Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11107

Search results for: optimum design

11107 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar


Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
11106 Expected Present Value of Losses in the Computation of Optimum Seismic Design Parameters

Authors: J. García-Pérez


An approach to compute optimum seismic design parameters is presented. It is based on the optimization of the expected present value of the total cost, which includes the initial cost of structures as well as the cost due to earthquakes. Different types of seismicity models are considered, including one for characteristic earthquakes. Uncertainties are included in some variables to observe the influence on optimum values. Optimum seismic design coefficients are computed for three different structural types representing high, medium and low rise buildings, located near and far from the seismic sources. Ordinary and important structures are considered in the analysis. The results of optimum values show an important influence of seismicity models as well as of uncertainties on the variables.

Keywords: importance factors, optimum parameters, seismic losses, seismic risk, total cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
11105 Optimum Design of Grillage Systems Using Firefly Algorithm Optimization Method

Authors: F. Erdal, E. Dogan, F. E. Uz


In this study, firefly optimization based optimum design algorithm is presented for the grillage systems. Naming of the algorithm is derived from the fireflies, whose sense of movement is taken as a model in the development of the algorithm. Fireflies’ being unisex and attraction between each other constitute the basis of the algorithm. The design algorithm considers the displacement and strength constraints which are implemented from LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance Factor Design-American Institute of Steel Construction). It selects the appropriate W (Wide Flange)-sections for the transverse and longitudinal beams of the grillage system among 272 discrete W-section designations given in LRFD-AISC so that the design limitations described in LRFD are satisfied and the weight of the system is confined to be minimal. Number of design examples is considered to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm presented.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, steel grillage systems, optimum design, stochastic search techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
11104 Optimum Design of Steel Space Frames by Hybrid Teaching-Learning Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

Authors: Alper Akin, Ibrahim Aydogdu


This study presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to obtain optimum designs for steel space buildings. The optimum design problem of three-dimensional steel frames is mathematically formulated according to provisions of LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance factor design of American Institute of Steel Construction). Design constraints such as the strength requirements of structural members, the displacement limitations, the inter-story drift and the other structural constraints are derived from LRFD-AISC specification. In this study, a hybrid algorithm by using teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) and harmony search (HS) algorithms is employed to solve the stated optimum design problem. These algorithms are two of the recent additions to metaheuristic techniques of numerical optimization and have been an efficient tool for solving discrete programming problems. Using these two algorithms in collaboration creates a more powerful tool and mitigates each other’s weaknesses. To demonstrate the powerful performance of presented hybrid algorithm, the optimum design of a large scale steel building is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: optimum structural design, hybrid techniques, teaching-learning based optimization, harmony search algorithm, minimum weight, steel space frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
11103 Meta Model for Optimum Design Objective Function of Steel Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

Authors: Salah R. Al Zaidee, Ali S. Mahdi


Except for simple problems of statically determinate structures, optimum design problems in structural engineering have implicit objective functions where structural analysis and design are essential within each searching loop. With these implicit functions, the structural engineer is usually enforced to write his/her own computer code for analysis, design, and searching for optimum design among many feasible candidates and cannot take advantage of available software for structural analysis, design, and searching for the optimum solution. The meta-model is a regression model used to transform an implicit objective function into objective one and leads in turn to decouple the structural analysis and design processes from the optimum searching process. With the meta-model, well-known software for structural analysis and design can be used in sequence with optimum searching software. In this paper, the meta-model has been used to develop an explicit objective function for plane steel frames subjected to dead, live, and seismic forces. Frame topology is assumed as predefined based on architectural and functional requirements. Columns and beams sections and different connections details are the main design variables in this study. Columns and beams are grouped to reduce the number of design variables and to make the problem similar to that adopted in engineering practice. Data for the implicit objective function have been generated based on analysis and assessment for many design proposals with CSI SAP software. These data have been used later in SPSS software to develop a pure quadratic nonlinear regression model for the explicit objective function. Good correlations with a coefficient, R2, in the range from 0.88 to 0.99 have been noted between the original implicit functions and the corresponding explicit functions generated with meta-model.

