Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8131

Search results for: unconfined compression test

8131 Effect of Curing Temperature on Unconfined Compression Strength of Bagasse Ash-Calcium Carbide Residue Treated Organic Clay

Authors: John Trihatmoko, Luky Handoko


A series of experimental program was undertaken to study the effect of curing temperature on the unconfined compression strength of bagasse ash (BA) - calcium carbide residue (CCR) stabilized organic clay (OC). A preliminary experiment was performed to get the physical properties of OC, and to get the optimum water content (OMC), the standard compaction test was done. The stabilizing agents used in this research was (40% BA + 60% CCR) . Then to obtain the best binder proportion, unconfined compression test was undertaken for OC + 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% of binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing period. The best quantity of the binder was found on 9%. Finally, to study the effect of curing temperature, the unconfined compression test was performed on OC + 9% binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing time with 20O, 25O, 30O, 40O, and 50O C curing temperature. The result indicates that unconfined compression strength (UCS) of treated OC improve according to the increase of curing temperature at the same curing time. The improvement of UCS is probably due to the degree of cementation and pozzolanic reactions.

Keywords: curing temperature, organic clay, bagasse ash, calcium carbide residue, unconfined compression strength

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8130 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani


Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: kaolinite, Nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus

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8129 Influence of Nanozeolite Particles on Improvement of Clayey Soil

Authors: A. Goodarzian, A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand


The problem of soil stabilization has been one of the important issues in geotechnical engineering. Nowadays, nanomaterials have revolutionized many industries. In this research, improvement of the Kerman fine-grained soil by nanozeolite and nanobentonite additives separately has been investigated using Atterberg Limits and unconfined compression test. In unconfined compression test, the samples were prepared with 3, 5 and 7% nano additives, with 1, 7 and 28 days curing time with strain control method. Finally, the effect of different percentages of nanozeolite and nanobentonite on the geotechnical behavior and characteristics of Kerman fine-grained soil was investigated. The results showed that with increasing the amount of nanozeolite and also nanobentonite to fine-grained soil, the soil exhibits more compression strength. So that by adding 7% nanozeolite and nanobentonite with 1 day curing, the unconfined compression strength is 1.18 and 2.1 times higher than the unstabilized soil. In addition, the failure strain decreases in samples containing nanozeolite, whereas it increases in the presence of nanobentonite. Increasing the percentage of nanozeolite and nanobentonite also increased the elasticity modulus of soil.

Keywords: nanoparticles, soil improvement, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress

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8128 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab


The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

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8127 Effect of Nanobentonite Particles on Geotechnical Properties of Kerman Clay

Authors: A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand


Improving the geotechnical properties of soil has always been one of the issues in geotechnical engineering. Traditional materials have been used to improve and stabilize soils to date, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Although the soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime, bitumen, etc. is one of the effective methods to improve the geotechnical properties of soil, but nanoparticles are one of the newest additives which can improve the loose soils. This research is intended to study the effect of adding nanobentonite on soil engineering properties, especially the unconfined compression strength and maximum dry unit weight, using clayey soil with low liquid limit (CL) from Kerman (Iran). Nanobentonite was mixed with soil in three different percentages (i.e. 3, 5, 7% by weight of the parent soil) with different curing time (1, 7 and 28 days). The unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits and plasticity index of treated specimens were measured by unconfined compression and Atterberg limits test. It was found that increase in nanobentonite content resulted in increase in the unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits of the clayey soil and reduce in plasticity index.

Keywords: nanobentonite particles, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress, soil improvement.

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8126 The Increasing of Unconfined Compression Strength of Clay Soils Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Ali̇ Si̇nan Soğanci


The cement stabilization is one of the ground improvement method applied worldwide to increase the strength of clayey soils. The using of cement has got lots of advantages compared to other stabilization methods. Cement stabilization can be done quickly, the cost is low and creates a more durable structure with the soil. Cement can be used in the treatment of a wide variety of soils. The best results of the cement stabilization were seen on silts as well as coarse-grained soils. In this study, blocks of clay were taken from the Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel route which is 125km long will be built in Konya that take the water with 70m3/sec from Mavi tunnel to Hotamış storage. Firstly, the index properties of clay samples were determined according to the Unified Soil Classification System. The experimental program was carried out on compacted soil specimens with 0%, 7 %, 15% and 30 % cement additives and the results of unconfined compression strength were discussed. The results of unconfined compression tests indicated an increase in strength with increasing cement content.

