Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18557

Search results for: high efficiency

18557 High Efficiency Class-F Power Amplifier Design

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed Eblabla


Due to the high increase and demand for a wide assortment of applications that require low-cost, high-efficiency, and compact systems, RF power amplifiers are considered the most critical design blocks and power consuming components in wireless communication, TV transmission, radar, and RF heating. Therefore, much research has been carried out in order to improve the performance of power amplifiers. Classes-A, B, C, D, E, and F are the main techniques for realizing power amplifiers. An implementation of high efficiency class-F power amplifier with Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) was realized in this paper. The simulation and optimization of the class-F power amplifier circuit model was undertaken using Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS). The circuit was designed using lumped elements.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), gallium nitride (GaN), Agilent’s Advanced Design System (ADS), lumped elements

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18556 Highly Concentrated Photo Voltaic using Multi-Junction Concentrator Cell

Authors: Oriahi Love Ndidi


High concentration photovoltaic promises a more efficient, higher power output than traditional photovoltaic modules. One of the driving forces of this high system efficiency has been the continuous improvement of III-V multi-junction solar cell efficiencies. Multi-junction solar cells built from III-V semiconductors are being evaluated globally in concentrated photovoltaic systems designed to supplement electricity generation for utility companies. The high efficiency of this III-V multi-junction concentrator cells, with demonstrated efficiency over 40 percent since 2006, strongly reduces the cost of concentrated photovoltaic systems, and makes III-V multi-junction cells the technology of choice for most concentrator systems today.

Keywords: cost of multi-junction solar cell, efficiency, photovoltaic systems, reliability

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18555 Analysis and Experimental Research on the Influence of Lubricating Oil on the Transmission Efficiency of New Energy Vehicle Gearbox

Authors: Chen Yong, Bi Wangyang, Zang Libin, Li Jinkai, Cheng Xiaowei, Liu Jinmin, Yu Miao


New energy vehicle power transmission systems continue to develop in the direction of high torque, high speed, and high efficiency. The cooling and lubrication of the motor and the transmission system are integrated, and new requirements are placed on the lubricants for the transmission system. The effects of traditional lubricants and special lubricants for new energy vehicles on transmission efficiency were studied through experiments and simulation methods. A mathematical model of the transmission efficiency of the lubricating oil in the gearbox was established. The power loss of each part was analyzed according to the working conditions. The relationship between the speed and the characteristics of different lubricating oil products on the power loss of the stirring oil was discussed. The minimum oil film thickness was required for the life of the gearbox. The accuracy of the calculation results was verified by the transmission efficiency test conducted on the two-motor integrated test bench. The results show that the efficiency increases first and then decreases with the increase of the speed and decreases with the increase of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant. The increase of the kinematic viscosity amplifies the transmission power loss caused by the high speed. New energy vehicle special lubricants have less attenuation of transmission efficiency in the range above mid-speed. The research results provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the evaluation and selection of transmission efficiency of gearbox lubricants for new energy vehicles.

Keywords: new energy vehicles, lubricants, transmission efficiency, kinematic viscosity, test and simulation

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18554 Heteroscedastic Parametric and Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Stochastic Frontier Application to Technical Efficiency Measurement

Authors: Rebecca Owusu Coffie, Atakelty Hailu


Variants of production frontier models have emerged, however, only a limited number of them are applied in empirical research. Hence the effects of these alternative frontier models are not well understood, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we apply recent advances in the production frontier to examine levels of technical efficiency and efficiency drivers. Specifically, we compare the heteroscedastic parametric and the semiparametric stochastic smooth coefficient (SPSC) models. Using rice production data from Ghana, our empirical estimates reveal that alternative specification of efficiency estimators results in either downward or upward bias in the technical efficiency estimates. Methodologically, we find that the SPSC model is more suitable and generates high-efficiency estimates. Within the parametric framework, we find that parameterization of both the mean and variance of the pre-truncated function is the best model. For the drivers of technical efficiency, we observed that longer farm distances increase inefficiency through a reduction in labor productivity. High soil quality, however, increases productivity through increased land productivity.