Keywords: meta-modal, objective function, steel frames, seismic analysis, design

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
11102 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan


Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
11101 Structural Analysis and Detail Design of APV Module Structure Using Topology Optimization Design

Authors: Hyun Kyu Cho, Jun Soo Kim, Young Hoon Lee, Sang Hoon Kang, Young Chul Park


In the study, structure for one of offshore drilling system APV(Air Pressure Vessle) modules was designed by using topology optimum design and performed structural safety evaluation according to DNV rules. 3D model created base on design area and non-design area separated by using topology optimization for the environmental loads. This model separated 17 types for wind loads and dynamic loads and performed structural analysis evaluation for each model. As a result, the maximum stress occurred 181.25MPa.

Keywords: APV, topology optimum design, DNV, structural analysis, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
11100 Optimum Design of Piled-Raft Systems

Authors: Alaa Chasib Ghaleb, Muntadher M. Abbood


This paper presents a study of the problem of the optimum design of piled-raft foundation systems. The study has been carried out using a hypothetic problem and soil investigations of six sites locations in Basrah city to evaluate the adequacy of using the piled-raft foundation concept. Three dimensional finite element analysis method has been used, to perform the structural analysis. The problem is optimized using Hooke and Jeeves method with the total weight of the foundation as objective function and each of raft thickness, piles length, number of piles and piles diameter as design variables. It is found that the total and differential settlement decreases with increasing the raft thickness, the number of piles, the piles length, and the piles diameter. Finally parametric study for load values, load type and raft dimensions have been studied and the results have been discussed.

Keywords: Hooke and Jeeves, optimum design, piled-raft, foundations

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
11099 Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Automotive Drive Shaft

Authors: Hossein Kh. Bisheh, Nan Wu


Advanced composite materials have a great importance in engineering structures due to their high specific modulus and strength and low weight. These materials can be used in design and fabrication of automotive drive shafts to reduce the weight of the structure. Hence, an optimum design of a composite drive shaft satisfying the design criteria, can be an appropriate substitution of metallic drive shafts. The aim of this study is to design and analyze a composite automotive drive shaft with high specific strength and low weight satisfying the design criteria. Tsai-Wu criterion is chosen as the failure criterion. Various designs with different lay-ups and materials are investigated based on the design requirements and finally, an optimum design satisfying the design criteria is chosen based on the weight and cost considerations. The results of this study indicate that if the weight is the main concern, a shaft made of Carbon/Epoxy can be a good option, and if the cost is a more important parameter, a hybrid shaft made of aluminum and Carbon/Epoxy can be considered.

Keywords: Bending natural frequency, Composite drive shaft, Peak torque, Torsional buckling

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11098 Characterization and Design of a Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mix Formulation

Authors: H. Al-Baghli


Laboratory trial results of mixing crumb rubber produced from discarded tires with 60/70 pen grade Kuwaiti bitumen are presented on this paper. PG grading and multiple stress creep recovery tests were conducted on Kuwaiti bitumen blended with 15% and 18% crumb rubber at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. The results from elastic recovery and non-recoverable creep presented optimum performance at 18% rubber content. The optimum rubberized-bitumen mix was next transformed into a pelletized form (PelletPave®), and was used as a partial replacement to the conventional bitumen in the manufacture of continuously graded hot mix asphalts at a number of binder contents. The trialed PelletPave® contents were at 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5% by mass of asphalt mix. In this investigation, it was not possible to utilize the results of standard Marshall method of mix design (i.e. volumetric, stability and flow tests) and subsequently additional assessment of mix compactability was carried out using gyratory compactor in order to determine the optimum PelletPave® and total binder contents.

Keywords: crumb rubber, Marshall mix design, PG grading, rubberized-bitumen

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
11097 A Design Method for Wind Turbine Blade to Have Uniform Strength and Optimum Power Generation Performance

Authors: Pengfei Liu, Yiyi Xu


There have been substantial incidents of wind turbine blade fractures and failures due to the lack of systematic blade strength design method incorporated with the aerodynamic forces and power generation efficiency. This research was to develop a methodology and procedure for the wind turbine rotor blade strength taking into account the strength, integration, and aerodynamic performance in terms of power generation efficiency. The wind turbine blade designed using this method and procedure will have a uniform strength across the span to save unnecessary thickness in many blade radial locations and yet to maintain the optimum power generation performance. A turbine rotor code, taking into account both aerodynamic and structural properties, was developed. An existing wind turbine blade was used as an example. For a condition of extreme wind speed of 100 km per hour, the design reduced about 19% of material usage while maintaining the optimum power regeneration efficiency.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, turbine blade strength, aerodynamics-strength coupled optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
11096 Optimal Design of Redundant Hybrid Manipulator for Minimum Singularity