Keywords: cement stabilization, unconfined compression test, clayey soils, unified soil classification system.

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8125 Bioremediation Effect on Shear Strength of Contaminated Soils

Authors: Samira Abbaspour


Soil contamination by oil industry is unavoidable issue; irrespective of environmental impact, which occurs during the process of soil contaminating and remediating. Effect of this phenomenon on the geotechnical properties of the soil has not been investigated thoroughly. Some researchers studied the environmental aspects of these phenomena more than geotechnical point of view. In this research, compaction and unconfined compression tests were conducted on samples of natural, contaminated and treated soil after 50 days of bio-treatment. The results manifest that increasing the amount of crude oil, leads to decreased values of maximum dry density and optimum water content and increased values of unconfined compression strength (UCS). However, almost 65% of this contamination terminated by using a Bioremer as a bioremediation agent. Foremost, as bioremediation takes place, values of maximum dry density, unconfined compression strength and failure strain increase.

Keywords: contamination, shear strength, compaction, oil contamination

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8124 Effect of Bentonite on Shear Strength of Bushehr Calcareous Sand

Authors: Arash Poordana, Reza Ziaie Moayed


Calcareous sands are found most commonly in areas adjacent to crude oil and gas, and particularly around water. These types of soil have high compressibility due to high inter-granular porosity, irregularity, fragility, and especially crushing. Also, based on experience, it has been shown that the behavior of these types of soil is not similar to silica sand in loading. Since the destructive effects of cement on the environment are obvious, other alternatives such as bentonite are popular to be used. Bentonite has always been used commercially in civil engineering projects and according to its low hydraulic conductivity, it is used for landfills, cut-off walls, and nuclear wastelands. In the present study, unconfined compression tests in five ageing periods (1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days) after mixing different percentages of bentonite (5%, 7.5% and 10%) with Bushehr calcareous sand were performed. The relative density considered for the specimens is 50%. Optimum water content was then added to each specimen accordingly (19%, 18.5%, and 17.5%). The sample preparation method was wet tamping and the specimens were compacted in five layers. It can be concluded from the results that as the bentonite content increases, the unconfined compression strength of the soil increases. Based on the obtained results, 3-day and 7-day ageing periods showed 30% and 50% increase in the shear strength of soil, respectively.

Keywords: unconfined compression test, bentonite, Bushehr, calcareous sand

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8123 Experimental Investigation of The Influence of Cement on Soil-Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly ash Mix Properties

Authors: Gehan Aouf, Diala Tabbal, Abd El Rahim Sabsabi, Rashad Aouf


The aim of this study is to assess the viability of utilizing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash (MSWIFA) with Ordinary Portland cement as soil reinforcement materials for geotechnical engineering applications. A detailed experimental program is carried out, followed by analysis of results. Soil samples were prepared by adding Cement to MSWIFA-soil mix at different percentages. Then, a series of laboratory tests were performed, namely: Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests, Unconfined compression test, and Proctor tests. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of adding the cement at different percentages on the unconfined compression strength, maximum dry density, and optimum moisture content of clayey soil-MSWIFA The variation of contents of admixtures were 10%, 20%, and 30% for MSWIFA by dry total weight of soil and 10%, 15%, and 20% for Portland cement by dry total weight of the mix. The test results reveal that adding MSWIFA to the soil up to 20% increased the MDD of the mixture and decreased the OMC, then an opposite trend for results were found when the percentage of MSWIFA exceeds 20%. This is due to the low specific gravity of MSWIFA and to the greater water absorption of MSWIFA. The laboratory tests also indicate that the UCS values were found to be increased for all the mixtures with curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 days. It is also observed that the cement increased the strength of the finished product of the mix of soil and MSWIFA.

Keywords: clayey soil, cement, MSWIFA, unconfined compression strength

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8122 Effect of Leachate Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Bentonite-Amended Zeolite Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Keshavarz Hedayati


Over recent years, due to increased population and increased waste production, groundwater protection has become more important, therefore, designing engineered barrier systems such as landfill liners to prevent the entry of leachate into groundwater should be done with greater accuracy. These measures generally involve the application of low permeability soils such as clays. Bentonite is a natural clay with low permeability which makes it a suitable soil for using in liners. Also zeolite with high cation exchange capacity can help to reduce of hazardous materials risk. Bentonite expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water. This property may effect on some structural properties of soil such as shear strength. In present study, shear strength parameters are determined by both leachates polluted and not polluted bentonite-amended zeolite soil with mixing rates (B/Z) of 5%-10% and 20% with unconfined compression test to obtain the differences. It is shown that leachate presence causes reduction in resistance in general.

