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
62 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Vibration Analysis at Nanocomposite Plates

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

Polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites have a wide range of promising applications Due to their enhanced properties. In this work, free vibration analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates is conducted in which carbon nanotubes are embedded in an amorphous polyethylene. The rule of mixture based on various types of plate model namely classical plate theory (CLPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) was employed to obtain fundamental frequencies of the nanocomposite plates. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was used to discretize the governing differential equations along with the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite plates were evaluated using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were fitted with those calculated by the rule of mixture to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results are presented to address the influences of nanotube volume fraction and edge supports on the value of fundamental frequency of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates corresponding to both long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, free vibration, generalized, differential quadrature (GDQ) method

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
61 Analysis and Rule Extraction of Coronary Artery Disease Data Using Data Mining

Authors: Rezaei Hachesu Peyman, Oliyaee Azadeh, Salahzadeh Zahra, Alizadeh Somayyeh, Safaei Naser

Abstract:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one major cause of disability in adults and one main cause of death in developed. In this study, data mining techniques including Decision Trees, Artificial neural networks (ANNs), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) analyze CAD data. Data of 4948 patients who had suffered from heart diseases were included in the analysis. CAD is the target variable, and 24 inputs or predictor variables are used for the classification. The performance of these techniques is compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The most significant factor influencing CAD is chest pain. Elderly males (age > 53) have a high probability to be diagnosed with CAD. SVM algorithm is the most useful way for evaluation and prediction of CAD patients as compared to non-CAD ones. Application of data mining techniques in analyzing coronary artery diseases is a good method for investigating the existing relationships between variables.

Keywords: classification, coronary artery disease, data-mining, knowledge discovery, extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
60 Report of Happiness in the Iranian Educational System: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Babak Shamshiri, Najme Dastouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of happiness in the Iranian educational system from the perspective of students, teachers and educational administrators. This research is done in qualitative paradigm. Data collection is done by in-depth interview method. Research participants were selected purposively according to sampling rules, with maximum variation and reaching the saturation point. According to most participants in this study, schools in Iran are not usually happy. This lack of happiness is associated with and related to the educational system, curriculum, teaching method, physical environment of schools and their facilities.

Keywords: happiness, Iran, educational system, qualitative study

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
59 Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Procurement Considering Different Discount Options

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

On-time availability of materials in the construction sites plays an outstanding role in successful achievement of project’s deliverables. Thus, this paper has investigated formulation of project scheduling and material procurement at the same time, by a mixed-integer programming model, aiming to minimize/maximize penalty/reward to deliver the project and minimize material holding, ordering, and procurement costs, respectively. We have taken both all-units and incremental discount possibilities into consideration to address more flexibility from the procurement side with regard to real world conditions. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the mathematical model is tested by different numerical examples.

Keywords: discount strategies, material purchasing, project planning, project scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
58 An Improved GA to Address Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering with Discount Options

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of the resource constraint project scheduling and material ordering problems have received significant attention within the last decades. Hence, the issue has been investigated here with the aim to minimize total project costs. Furthermore, the presented model considers different discount options in order to approach the real world conditions. The incorporated alternatives consist of all-unit and incremental discount strategies. On the other hand, a modified version of the genetic algorithm is applied in order to solve the model for larger sizes, in particular. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the given model is tested by different numerical instances.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, material ordering, project management, project scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
57 The Role of Microfinance in Economic Development

Authors: Babak Salekmahdy

Abstract:

Microfinance is often seen as a means of repairing credit markets and unleashing the potential contribution of impoverished people who rely on self-employment. Since the 1990s, the microfinance industry has expanded rapidly, opening the path for additional kinds of social entrepreneurship and social investment. However, current data indicate relatively few average consumer effects, opposing pushback against microfinance. This research reconsiders microfinance statements, stressing the variety of data on impacts and the essential (but limited) role of reimbursements. The report finishes by explaining a shift in thinking: from microfinance as a strictly defined enterprise finance to microfinance as a more widely defined home finance. Microfinance, under this perspective, provides advantages by providing liquidity for various requirements rather than just by increasing income.

Keywords: microfinance, small business, economic development, credit markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
56 Current Issues on Enterprise Architecture Implementation Evaluation

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Rodina Binti Ahmad, Babak Darvish Rouhani

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is employed by enterprises for providing integrated Information Systems (ISs) in order to support alignment of their business and Information Technology (IT). Evaluation of EA implementation can support enterprise to reach intended goals. There are some problems in current evaluation methods of EA implementation that lead to ineffectiveness implementation of EA. This paper represents current issues on evaluation of EA implementation. In this regard, we set the framework in order to represent evaluation’s issues based on their functionality and structure. The results of this research not only increase the knowledge of evaluation, but also could be useful for both academics and practitioners in order to realize the current situation of evaluations.