Authors: Arash Rahmani, Ahmad Ghanbari, Abbas Baghernezhad, Babak Safaei


In the design of parallel manipulators, usually mean value of a dexterity measure over the workspace volume is considered as the objective function to be used in optimization algorithms. The mentioned indexes in a hybrid parallel manipulator (HPM) are quite complicated to solve thanks to infinite solutions for every point within the workspace of the redundant manipulators. In this paper, spatial isotropic design axioms are extended as a well-known method for optimum design of manipulators. An upper limit for the isotropy measure of HPM is calculated and instead of computing and minimizing isotropy measure, minimizing the obtained limit is considered. To this end, two different objective functions are suggested which are obtained from objective functions of comprising modules. Finally, by using genetic algorithm (GA), the best geometric parameters for a specific hybrid parallel robot which is composed of two modified Gough-Stewart platforms (MGSP) are achieved.

Keywords: hybrid manipulator, spatial isotropy, genetic algorithm, optimum design

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
11095 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu


This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
11094 On the Stability Exact Analysis of Tall Buildings with Outrigger System

Authors: Mahrooz Abed, Amir R. Masoodi


Many structural lateral systems are used in tall buildings such as rigid frames, braced frames, shear walls, tubular structures and core structures. Some efficient structures for drift control and base moment reduction in tall buildings is outrigger and belt truss systems. When adopting outrigger beams in building design, their location should be in an optimum position for an economical design. A range of different strategies has been employed to identify the optimum locations of these outrigger beams under wind load. However, there is an absence of scientific research or case studies dealing with optimum outrigger location using buckling analysis. In this paper, one outrigger system is considered at the middle of height of structure. The optimum location of outrigger will be found based on the buckling load limitation. The core of structure is modeled by a clamped tapered beam. The exact stiffness matrix of tapered beam is formulated based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. Finally, based on the buckling load of structure, the optimal location of outrigger will be found.

Keywords: tall buildings, outrigger system, buckling load, second-order effects, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory

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11093 Optimization of Soybean Oil by Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: N. R. Putra, A. H. Abdul Aziz, A. S. Zaini, Z. Idham, F. Idrus, M. Z. Bin Zullyadini, M. A. Che Yunus


The content of omega-3 in soybean oil is important in the development of infants and is an alternative for the omega-3 in fish oils. The investigation of extraction of soybean oil is needed to obtain the bioactive compound in the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is modern and green technology to extract herbs and plants to obtain high quality extract due to high diffusivity and solubility of the solvent. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum condition of soybean oil extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. The soybean oil was extracted by using modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) under the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C, pressures of 150, 250, 350 Bar, and constant flow-rate of 10 g/min as the parameters of extraction processes. An experimental design was performed in order to optimize three important parameters of SC-CO2 extraction which are pressure (X1), temperature (X2) to achieve optimum yields of soybean oil. Box Behnken Design was applied for experimental design. From the optimization process, the optimum condition of extraction of soybean oil was obtained at pressure 338 Bar and temperature 80 °C with oil yield of 2.713 g. Effect of pressure is significant on the extraction of soybean oil by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Increasing of pressure will increase the oil yield of soybean oil.

Keywords: soybean oil, SC-CO₂ extraction, yield, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
11092 Formulation of Sun Screen Cream and Sun Protecting Factor Activity from Standardized–Partition Compound of Mahkota Dewa Leaf (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.)

Authors: Abdul Karim Zulkarnain, Marchaban, Subagus Wahyono, Ratna Asmah Susidarti


Mahkota Dewa contains phalerin which has activity as sun screen. In this study, 13 formulations of cream oil in water (o/w) were prepared and tested for their physical characteristics. The physical characteristics were then used for determining the optimum formula. This study aimed to explore the physical stability of optimized formulation of cream, its sun protecting factor (SPF) values using in vitro and in vivo tests. The optimum formula of o/w cream were prepared based on Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) method using software Design Expert®. The formulation of o/w cream were varied based on the proportion of cetyl alcohol, mineral oil and tween 80. The difference of physical characteristic of optimum and predicted formula was tested using t-test with significant level of 95%. The optimum formula of o/w cream was the formula which consists of cetyl alcohol 9.71%, mineral oil, 29%, and tween 80 3.29. Based on t-test, there was no significant difference of physical characteristics of optimum and predicted formulation. Viscosity, spread power, adhesive power, and separation volume ratio of o/w at week 0-4 were relatively stable. The o/w creams were relatively stable at extreme temperature. The o/w creams from mahkota dewa, phalerin, and benzophenone have SPF values of 21.32, 33.12, and 42.49, respectively. The formulas did not irritate the skin based on in vivo test.