Keywords: bentonite, leachate, shear strength parameters, unconfined compression test

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8121 The Effect of Sand Content on Behavior of Kaolin Clay

Authors: Hamed Tohidi, James W. Mahar


One of the unknowns in the design of zoned earth dams is the percentage of sand which can be present in a clay core and still retain the necessary plasticity to prevent cracking in response to deformation. Cracks in the clay core of a dam caused by differential settlement can lead to failure of the dam. In this study, a series of Atterberg Limit tests and unconfined compression strength tests have been conducted in the ISU soil mechanics laboratory on prepared mixes of quartz sand and commercial clays (Kaolin and Smectite) to determine the relationship between sand content, plasticity and squeezing behavior. The prepared mixes have variable percentages of sand ranging between 10 and 90% by weight. Plastic limit test results in which specimens can be rolled into 1/8 in. threads without crumbling and plasticity index values which represent the range of water content over which the specimens can be remolded without cracking were used to evaluate the plasticity of the sand-clay mixtures. The test results show that the design mixes exhibit plastic behavior with sand contents up to 80% by weight. However, the plasticity of the mixes decreases with increasing sand content. For unconfined compression strength tests, the same mixtures of sand and clay (Kaolin) were made in plastic limit. The results which were concluded from the UCC tests represent the relationship between sand-clay content and chance of having squeezing behavior, also according to the results from UCC, strength of different samples and stress-strain curves can be obtained.

Keywords: clay's behaviour, plasticity, sand content, Kaolin clay

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8120 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh


Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain

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8119 In-situ and Laboratory Characterization of Fiji Lateritic Soils

Authors: Faijal Ali, Darga Kumar N., Ravikant Singh, Rajnil Lal


Fiji has three major landforms such as plains, low mountains, and hills. The low land soils are formed on beach sand. Fiji soils contain high concentration of iron (III), aluminum oxides and hydroxides. The soil possesses reddish or yellowish colour. The characterization of lateritic soils collected from different locations along the national highway in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. The research has been carried out mainly to understand the physical and strength properties to assess their suitability for the highway and building construction. In this paper, the field tests such as dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, field density and laboratory tests such as unconfined compression stress, compaction, grain size analysis and Atterberg limits are conducted. The test results are analyzed and presented. From the results, it is revealed that the soils are having more percentage of silt and clay which is more than 80% and 5 to 15% of fine to medium sand is noticed. The dynamic cone penetrometer results up to 3m depth had similar penetration resistance. For the first 1m depth, the rate of penetration is found 300mm per 3 to 4 blows. In all the sites it is further noticed that the rate of penetration at depths beyond 1.5 m is decreasing for the same number of blows as compared to the top soil. From the penetration resistance measured through dynamic cone penetrometer test, the California bearing ratio and allowable bearing capacities are 4 to 5% and 50 to 100 kPa for the top 1m layer and below 1m these values are increasing. The California bearing ratio of these soils for below 1m depth is in the order of 10% to 20%. The safe bearing capacity of these soils below 1m and up to 3m depth is varying from 150 kPa to 250 kPa. The field vane shear was measured within a depth of 1m from the surface and the values were almost similar varying from 60 kPa to 120 kPa. The liquid limit and plastic limits of these soils are in the range of 40 to 60% and 20 to 25%. Overall it is found that the top 1m soil along the national highway in majority places possess a soft to medium stiff behavior with low to medium bearing capacity as well low California bearing ratio values. It is recommended to ascertain these soils behavior in terms of geotechnical parameters before taking up any construction activity.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, unconfined compression stress.