Keywords: pre-truncated, rice production, smooth coefficient, technical efficiency

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18553 Motion Estimator Architecture with Optimized Number of Processing Elements for High Efficiency Video Coding

Authors: Seongsoo Lee


Motion estimation occupies the heaviest computation in HEVC (high efficiency video coding). Many fast algorithms such as TZS (test zone search) have been proposed to reduce the computation. Still the huge computation of the motion estimation is a critical issue in the implementation of HEVC video codec. In this paper, motion estimator architecture with optimized number of PEs (processing element) is presented by exploiting early termination. It also reduces hardware size by exploiting parallel processing. The presented motion estimator architecture has 8 PEs, and it can efficiently perform TZS with very high utilization of PEs.

Keywords: motion estimation, test zone search, high efficiency video coding, processing element, optimization

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18552 Operational Excellence Performance in Pharmaceutical Quality Control Labs: An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness and Efficiency Relation

Authors: Stephan Koehler, Thomas Friedli


Performance measurement has evolved over time from a unidimensional short-term efficiency focused approach into a balanced multidimensional approach. Today, integrated performance measurement frameworks are often used to avoid local optimization and to encourage continuous improvement of an organization. In literature, the multidimensional characteristic of performance measurement is often described by competitive priorities. At the same time, on the highest abstraction level an effectiveness and efficiency dimension of performance measurement can be distinguished. This paper aims at a better understanding of the composition of effectiveness and efficiency and their relation in pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research comprises a lab-specific operationalization of effectiveness and efficiency and examines how the two dimensions are interlinked. The basis for the analysis represents a database of the University of St. Gallen including a divers set of 40 different pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research provides empirical evidence that labs with a high effectiveness also accompany a high efficiency. Lab effectiveness explains 29.5 % of the variance in lab efficiency. In addition, labs with an above median operational excellence performance have a statistically significantly higher lab effectiveness and lab efficiency compared to the below median performing labs.

Keywords: empirical study, operational excellence, performance measurement, pharmaceutical quality control lab

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18551 High-Efficiency Comparator for Low-Power Application

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh


In this paper, dynamic comparator structure employing two methods for power consumption reduction with applications in low-power high-speed analog-to-digital converters have been presented. The proposed comparator has low consumption thanks to power reduction methods. They have the ability for offset adjustment. The comparator consumes 14.3 μW at 100 MHz which is equal to 11.8 fJ. The comparator has been designed and simulated in 180 nm CMOS. Layouts occupy 210 μm2.

Keywords: efficiency, comparator, power, low

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18550 Integrating Data Envelopment Analysis and Variance Inflation Factor to Measure the Efficiency of Decision Making Units

Authors: Mostafa Kazemi, Zahra N. Farkhani


This paper proposes an integrated Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) model for measuring the technical efficiency of decision making units. The model is validated using a set of 69% sales representatives’ dairy products. The analysis is done in two stages, in the first stage, VIF technique is used to distinguish independent effective factors of resellers, and in the second stage we used DEA for measuring efficiency for both constant and variable return to scales status. Further DEA is used to examine the utilization of environmental factors on efficiency. Results of this paper indicated an average managerial efficiency of 83% in the whole sales representatives’ dairy products. In addition, technical and scale efficiency were counted 96% and 80% respectively. 38% of sales representative have the technical efficiency of 100% and 72% of the sales representative in terms of managerial efficiency are quite efficient.High levels of relative efficiency indicate a good condition for sales representative efficiency.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), relative efficiency, sales representatives’ dairy products, variance inflation factor (VIF)

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18549 Study on the Retaining Sleeve Structure for the Reduction of Eddy Current in SPMSM

Authors: Hyun-Woo Jun, In-Gun Kim, Hyun Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee


In high-speed SPMSM design, the rotor-retaining sleeve is inserted into rotor to prevent permanent magnet’s damage. It is quite efficient way considering manufacturability, but the sleeve becomes major source of ohm loss in high-speed operation. In this paper, the high-speed motor for turbo-blower at the rating of 100kW was introduced. To improve its efficiency, the retaining sleeve’s optimal design was needed. Within the range of satisfies the mechanical safety, sleeve’s some design variables have been changed. The effect of changing design variables of the sleeve was studied. This paper presents the optimized sleeve’s advantages in electrical efficiency from the result of electromagnetic FEA (finite element analysis) software. Finally, it suggests the optimal sleeve design to reduce eddy current loss, which is related to motor shape.