Keywords: cream, stability, In vitro, In vivo

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
11091 Numerical Analysis of Rainfall-Induced Roadside Slope Failures and Their Stabilizing Solution

Authors: Muhammad Suradi, Sugiarto, Abdullah Latip


Many roadside slope failures occur during the rainy season, particularly in the period of extreme rainfall along Connecting National Road of Salubatu-Mambi, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. These occurrences cause traffic obstacles and endanger people along and around the road. Research collaboration between P2JN (National Road Construction Board) West Sulawesi Province, who authorize to supervise the road condition, and Ujung Pandang State Polytechnic (Applied University) was established to cope with the landslide problem. This research aims to determine factors triggering roadside slope failures and their optimum stabilizing solution. To achieve this objective, site observation and soil investigation were carried out to obtain parameters for analyses of rainfall-induced slope instability and reinforcement design using the SV Flux and SV Slope software. The result of this analysis will be taken into account for the next analysis to get an optimum design of the slope reinforcement. The result indicates some factors such as steep slopes, sandy soils, and unvegetated slope surface mainly contribute to the slope failures during intense rainfall. With respect to the contributing factors as well as construction material and technology, cantilever/butressing retaining wall becomes the optimum solution for the roadside slope reinforcement.

Keywords: roadside slope, failure, rainfall, slope reinforcement, optimum solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
11090 Optimum Stratification of a Skewed Population

Authors: D. K. Rao, M. G. M. Khan, K. G. Reddy


The focus of this paper is to develop a technique of solving a combined problem of determining Optimum Strata Boundaries (OSB) and Optimum Sample Size (OSS) of each stratum, when the population understudy is skewed and the study variable has a Pareto frequency distribution. The problem of determining the OSB is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) which is then solved by dynamic programming technique. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details of the proposed method. The proposed technique is useful to obtain OSB and OSS for a Pareto type skewed population, which minimizes the variance of the estimate of population mean.

Keywords: stratified sampling, optimum strata boundaries, optimum sample size, pareto distribution, mathematical programming problem, dynamic programming technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
11089 Biogeography Based CO2 and Cost Optimization of RC Cantilever Retaining Walls

Authors: Ibrahim Aydogdu, Alper Akin


In this study, the development of minimizing the cost and the CO2 emission of the RC retaining wall design has been performed by Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm. This has been achieved by developing computer programs utilizing BBO algorithm which minimize the cost and the CO2 emission of the RC retaining walls. Objective functions of the optimization problem are defined as the minimized cost, the CO2 emission and weighted aggregate of the cost and the CO2 functions of the RC retaining walls. In the formulation of the optimum design problem, the height and thickness of the stem, the length of the toe projection, the thickness of the stem at base level, the length and thickness of the base, the depth and thickness of the key, the distance from the toe to the key, the number and diameter of the reinforcement bars are treated as design variables. In the formulation of the optimization problem, flexural and shear strength constraints and minimum/maximum limitations for the reinforcement bar areas are derived from American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-14) design code. Moreover, the development length conditions for suitable detailing of reinforcement are treated as a constraint. The obtained optimum designs must satisfy the factor of safety for failure modes (overturning, sliding and bearing), strength, serviceability and other required limitations to attain practically acceptable shapes. To demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the presented BBO algorithm, the optimum design example for retaining walls is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: bio geography, meta-heuristic search, optimization, retaining wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
11088 Optimum Design of Combine Threshing Cylinder for Soybean Harvest

Authors: Choi Duckkyu, Choi Yong, Kang Taegyoung, Jun Hyeonjong, Choi Ilsu, Hyun Changsik