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8118 Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Saline Soils by Fly Ash: Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Zhuo Cheng, Gaohang Cui, Yang Zheng, Zhiqiang-Pan


To explore the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on saline soil mechanical properties of fly ash, this study examined the influence of different numbers of freezing and thawing cycles, fly ash content, and moisture content of saline soil in unconfined compression tests and triaxial shear tests. With increased fly ash content, the internal friction angle, cohesion, unconfined compressive strength, and shear strength of the improved soil increased at first and then decreased. Using the Desk-Expert 8.0 software and based on significance analysis theory, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, fly ash content, water content, and the interactions between various factors on the mechanical properties of saline soil were studied. The results showed that the number of freeze-thaw cycles had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of saline soil, while the fly ash content had a weakly significant effect. At the same time, interaction between the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the water content had a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength and the cohesion of saline soil, and the interaction between fly ash content and the number of freeze-thaw cycles only had a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: fly ash, saline soil, seasonally frozen area, significance analysis, qualitative analysis

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8117 Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix

Authors: Sujeet Kumar, Arun Prasad


The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: bauxite residue, curing time, porosity/volumetric lime ratio, unconfined compressive strength

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8116 Effect of Lime and Leaf Ash on Engineering Properties of Red Mud

Authors: Pawandeep Kaur, Prashant Garg


Red mud is a byproduct of aluminum extraction from Bauxite industry. It is dumped in a pond which not only uses thousands of acres of land but having very high pH, it pollutes the ground water and the soil also. Leaves are yet another big waste especially during autumn when they contribute immensely to the blockage of drains and can easily catch fire, among other risks hence also needs to be utilized effectively. The use of leaf ash and red mud in highway construction as a filling material may be an efficient way to dispose of leaf ash and red mud. In this study, leaf ash and lime were used as admixtures to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of red mud. The red mud was taken from National Aluminum Company Limited, Odisha, and leaf ash was locally collected. The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of lime and leaf ash on compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of red mud. California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compression Strength tests were performed on red mud by varying different percentages of lime and leaf ash. Leaf ash was added in proportion 2%,4%,6%,8% and 10% whereas lime was added in proportions of 5% to 15%. Optimized value of lime was decided with respect to maximum CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of red mud mixed with different proportions of lime. An increase of 300% in California Bearing ratio of red mud and an increase of 125% in Unconfined Compression Strength values were observed. It may, therefore, be concluded that red mud may be effectively utilized in the highway industry as a filler material.

Keywords: stabilization, lime, red mud, leaf ash

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8115 Environmental Benefits of Corn Cob Ash in Lateritic Soil Cement Stabilization for Road Works in a Sub-Tropical Region

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh


The potential economic viability and environmental benefits of using a biomass waste, such as corn cob ash (CCA) as pozzolan in stabilizing soils for road pavement construction in a sub-tropical region was investigated. Corn cob was obtained from Maya in South West Nigeria and processed to ash of characteristics similar to Class C Fly Ash pozzolan as specified in ASTM C618-12. This was then blended with ordinary Portland cement in the CCA:OPC ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. Each of these blends was then mixed with lateritic soil of ASHTO classification A-2-6(3) in varying percentages from 0 – 7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The soil-CCA-Cement mixtures were thereafter tested for geotechnical index properties including the BS Proctor Compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the Unconfined Compression Strength Test. The tests were repeated for soil-cement mix without any CCA blending. The cost of the binder inputs and optimal blends of CCA:OPC in the stabilized soil were thereafter analyzed by developing algorithms that relate the experimental data on strength parameters (Unconfined Compression Strength, UCS and California Bearing Ratio, CBR) with the bivariate independent variables CCA and OPC content, using Matlab R2011b. An optimization problem was then set up minimizing the cost of chemical stabilization of laterite with CCA and OPC, subject to the constraints of minimum strength specifications. The Evolutionary Engine as well as the Generalized Reduced Gradient option of the Solver of MS Excel 2010 were used separately on the cells to obtain the optimal blend of CCA:OPC. The optimal blend attaining the required strength of 1800 kN/m2 was determined for the 1:2 CCA:OPC as 5.4% mix (OPC content 3.6%) compared with 4.2% for the OPC only option; and as 6.2% mix for the 1:1 blend (OPC content 3%). The 2:1 blend did not attain the required strength, though over a 100% gain in UCS value was obtained over the control sample with 0% binder. Upon the fact that 0.97 tonne of CO2 is released for every tonne of cement used (OEE, 2001), the reduced OPC requirement to attain the same result indicates the possibility of reducing the net CO2 contribution of the construction industry to the environment ranging from 14 – 28.5% if CCA:OPC blends are widely used in soil stabilization, going by the results of this study. The paper concludes by recommending that Nigeria and other developing countries in the sub-tropics with abundant stock of biomass waste should look in the direction of intensifying the use of biomass waste as fuel and the derived ash for the production of pozzolans for road-works, thereby reducing overall green house gas emissions and in compliance with the objectives of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.