Keywords: SPMSM, sleeve, eddy current, high efficiency

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18548 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah


This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
18547 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke


The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

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18546 Design and Performance Evaluation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM)

Authors: Hadi Aghazadeh, Mohammadreza Naeimi, Seyed Ebrahim Afjei, Alireza Siadatan


Torque ripple, maximum torque and high efficiency are important issues in synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM). This paper presents a view on design of a high efficiency, low torque ripple and high torque density SynRM. To achieve this goal SynRM parameters is calculated (such as insulation ratios in the d-and q-axes and the rotor slot pitch), while the torque ripple can be minimized by determining the best rotor slot pitch in the d-axis. The presented analytical-finite element method (FEM) approach gives the optimum distribution of air gap and iron portion for the maximizing torque density with minimum torque ripple.

Keywords: torque ripple, efficiency, insulation ratio, FEM, synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM), induction motor (IM)

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18545 Preparation of Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b with High Antiviral Activity Using Linear 20 KDa Polyethylene Glycol Derivative

Authors: Ehab El-Dabaa, Omnia Ali, Mohamed Abd El-Hady, Ahmed Osman


Recombinant human interferon alpha 2 (rhIFN-α2) is FDA approved for treatment of some viral and malignant diseases. Approved pegylated rhIFN-α2 drugs have highly improved pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and therapeutic efficiency compared to native protein. In this work, we studied the pegylation of purified properly refolded rhIFN-α2b using linear 20kDa PEG-NHS (polyethylene glycol- N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester) to prepare pegylated rhIFN-α2b with high stability and activity. The effect of different parameters like rhIFN-α2b final concentration, pH, rhIFN-α2b/PEG molar ratios and reaction time on the efficiency of pegylation (high percentage of monopegylated rhIFN-α2b) have been studied in small scale (100µl) pegylation reaction trials. Study of the percentages of different components of these reactions (mono, di, polypegylated rhIFN-α2b and unpegylated rhIFN-α2b) indicated that 2h is optimum time to complete the reaction. The pegylation efficiency increased at pH 8 (57.9%) by reducing the protein concentration to 1mg/ml and reducing the rhIFN-α2b/PEG ratio to 1:2. Using larger scale pegylation reaction (65% pegylation efficiency), ion exchange chromatography method has been optimized to prepare and purify the monopegylated rhIFN-α2b with high purity (96%). The prepared monopegylated rhIFN-α2b had apparent Mwt of approximately 65 kDa and high in vitro antiviral activity (2.1x10⁷ ± 0.8 x10⁷ IU/mg). Although it retained approximately 8.4 % of the antiviral activity of the unpegylated rhIFN-α2b, its activity is high compared to other pegylated rhIFN-α2 developed by using similar approach or higher molecular weight branched PEG.

Keywords: antiviral activity, rhIFN-α2b, pegylation, pegylation efficiency

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18544 Mix Design Curves for High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

Authors: S. S. Awanti, Aravindakumar B. Harwalkar


Concrete construction in future has to be environmental friendly apart from being safe so that society at large is benefited by the huge investments made in the infrastructure projects. To achieve this, component materials of the concrete system have to be optimized with reference to sustainability. This paper presents a study on development of mix proportions of high volume fly ash concrete (HFC). A series of HFC mixtures with cement replacement levels varying between 50% and 65% were prepared with water/binder ratios of 0.3 and 0.35. Compressive strength values were obtained at different ages. From the experimental results, pozzolanic efficiency ratios and mix design curves for HFC were established.