This study was carried out to develop a soybean combine thresher that enables to reduce the damage rate of soybean threshing and the rate of unthreshing. The combine threshing cylinder was developed with 6 circular axis at each end and fixed with disc plates. It was attached to the prototype combine thresher. A combine thresher that has a cylinder with circular rod type threshing pegs was used for a comparative test. A series of comparative tests were conducted using dae-won soybean. The test of the soybean thresher was performed at the cylinder speeds of 210, 240, 270 and 300 rpm, and with the concave clearance of 10, 13 and 16 mm. The separating positions of soybean after threshing were researched on a separate box with 4 sections. The soybean positions of front, center, rear and rear outside, of 59.5%, 30.6%, 7.8% and 2.2% respectively, were obtained. At the cylinder speeds from 210 rpm to 300 rpm, the damage rate of soybean was increased from 0.1% to 4.2% correspondingly to speeds. The unthreshed rate of soybean under the same condition was increased from 0.9% to 4.1% correspondingly to speeds. 0.7% of the damage rate and 1.5% of the unthreshed rate was achieved at the cylinder speed of 240 rpm and with the concave clearance of 10 mm. For Daewon soybean, an optimum cylinder speed of 240 rpm and the concave clearance of 10 mm were identified. These results will be useful for the design, construction, and operation of soybean threshing harvesters.

Keywords: soybean harvest, combine threshing, threshing cylinder, optimum design

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
11087 How to Applicate Knowledge Management in Security Environment within the Scope of Optimum Balance Model

Authors: Hakan Erol, Altan Elibol, Ömer Eryılmaz, Mehmet Şimşek


Organizations aim to manage information in a most possible effective way for sustainment and development. In doing so, they apply various procedures and methods. The very same situation is valid for each service of Armed Forces. During long-lasting endeavors such as shaping and maintaining security environment, supporting and securing peace, knowledge management is a crucial asset. Optimum Balance Model aims to promote the system from a decisive point to a higher decisive point. In this context, this paper analyses the application of optimum balance model to knowledge management in Armed Forces and tries to find answer to the question how Optimum Balance Model is integrated in knowledge management.

Keywords: optimum balance model, knowledge management, security environment, supporting peace

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
11086 Optimum Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid El Bachtiri


The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The implementation of these systems allows to protect the environment and reduce the CO2 gas emission compared to systems trained by diesel generators. This paper presents a comparative study between the photovoltaic pumping system driven by DC motor, and AC motor to define the optimum design of this application. The studied system consists of PV array, DC-DC Boost Converter, inverter, motor-pump set and storage tank. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/ Simulink. The results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

Keywords: photovoltaic water pumping system, DC motor-pump, AC motor-pump, DC-DC boost converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
11085 Optimization of Groundwater Utilization in Fish Aquaculture

Authors: M. Ahmed Eldesouky, S. Nasr, A. Beltagy


Groundwater is generally considered as the best source for aquaculture as it is well protected from contamination. The most common problem limiting the use of groundwater in Egypt is its high iron, manganese and ammonia content. This problem is often overcome by applying the treatment before use. Aeration in many cases is not enough to oxidize iron and manganese in complex forms with organics. Most of the treatment we use potassium permanganate as an oxidizer followed by a pressurized closed green sand filter. The aim of present study is to investigate the optimum characteristics of groundwater to give lowest iron, manganese and ammonia, maximum production and quality of fish in aquaculture in El-Max Research Station. The major design goal of the system was determined the optimum time for harvesting the treated water, pH, and Glauconite weight to use it for aquaculture process in the research site and achieve the Egyptian law (48/1982) and EPA level required for aquaculture. The water characteristics are [Fe = 0.116 mg/L, Mn = 1.36 mg/L,TN = 0.44 mg/L , TP = 0.07 mg/L , Ammonia = 0.386 mg/L] by using the glauconite filter we obtained high efficiency for removal for [(Fe, Mn and Ammonia] ,but in the Lab we obtained result for (Fe, 43-97), ( Mn,92-99 ), and ( Ammonia, 66-88 )]. We summarized the results to show the optimum time, pH, Glauconite weight, and the best model for design in the region.