Keywords: corn cob ash, biomass waste, lateritic soil, unconfined compression strength, CO2 emission

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8114 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content and Liquid Limit and Void Ratio Using Statistics Method

Authors: Lizhou Chen, Abdelhamid Belgaid, Assem Elsayed, Xiaoming Yang


Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

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8113 Transient Electrical Resistivity and Elastic Wave Velocity of Sand-Cement-Inorganic Binder Mixture

Authors: Kiza Rusati Pacifique, Ki-il Song


The cement milk grout has been used for ground improvement. Due to the environmental issues related to cement, the reduction of cement usage is requesting. In this study, inorganic binder is introduced to reduce the use of cement contents for ground improvement. To evaluate transient electrical and mechanical properties of sand-cement-inorganic binder mixture, two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Free Free Resonant Column (FFRC) tests were adopted in addition to unconfined compressive strength test. Electrical resistivity, longitudinal wave velocity and damping ratio of sand-cement admixture samples improved with addition of inorganic binders were measured. Experimental tests were performed considering four different mixing ratios and three different cement contents depending on the curing time. Results show that mixing ratio and curing time have considerable effects on electrical and mechanical properties of mixture. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) decreases as the cement content decreases. However, sufficient grout strength can be obtained with increase of content of inorganic binder. From the results, it is found that the inorganic binder can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of mixture and reduce the cement content. It is expected that data and trends proposed in this study can be used as reference in predicting grouting quality in the field.

Keywords: damping ratio, electrical resistivity, ground improvement, inorganic binder, longitudinal wave velocity, unconfined compression strength

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8112 Laboratory Studies to Assess the Effect of Recron Fiber on Soil Subgrade Characteristics

Authors: Lokesh Gupta, Rakesh Kumar


Stabilization of weak subgrade soil is mainly aimed for the improvement of soil strength and its durability. Highway engineers are concerned to get the soil material or system that will hold under the design use conditions and for the designed life of the engineering project. The present study envisages the effect of Recron fibres mixed in different proportion (up to 1% by weight of dry soil) on Atterberg limits, Compaction of the soil, California bearing ratio (CBR) values and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the soil. The present study deals with the influence of varying in length (20 mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm) and percentage (0.25 %, 0.50 %, 0.75 % and 1.0 %) of fibre added to the soil samples. The aim of study is to determine the reinforcing effect of randomly distributed fibres on the Compaction characteristics, penetration resistance and unconfined compressive strength of soils. The addition of fibres leads to an increase in the optimum moisture content and decrease in maximum dry density. With the addition of the fibres, the increases in CBR and UCS values are observed. The test result shows higher CBR and unconfined compressive strength value for the soil reinforced with 0.5% Recron fibre, once keeping aspect ratio as 160.

Keywords: soil, recron fiber, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), California bearing ratio (CBR)

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8111 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell


The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus

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8110 A New Prediction Model for Soil Compression Index

Authors: D. Mohammadzadeh S., J. Bolouri Bazaz


This paper presents a new prediction model for compression index of fine-grained soils using multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. The proposed model relates the soil compression index to its liquid limit, plastic limit and void ratio. Several laboratory test results for fine-grained were used to develop the models. Various criteria were considered to check the validity of the model. The parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed and discussed. The MGGP method was found to be very effective for predicting the soil compression index. A comparative study was further performed to prove the superiority of the MGGP model to the existing soft computing and traditional empirical equations.

Keywords: new prediction model, compression index soil, multi-gene genetic programming, MGGP

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8109 Improving the Strength Characteristics of Soil Using Cotton Fibers

Authors: Bindhu Lal, Karnika Kochal


Clayey soil contains clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter, which exhibits properties like low drainage, high plasticity, and shrinkage. To overcome these issues, various soil reinforcement techniques are used to elevate the stiffness, water tightness, and bearing capacity of the soil. Such techniques include cementation, bituminization, freezing, fiber inclusion, geo-synthetics, nailing, etc. Reinforcement of soil with fibers has been a cost-effective solution to soil improvement problems. An experimental study was undertaken involving the inclusion of cotton waste fibers in clayey soil as reinforcement with different fiber contents (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% by weight) and analyzing its effects on the unconfined compressive strength of the soil. Two categories of soil were taken, comprising of natural clay and clay mixed with 5% sodium bentonite by weight. The soil specimens were subjected to proctor compaction and unconfined compression tests. The validated outcome shows that fiber inclusion has a strikingly positive impact on the compressive strength and axial strain at failure of the soil. Based on the commendatory results procured, compressive strength was found to be directly proportional to the fiber content, with the effect being more pronounced at lower water content.