Keywords: age factor, compressive strength, high volume fly ash concrete, pozolanic efficiency ratio

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18543 Multiple Winding Multiphase Motor for Electric Drive System

Authors: Zhao Tianxu, Cui Shumei


This paper proposes a novel multiphase motor structure. The armature winding consists of several independent multiphase windings that have different rating rotate speed and power. Compared to conventional motor, the novel motor structure has more operation mode and fault tolerance mode, which makes it adapt to high-reliability requirement situation such as electric vehicle, aircraft and ship. Performance of novel motor structure varies with winding match. In order to find optimum control strategy, motor torque character, efficiency performance and fault tolerance ability under different operation mode are analyzed in this paper, and torque distribution strategy for efficiency optimization is proposed. Simulation analyze is taken and the result shows that proposed structure has the same efficiency on heavy load and higher efficiency on light load operation points, which expands high efficiency area of motor and cruise range of vehicle. The proposed structure can improve motor highest speed.

Keywords: multiphase motor, armature winding match, torque distribution strategy, efficiency

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18542 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne


The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier

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18541 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia


This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

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18540 Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province

Authors: Zhankun Wang, Timothy Makubuya


The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.

Keywords: DEA model, public sports service, efficiency, Tobit model, Malmquist productivity index, Zhejiang

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18539 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Electrical Submersible Pump on Mature Oil Field Offshore Java Sea

Authors: Marda Vidrianto, Tania Surya Utami


Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is an artificial lift of choice to produce oil on Offshore Java Sea. It is selected based on the production rate capacity and running life expectation. ESP performance in a mature field is highly affected by oil well conditions. The presence of sand, scale, gas, and low influx will create unstable ESP operation hence lowering the run life expectation and system efficiency. This paper reviews the current energy usage and efficiency on every part of the ESP system. The hydraulic and electrical losses, as well as system efficiency for each well, are calculated to identify energy losses and the possibility for improvement. It is shown that high back pressure on the system and low-efficiency pump are the major contributors to energy losses. It was found that optimized production rate and the use of advanced technology on pump and motor unit could improve energy efficiency.

Keywords: advance technology, energy efficiency, ESP, mature field, production rate

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18538 High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Authors: A. Apostolopoulou, D. Sygkridou, A. N. Kalarakis, E. Stathatos


Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Keywords: ambient conditions, high efficiency solar cells, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells, TiO₂ / In₂O₃ bilayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
18537 Modeling and Simulation of Multiphase Evaporation in High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Ali Raza, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi


Diesel engines are most efficient and reliable in terms of efficiency, reliability, and adaptability. Most of the research and development up till now have been directed towards High Speed Diesel Engine, for Commercial use. In these engines, objective is to optimize maximum acceleration by reducing exhaust emission to meet international standards. In high torque low speed engines, the requirement is altogether different. These types of engines are mostly used in Maritime Industry, Agriculture Industry, Static Engines Compressors Engines, etc. On the contrary, high torque low speed engines are neglected quite often and are eminent for low efficiency and high soot emissions. One of the most effective ways to overcome these issues is by efficient combustion in an engine cylinder. Fuel spray dynamics play a vital role in defining mixture formation, fuel consumption, combustion efficiency and soot emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process in high torque low speed diesel engine is of great importance. Evaporation in the combustion chamber has a rigorous effect on the efficiency of the engine. In this paper, multiphase evaporation of fuel is modeled for high torque low speed engine using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. Two distinct phases of evaporation are modeled using modeling soft wares. The basic model equations are derived from the energy conservation equation and Naiver-Stokes equation. O’Rourke model is used to model the evaporation phases. The results obtained showed a generous effect on the efficiency of the engine. Evaporation rate of fuel droplet is increased with the increase in vapor pressure. An appreciable reduction in size of droplet is achieved by adding the convective heat effects in the combustion chamber. By and large, an overall increase in efficiency is observed by modeling distinct evaporation phases. This increase in efficiency is due to the fact that droplet size is reduced and vapor pressure is increased in the engine cylinder.

Keywords: diesel fuel, CFD, evaporation, multiphase

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18536 Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan

Authors: Aigerim Uyzbayeva, Valeriya Tyo, Nurlan Ibrayev


Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption. Thus, country consumes a significant amount of energy due to the high level of industralisation and the presence of energy-intensive manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of renewable energy sources is summarised, followed by the description of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of energy efficiency are described.