Keywords: aquaculture, ammonia in groundwater, groundwater, iron and manganese in water, groundwater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
11084 Performance of Non-Deterministic Structural Optimization Algorithms Applied to a Steel Truss Structure

Authors: Ersilio Tushaj


The efficient solution that satisfies the optimal condition is an important issue in the structural engineering design problem. The new codes of structural design consist in design methodology that looks after the exploitation of the total resources of the construction material. In recent years some non-deterministic or meta-heuristic structural optimization algorithms have been developed widely in the research community. These methods search the optimum condition starting from the simulation of a natural phenomenon, such as survival of the fittest, the immune system, swarm intelligence or the cooling process of molten metal through annealing. Among these techniques the most known are: the genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, evolution strategies, particle swarm optimization, tabu search, ant colony optimization, harmony search and big bang crunch optimization. In this study, five of these algorithms are applied for the optimum weight design of a steel truss structure with variable geometry but fixed topology. The design process selects optimum distances and size sections from a set of commercial steel profiles. In the formulation of the design problem are considered deflection limitations, buckling and allowable stress constraints. The approach is repeated starting from different initial populations. The design problem topology is taken from an existing steel structure. The optimization process helps the engineer to achieve good final solutions, avoiding the repetitive evaluation of alternative designs in a time consuming process. The algorithms used for the application, the results of the optimal solutions, the number of iterations and the minimal weight designs, will be reported in the paper. Based on these results, it would be estimated, the amount of the steel that could be saved by applying structural analysis combined with non-deterministic optimization methods.

Keywords: structural optimization, non-deterministic methods, truss structures, steel truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
11083 Modeling of Nanocomposite Films Made of Cloisite 30b- Metal Nanoparticle in Packaging of Soy Burger

Authors: Faranak Beigmohammadi, Seyed Hadi Peighambardoust, Seyed Jamaledin Peighambardoust


This study undertakes to investigate the ability of different kinds of nanocomposite films made of cloisite-30B with different percentages of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles incorporated into a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) polymeric matrix by a melt mixing method in order to inhibit the growth of microorganism in soy burger. The number of surviving cell of the total count was decreased by 3.61 log and mold and yeast diminished by 2.01 log after 8 weeks storage at 18 ± 0.5°C below zero, whilst pure LDPE did not has any antimicrobial effect. A composition of 1.3 % cloisite 30B-Ag and 2.7 % cloisite 30B-CuO for total count and 0 % cloisite 30B-Ag and 4 % cloisite 30B-CuO for yeast & mold gave optimum points in combined design test in Design Expert 7.1.5. Suitable microbial models were suggested for retarding above microorganisms growth in soy burger. To validation of optimum point, the difference between the optimum point of nanocomposite film and its repeat was not significant (p<0.05) by one-way ANOVA analysis using SPSS 17.0 software, while the difference was significant for pure film. Migration of metallic nanoparticles into a food stimulant was within the accepted safe level.

Keywords: modeling, nanocomposite film, packaging, soy burger

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11082 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani


Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: building stone, optimum block size, Delichay travertine mine, loader power

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
11081 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams

Authors: Ferhat Erdal, Osman Tunca, Serkan Tas, Serdar Carbas


Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.

Keywords: steel structures, web-expanded beams, angelina beam, optimum design, failure modes, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
11080 Combination Approach Using Experiments and Optimal Experimental Design to Optimize Chemical Concentration in Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Process

Authors: H. Tai Pham, Bae Wisup, Sungmin Jung, Ivan Efriza, Ratna Widyaningsih, Byung Un Min


The middle-phase-microemulsion in Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) solution and oil play important roles in the success of an ASP flooding process. The high quality microemulsion phase has ultralow interfacial tensions and it can increase oil recovery. The research used optimal experimental design and response-surface-methodology to predict the optimum concentration of chemicals in ASP solution for maximum microemulsion quality. Secondly, this optimal ASP formulation was implemented in core flooding test to investigate the effective injection volume. As the results, the optimum concentration of surfactants in the ASP solution is 0.57 wt.% and the highest effective injection volume is 19.33% pore volume.

Keywords: optimize, ASP, response surface methodology, solubilization ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
11079 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar


The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
11078 Design and Development of a Prototype Vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon

Authors: S. S. Dol


Improvement in vehicle efficiency can reduce global fossil fuels consumptions. For that sole reason, Shell Global Corporation introduces Shell Eco-marathon where student teams require to design, build and test energy-efficient vehicles. Hence, this paper will focus on design processes and the development of a fuel economic vehicle which satisfying the requirements of the competition. In this project, three components are designed and analyzed, which are the body, chassis and powertrain of the vehicle. Optimum design for each component is produced through simulation analysis and theoretical calculation in which improvement is made as the project progresses.

Keywords: energy efficient, drag force, chassis, powertrain

Procedia PDF Downloads 264