Keywords: current issues on EA implementation evaluation, evaluation, enterprise architecture, evaluation of enterprise architecture implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
55 A Bi-Objective Model to Address Simultaneous Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering has been increasingly addressed within last decades as an approach to improve the project execution costs. Therefore, we have taken the problem into consideration in this paper, aiming to maximize schedules quality robustness, in addition to minimize the relevant costs. In this regard, a bi-objective mathematical model is developed to formulate the problem. Moreover, it is possible to utilize the all-unit discount for materials purchasing. The problem is then solved by the constraint method, and the Pareto front is obtained for a variety of robustness values. The applicability and efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different numerical instances, finally.

Keywords: e-constraint method, material ordering, project management, project scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
54 An Integrated Mixed-Integer Programming Model to Address Concurrent Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering can provide more flexibility to the project scheduling problem, as the project execution costs can be enhanced. Hence, the issue has been taken into account in this paper. To do so, a mixed-integer mathematical model is developed which considers the aforementioned flexibility, in addition to the materials quantity discount and space availability restrictions. Moreover, the activities duration has been treated as decision variables. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different instances. Additionally, the influence of the aforementioned parameters is investigated on the model performance.

Keywords: material ordering, project scheduling, quantity discount, space availability

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
53 Computer Fraud from the Perspective of Iran's Law and International Documents

Authors: Babak Pourghahramani

Abstract:

One of the modern crimes against property and ownership in the cyber-space is the computer fraud. Despite being modern, the aforementioned crime has its roots in the principles of religious jurisprudence. In some cases, this crime is compatible with the traditional regulations and that is when the computer is considered as a crime commitment device and also some computer frauds that take place in the context of electronic exchanges are considered as crime based on the E-commerce Law (approved in 2003) but the aforementioned regulations are flawed and until recent years there was no comprehensive law in this regard; yet after some years the Computer Crime Act was approved in 2009/26/5 and partly solved the problem of legal vacuum. The present study intends to investigate the computer fraud according to Iran's Computer Crime Act and by taking into consideration the international documents.

Keywords: fraud, cyber fraud, computer fraud, classic fraud, computer crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
52 An Integrated Intuitionistic Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La REalite (IFELECTRE) Model

Authors: Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop and describe a new methodology for the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) problem using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La REalite (IFELECTRE) model. The proposed models enable Decision-Makers (DMs) on the assessment and use Intuitionistic Fuzzy numbers (IFN). A numerical example is provided to demonstrate and clarify the proposed analysis procedure. Also, an empirical experiment is conducted to validation the effectiveness.

Keywords: Decision-Makers (DMs), Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), Intuitionistic Fuzzy Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La REalite (IFELECTRE), Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers (IFN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
51 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
50 Effects of Magnetic Field Strength on Fluid Flow Behavior in a Constricted Channel

Authors: Ashkan Javadzadegan, Aitak Javadzadegan, Babak Fakhim

Abstract:

One of possible ways to retard movement of fluid is through applying an external magnetic field. In this regard, this study is focused on the effect of a uniform transverse magnetic field on fluid flow behavior inside a channel with a local symmetric constriction. Also, Ellis Non-Newtonian model is implemented to address the effects of shear-dependent viscosity. According to the results, the flow separation downstream of the constriction can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field and/or manipulating the shear-thinning degree of fluid. It is also demonstrated that pressure drop increases by an increase in the strength of the magnetic field.

Keywords: magnetic field, non-Newtonian, separation, shear thinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
49 Effect of IGF-I on Ovine Oocytes Maturation and Subsequent Embryo Development following in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Authors: Babak Qasemi-Panahi, Gholamali Moghaddam, Seyed-Abbas Rafat, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Mansoureh Movahedin, Reza Hadavi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of IGF-I on ovine oocytes maturation and subsequent development of embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos was conducted with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. In the IGF-I treated group, mean percentage of oocyte maturation was significantly higher than the control group (57.67 ± 3.04 versus 49.81 ± 3.04%, respectively, P < 0.05). However, in comparison with control group, there was no significant effect of IGF-1 on rates of cleavage, morula, and blastocyst formation (85% versus 84%; 63% versus 65%, and 40% to 39%, respectively). These data demonstrate that IGF-I has a positive effect on ovine oocyte maturation rate, but it has not the significant outcome on embryo development.