Keywords: energy efficiency in Kazakhstan, greenhouse gases, renewable energy, sustainable development

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18535 A Novel Eccentric Lapping Method with Two Rotatable Lapping Plates for Finishing Cemented Carbide Balls

Authors: C. C. Lv, Y. L. Sun, D. W. Zuo


Cemented carbide balls are usually implemented in industry under the environment of high speed, high temperature, corrosiveness and strong collisions. However, its application is limited due to high fabrication cost, processing efficiency and quality. A novel eccentric lapping method with two rotatable lapping plates was proposed in this paper. A mathematical model was constructed to analyze the influence of each design parameter on this lapping method. To validate this new lapping method, an orthogonal experiment was conducted with cemented carbide balls (YG6). The simulation model was verified and the optimal lapping parameters were derived. The results show that the surface roundness of the balls reaches to 0.65um from 2um in 1 hour using this lapping method. So, using this novel lapping method, it can effectively improve the machining precision and efficiency of cemented carbide balls.

Keywords: cemented carbide balls, eccentric lapping, high precision, lapping tracks, V-groove

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18534 Knowledge Management Efficiency of Personnel in Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya Songkhla, Thailand

Authors: Nongyao Intasaso, Atchara Rattanama, Navarat Pewnual


This research is survey research purposed to study the factor affected to knowledge management efficiency of personnel in Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, and study the problem of knowledge management affected to knowledge development of personnel in the university. The tool used in this study is structures questioner standardize rating scale in 5 levels. The sample selected by purposive sampling and there are 137 participation calculated in 25% of population. The result found that factor affected to knowledge management efficiency in the university included (1) result from the organization factor found that the university provided project or activity that according to strategy and mission of knowledge management affected to knowledge management efficiency in highest level (x̅ = 4.30) (2) result from personnel factor found that the personnel are eager for knowledge and active to learning to develop themselves and work (Personal Mastery) affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.75) (3) result from technological factor found that the organization brought multimedia learning aid to facilitate learning process affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.70) and (4) the result from learning factor found that the personnel communicated and sharing knowledge and opinion based on acceptance to each other affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.78). The problem of knowledge management in the university included the personnel do not change their work behavior, insufficient of collaboration, lack of acceptance in knowledge and experience to each other, and limited budget. The solutions to solve these problems are the university should be support sufficient budget, the university should follow up and evaluate organization development based on knowledge using, the university should provide the activity emphasize to personnel development and assign the committee to process and report knowledge management procedure.

Keywords: knowledge management, efficiency, personnel, learning process

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18533 Study the Impact of Welding Poles Type on the Tensile Strength Steel of Low Alloys and High Resistance

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Abdul Fatah M. Emhamed


The steel alloy Introduced after becoming carbon-steel does not meet the requirements of engineering industry; and it cannot be obtained tensile strength from carbon-steel higher than (700MPa), the low alloy steel enters in a lot of heavy engineering equipment parts, molds, agricultural equipment and other industry. In addition, that may be exposed to in-service failure, which may require returned to work, to do the repairs or maintenance by one of the welding methods available. The ability of steel weld determined through palpation of the cracks, which can reduce by many ways. These ways are often expensive and difficult to implement, perhaps the control to choose the type of electrode welding user is one of the easiest and least expensive applications. It has been welding the steel low alloys high resistance by manual metal arc (MMA), and by using a set of welding electrodes which varying in chemical composition and in their prices as well and test their effect on tensile strength. Results showed that using the poles of welding, which have a high proportion of iron powder and low hydrogen. The Tensile resistance is (484MPa) and the weld joint efficiency was (56.9%), but when (OK 47.04) electrode was used the tensile strength increased to (720MPa) and the weld joint efficiency to (84.7%). Using the cheapest electrode (OK 45.00) the weld joint efficiency did not exceed (24.2%), but when using the most expensive electrode (OK 91.28) the weld joint efficiency is (38.1%).