Keywords: bentonite clay, clay, cotton fibers, unconfined compressive strength

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8108 Challenges in Experimental Testing of a Stiff, Overconsolidated Clay

Authors: Maria Konstadinou, Etienne Alderlieste, Anderson Peccin da Silva, Ben Arntz, Leonard van der Bijl, Wouter Verschueren


The shear strength and compression properties of stiff Boom clay from Belgium at the depth of about 30 m has been investigated by means of cone penetration and laboratory testing. The latter consisted of index classification, constant rate of strain, direct, simple shear, and unconfined compression tests. The Boom clay samples exhibited strong swelling tendencies. The suction pressure was measured via different procedures and has been compared to the expected in-situ stress. The undrained shear strength and OCR profile determined from CPTs is not compatible with the experimental measurements, which gave significantly lower values. The observed response can be attributed to the presence of pre-existing discontinuities, as shown in microscale CT scans of the samples. The results of this study demonstrate that the microstructure of the clay prior to testing has an impact on the mechanical behaviour and can cause inconsistencies in the comparison of the laboratory test results with in-situ data.

Keywords: boom clay, laboratory testing, overconsolidation ratio, stress-strain response, swelling, undrained shear strength

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8107 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo


Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

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8106 Response of Concrete Panels Subjected to Compression-Tension State of Stresses

Authors: Mohammed F. Almograbi


For reinforced concrete panels the risk of failure due to compression -tension state of stresses, results from pure shear or torsion, can be a major problem. The present calculation methods for such stresses from multiple influences are without taking into account the softening of cracked concrete remains conservative. The non-linear finite element method has become an important and increasingly used tool for the analysis and assessment of the structures by including cracking softening and tension-stiffening. The aim of this paper is to test a computer program refined recently and to simulate the compression response of cracked concrete element and to compare with the available experimental results.

Keywords: reinforced concrete panels, compression-tension, shear, torsion, compression softening, tension stiffening, non-linear finite element analysis

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8105 Performance Analysis of Ferrocement Retrofitted Masonry Wall Units under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Md. Mahir Asif, Md. Zahidul Alam


A huge portion of old masonry buildings in Bangladesh are vulnerable to earthquake. In most of the cases these buildings contain unreinforced masonry wall which are most likely to be subjected to earthquake damages. Due to deterioration of mortar joint and aging, shear resistance of these unreinforced masonry walls dwindle. So, retrofitting of these old buildings has become an important issue. Among many researched and experimented techniques, ferrocement retrofitting can be a low cost technique in context of the economic condition of Bangladesh. This study aims at investigating the behavior of ferrocement retrofitted unconfined URM walls under different types of cyclic loading. Four 725 mm × 725 mm masonry wall units were prepared with bricks jointed by stretcher bond with 12.5 mm mortar between two adjacent layers of bricks. To compare the effectiveness of ferrocement retrofitting a particular type wire mesh was used in this experiment which is 20 gauge woven wire mesh with 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm square opening. After retrofitting with ferrocement these wall units were tested by applying cyclic deformation along the diagonals of the specimens. Then a comparative study was performed between the retrofitted specimens and control specimens for both partially reversed cyclic load condition and cyclic compression load condition. The experiment results show that ultimate load carrying capacities of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 35% and 27% greater than the control specimen under partially reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. And before failure the deformations of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 43% and 33% greater than the control specimen under reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. Therefore, the test results show that the ultimate load carrying capacity and ductility of ferrocement retrofitted specimens have improved.

Keywords: cyclic compression, cyclic loading, ferrocement, masonry wall, partially reversed cyclic load, retrofitting

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8104 Assessing the Potential of a Waste Material for Cement Replacement and the Effect of Its Fineness in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock


This paper represents the results of experimental work to investigate the suitability of a waste material (WM) for soft soil stabilisation. In addition, the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) of the waste material on its performance as a soil stabiliser was investigated. The WM used in this study is produced from the incineration processes in domestic energy power plant and it is available in two different grades of fineness (coarse waste material (CWM) and fine waste material (FWM)). An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content has been used in this study. The suitability of the CWM and FWM to improve the physical and engineering properties of the selected soil was evaluated dependant on the results obtained from the consistency limits, compaction characteristics (optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD)); along with the unconfined compressive strength test (UCS). Different percentages of CWM were added to the soft soil (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) to produce various admixtures. Then the UCS test was carried out on specimens under different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days) to find the optimum percentage of CWM. The optimum and other two percentages (either side of the optimum content) were used for FWM to evaluate the effect of the fineness of the WM on UCS of the stabilised soil. Results indicated that both types of the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly. IP was decreased from 21 to 13.64 and 13.10 with 12% of CWM and 15% of FWM respectively. The results of the unconfined compressive strength test indicated that 12% of CWM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 500kPa for 28 days cured samples, which is equal, approximately 2.5 times the UCS value for untreated soil. Moreover, this percentage provided 1.4 times the value of UCS for stabilized soil-CWA by using FWM which recorded just under 700kPa after 28 days curing.

Keywords: soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, fineness, unconfined compressive strength

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8103 Non-Destructive Test of Bar for Determination of Critical Compression Force Directed towards the Pole

Authors: Boris Blostotsky, Elia Efraim


The phenomenon of buckling of structural elements under compression is revealed in many cases of loading and found consideration in many structures and mechanisms. In the present work the method and results of dynamic test for buckling of bar loaded by a compression force directed towards the pole are considered. Experimental determination of critical force for such system has not been made previously. The tested object is a bar with semi-rigid connection to the base at one of its ends, and with a hinge moving along a circle at the other. The test includes measuring the natural frequency of the bar at different values of compression load. The lateral stiffness is calculated based on natural frequency and reduced mass on the bar's movable end. The critical load is determined by extrapolation the values of lateral stiffness up to zero value. For the experimental investigation the special test-bed was created that allows the stability testing at positive and negative curvature of the movable end's trajectory, as well as varying the rotational stiffness of the other end connection. Decreasing a friction at the movable end allows extend the diapason of applied compression force. The testing method includes: - Methodology of the experiment planning, that allows determine the required number of tests under various loads values in the defined range and the type of extrapolating function; - Methodology of experimental determination of reduced mass at the bar's movable end including its own mass; - Methodology of experimental determination of lateral stiffness of uncompressed bar rotational semi-rigid connection at the base. For planning the experiment and for comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values of critical load, the analytical dependencies of lateral stiffness of the bar with defined end conditions on compression load. In the particular case of perfectly rigid connection of the bar to the base, the critical load value corresponds to solution by S.P. Timoshenko. Correspondence of the calculated and experimental values was obtained.

Keywords: non-destructive test, buckling, dynamic method, semi-rigid connections

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8102 An EBSD Investigation of Ti-6Al-4Nb Alloy Processed by Plan Strain Compression Test

Authors: Anna Jastrzebska, K. S. Suresh, T. Kitashima, Y. Yamabe-Mitarai, Z. Pakiela


Near α titanium alloys are important materials for aerospace applications, especially in high temperature applications such as jet engine. Mechanical properties of Ti alloys strongly depends on their processing route, then it is very important to understand micro-structure change by different processing. In our previous study, Nb was found to improve oxidation resistance of Ti alloys. In this study, micro-structure evolution of Ti-6Al-4Nb (wt %) alloy was investigated after plain strain compression test in hot working temperatures in the α and β phase region. High-resolution EBSD was successfully used for precise phase and texture characterization of this alloy. 1.1 kg of Ti-6Al-4Nb ingot was prepared using cold crucible levitation melting. The ingot was subsequently homogenized in 1050 deg.C for 1h followed by cooling in the air. Plate like specimens measuring 10×20×50 mm3 were cut from an ingot by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The plain strain compression test using an anvil with 10 x 35 mm in size was performed with 3 different strain rates: 0.1s-1, 1s-1and 10s-1 in 700 deg.C and 1050 deg.C to obtain 75% of deformation. The micro-structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) detector. The α/β phase ratio and phase morphology as well as the crystallographic texture, subgrain size, misorientation angles and misorientation gradients corresponding to each phase were determined over the middle and the edge of sample areas. The deformation mechanism in each working temperature was discussed. The evolution of texture changes with strain rate was investigated. The micro-structure obtained by plain strain compression test was heterogeneous with a wide range of grain sizes. This is because deformation and dynamic recrystallization occurred during deformation at temperature in the α and β phase. It was strongly influenced by strain rate.

Keywords: EBSD, plain strain compression test, Ti alloys

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