Keywords: ovine, IGF-I, IVM, ICSI

Procedia PDF Downloads 605
48 A Framework for Evaluation of Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodologies

Authors: Babak Darvish Rouhani, Mohd Naz'ri Mahrin, Fatemeh Nikpay, Maryam Khanian Najafabadi

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) Implementation Methodologies have become an important part of EA projects. Several implementation methodologies have been proposed, as a theoretical and practical approach, to facilitate and support the development of EA within an enterprise. A significant question when facing the starting of EA implementation is deciding which methodology to utilize. In order to answer this question, a framework with several criteria is applied in this paper for the comparative analysis of existing EA implementation methodologies. Five EA implementation methodologies including: EAP, TOGAF, DODAF, Gartner, and FEA are selected in order to compare with proposed framework. The results of the comparison indicate that those methodologies have not reached a sufficient maturity as whole due to lack of consideration on requirement management, maintenance, continuum, and complexities in their process. The framework has also ability for the evaluation of any kind of EA implementation methodologies.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, EAIM, evaluating EAIM, framework for evaluation, enterprise architecture implementation methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
47 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi

Abstract:

There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
46 Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Babak Shokri

Abstract:

In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.

Keywords: cellular response, hydrophilicity, MTT assay, PMMA, RF plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 600
45 Using Self Organizing Feature Maps for Classification in RGB Images

Authors: Hassan Masoumi, Ahad Salimi, Nazanin Barhemmat, Babak Gholami

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks have gained a lot of interest as empirical models for their powerful representational capacity, multi input and output mapping characteristics. In fact, most feed-forward networks with nonlinear nodal functions have been proved to be universal approximates. In this paper, we propose a new supervised method for color image classification based on self organizing feature maps (SOFM). This algorithm is based on competitive learning. The method partitions the input space using self-organizing feature maps to introduce the concept of local neighborhoods. Our image classification system entered into RGB image. Experiments with simulated data showed that separability of classes increased when increasing training time. In additional, the result shows proposed algorithms are effective for color image classification.

Keywords: classification, SOFM algorithm, neural network, neighborhood, RGB image

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
44 X-Bracing Configuration and Seismic Response

Authors: Saeed Rahjoo, Babak H. Mamaqani

Abstract:

Concentric bracing systems have been in practice for many years because of their effectiveness in reducing seismic response. Depending on concept, seismic design codes provide various response modification factors (R), which itself consists of different terms, for different types of lateral load bearing systems but configuration of these systems are often ignored in the proposed values. This study aims at considering the effect of different x-bracing diagonal configuration on values of ductility dependent term in R computation. 51 models were created and nonlinear push over analysis has been performed. The main variables of this study were the suitable location of X–bracing diagonal configurations, which establishes better nonlinear behavior in concentric braced steel frames. Results show that some x-bracing diagonal configurations improve the seismic performance of CBF significantly and explicit consideration of lateral load bearing systems seems necessary.

Keywords: bracing configuration, concentrically braced frame (CBF), push over analyses, response reduction factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
43 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina

Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan

Abstract:

A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.

Keywords: Avicennia marina, morphology, oil contamination, protein content

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
42 Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Hot Roller Grades

Authors: Majid Mokhtari, Masoud Bahrami Alamdarlo, Babak Nazari, Hossein Zakerinya, Mehdi Salehi

Abstract:

In this study, microstructure, macro, and microhardness of phases for three grades of cast iron rolls with modified chemical composition using a light microscope (OM) and electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The grades were chosen from Chodan Sazan Manufacturing Co. (CSROLL) productions for finishing stands of hot strip mills. The percentage of residual austenite was determined with a ferrite scope magnetic device. Thermal susceptibility testing was also measured. The results show the best oxidation resistance at high temperatures is graphitic high chromium white cast iron alloy. In order to evaluate the final properties of these grades in rolling lines, the results of the Pin on Disk abrasion test showed the superiority of the abrasive behavior of the white chromium graphite cast iron alloy grade sample at the same hardness compared to conventional alloy grades and the enhanced grades.

Keywords: hot roller, wear, behavior, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
41 Teenagers’ Decisions to Undergo Orthodontic Treatment: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Babak Nematshahrbabaki, Fallahi Arezoo

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe teenagers’ decisions to undergo orthodontic treatment through a qualitative study. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients (12 girls), aged 12–18 years, at a dental clinic in Sanandaj the western part of Iran participated. Face-to-face and semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions were held to gather data. Data analyzed by the grounded theory method. Results: ‘Decision-making’ was the core category. During the data analysis four main themes were developed: ‘being like everyone else’, ‘being diagnosed’, ‘maintaining the mouth’ and ‘cultural-social and environmental factors’. Conclusions: cultural- social and environmental factors have crucial role in decision-making to undergo orthodontic treatment. The teenagers were not fully conscious of these external influences. They thought their decision to undergo orthodontic treatment is independent while it is related to cultural- social and environmental factors.