Keywords: steel low alloys high resistance, electrodes welding, tensile test

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18532 Thermal Efficiency Analysis and Optimal of Feed Water Heater for Mae Moh Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khomkrit Mongkhuntod, Chatchawal Chaichana, Atipoang Nuntaphan


Feed Water Heater is the important equipment for thermal power plant. The heating temperature from feed heating process is an impact to power plant efficiency or heat rate. Normally, the degradation of feed water heater that operated for a long time is effect to decrease plant efficiency or increase plant heat rate. For Mae Moh power plant, each unit operated more than 20 years. The degradation of the main equipment is effect of planting efficiency or heat rate. From the efficiency and heat rate analysis, Mae Moh power plant operated in high heat rate more than the commissioning period. Some of the equipment were replaced for improving plant efficiency and plant heat rates such as HP turbine and LP turbine that the result is increased plant efficiency by 5% and decrease plant heat rate by 1%. For the target of power generation plan that Mae Moh power plant must be operated more than 10 years. These work is focus on thermal efficiency analysis of feed water heater to compare with the commissioning data for find the way to improve the feed water heater efficiency that may effect to increase plant efficiency or decrease plant heat rate by use heat balance model simulation and economic value add (EVA) method to study the investment for replacing the new feed water heater and analyze how this project can stay above the break-even point to make the project decision.

Keywords: feed water heater, power plant efficiency, plant heat rate, thermal efficiency analysis

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18531 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali


This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: power plant, efficiency improvement, carbon dioxide emissions, energy situation in Libya

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18530 Effect of Aryl Imidazolium Ionic Liquids as Asphaltene Dispersants

Authors: Raghda Ahmed El-Nagar


Oil spills are one of the most serious environmental issues that have occurred during the production and transportation of petroleum crude oil. Chemical asphaltene dispersants are hazardous to the marine environment, so Ionic liquids (ILs) as asphaltene dispersants are a critical area of study. In this work, different aryl imidazolium ionic liquids were synthesized with high yield and elucidated via tools of analysis (Elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared ILs posses high thermal stability. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension, and emulsification index were investigated. Evaluation of synthesized ILs as asphaltene dispersants were assessed at various concentrations, and data reveals high dispersion efficiency.

Keywords: ionic liquids, oil spill, asphaltene dispersants, CMC, efficiency

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18529 Power and Efficiency of Photovoltaic Module: Effect of Cell Temperature

Authors: R. Nasrin, M. Ferdows


Among the renewable energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) is a high potential, effective, and sustainable system. Irradiation intensity from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 has been considered to observe the performance of PV module. Generally, this module converts only about 15% - 20% of incident irradiation into electrical energy and the rest part is converted into heat energy. Finite element method has been used to solve the problem numerically. Simulation has been performed by considering the ambient temperature 30°C. Higher irradiation increase solar cell temperature and electrical power. The electrical efficiency of PV module decreases with the variation of solar radiation. The efficiency of PV module can be increased if cell temperature is reduced. Thus the effect of irradiation is significant to enhance the efficiency of PV module if the solar cell temperature is kept at a certain level.

Keywords: PV module, solar radiation, efficiency, cell temperature

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18528 High Efficiency Achievement by a New Heterojunction N-Zno:Al/P-Si Solar Cell

Authors: A. Bouloufa, F. Khaled, K. Djessas


This paper presents a new structure of solar cell based on p-type microcrystalline silicon as an absorber and n-type aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) transparent conductive oxide as an optical window. The ZnO:Al layer deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature yields a low resistivity about 7,64.10-2Ω.cm and more than 85% mean optical transmittance in the VIS–NIR range, with an optical band gap of 3.3 eV. These excellent optical properties of this layer in combination with an optimal contact at the front surface result in a superior light trapping yielding to efficiencies about 20%. In order to improve efficiency, we have used a p+-µc-Si thin layer highly doped as a back surface field which minimizes significantly the impact of rear surface recombination velocity on voltage and current leading to a high efficiency of 24%. Optoelectronic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve by means of a numerical simulation with Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) device simulator.

Keywords: optical window, thin film, solar cell, efficiency

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