Keywords: decision-making, qualitative study, teenager, orthodontic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
40 Removal of Acetaminophen with Chitosan-Nano Activated Carbon Beads from Aqueous Sources

Authors: Parisa Amouzgar, Chan Eng Seng, Babak Salamatinia

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical products are being increasingly detected in the environment. However, conventional treatment systems do not provide an adequate treatment for pharmaceutical drug elimination and still there is not a regulated standard for their limitation in water. Since decades before, pharmaceuticals have been in the water but only recently, their levels in the environment have been recognized and quantified as potentially hazardous to ecosystems. In this study chitosan with a bio-based NAC (Ct-NAC) were made as beads with extrusion dripping method and investigated for acetaminophen removal from water. The effects of beading parameters such as flow rate in dripping, the distance from dipping tip to the solution surface, concentration of chitosan and percentage of NAC were analyzed to find the optimum condition. Based on the results, the overall adsorption rate and removal efficiency increased during the time till the equilibrium rate which was 80% removal of acetaminophen. The maximum adsorption belonged to the beads with 1.75% chitosan, 60% NAC, flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min while the distance of dripping was 22.5 cm.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, water treatment, chitosan nano activated carbon beads, Acetaminophen

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
39 Investigating the Effect of Height on Essential Oils of Urtica diocia L.: Case Study of Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran

Authors: Keivan Saeb, Azade Kakouei, Razieh Jafari Hajati, Khalil Pourshamsian, Babak Babakhani

Abstract:

Urtica Diocia L. from the Urticaceae family is a plant of herbal value and of a noticeable distribution in the north of Iran. The growth of different plants in various natural environments and ecosystems seems to be affected by factors such as the height (from sea surface).To investigate the effect of height on Urtica Diocia L. medicine compounds in its natural environment, three areas with the height of zero, 800 and 1800m were selected.The samples were randomly gathered three times and were dried; also, their compounds was extracted using the Clivenger with the water-distilling method. To determine the medicine compounds, the GC-MS as well as the GC machines were used. The analysis of variance was done in the form of the random-full-block design. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the percent of EOs in the selected heights; however, such difference was not significant within each height. From among the eight flavors of the study, the phytol compound was more in terms of percentage. By increasing the height the percent of EOs would decrease. lower heights could be considered most appropriate for producing the studied effective materials despite of the moistened climate and soil there.

Keywords: Urtica diocia L., height, EOs, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
38 Modeling the Risk Perception of Pedestrians Using a Nested Logit Structure

Authors: Babak Mirbaha, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Atieh Asgari Toorzani

Abstract:

Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users since they do not have a protective shell. One of the most common collisions for them is pedestrian-vehicle at intersections. In order to develop appropriate countermeasures to improve safety for them, researches have to be conducted to identify the factors that affect the risk of getting involved in such collisions. More specifically, this study investigates factors such as the influence of walking alone or having a baby while crossing the street, the observable age of pedestrian, the speed of pedestrians and the speed of approaching vehicles on risk perception of pedestrians. A nested logit model was used for modeling the behavioral structure of pedestrians. The results show that the presence of more lanes at intersections and not being alone especially having a baby while crossing, decrease the probability of taking a risk among pedestrians. Also, it seems that teenagers show more risky behaviors in crossing the street in comparison to other age groups. Also, the speed of approaching vehicles was considered significant. The probability of risk taking among pedestrians decreases by increasing the speed of approaching vehicle in both the first and the second lanes of crossings.

Keywords: pedestrians, intersection, nested logit, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
37 CE Method for Development of Japan's Stochastic Earthquake Catalogue

Authors: Babak Kamrani, Nozar Kishi

Abstract:

Stochastic catalog represents the events module of the earthquake loss estimation models. It includes series of events with different magnitudes and corresponding frequencies/probabilities. For the development of the stochastic catalog, random or uniform sampling methods are used to sample the events from the seismicity model. For covering all the Magnitude Frequency Distribution (MFD), a huge number of events should be generated for the above-mentioned methods. Characteristic Event (CE) method chooses the events based on the interest of the insurance industry. We divide the MFD of each source into bins. We have chosen the bins based on the probability of the interest by the insurance industry. First, we have collected the information for the available seismic sources. Sources are divided into Fault sources, subduction, and events without specific fault source. We have developed the MFD for each of the individual and areal source based on the seismicity of the sources. Afterward, we have calculated the CE magnitudes based on the desired probability. To develop the stochastic catalog, we have introduced uncertainty to the location of the events too.

Keywords: stochastic catalogue, earthquake loss, uncertainty, characteristic event

Procedia PDF Downloads 220