Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: electrolyzer

14 Assessment of Solar Hydrogen Production in Energetic Hybrid PV-PEMFC System

Authors: H. Rezzouk, M. Hatti, H. Rahmani, S. Atoui

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design and analysis of a hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82% whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to the electrolyzer.

Keywords: electrolyzer, hydrogen, hydrogen fueled cell, photovoltaic

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13 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Power System for House in Newfoundland via HOMER and BEopt Software

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Aisa, Aiman Salam Eisay

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based hybrid energy systems are ideal solutions for reducing environmental pollution. The hybrid energy system (HES) is a collection of various renewable power resources such as hydro, wind, solar, bio, geothermal, hydrokinetic (tidal/wave) and small/micro hydro that use a fossil fuel-powered diesel generator to provide electric power. This paper analyzes wind solar hybrid systems that can be connected to DC and AC via an electrolyzer connected to a hydrogen tank. The optimizations and simulations of the proposed system were performed with Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. In order to determine the optimal combination of the system, different combinations of PV arrays, generators, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tanks were selected on the basis of the Net Present Cost from the simulation results. The system installed at the house site consists of a load of 3.2 kW peak and 24kWh/d. The results show optimization performance for production at PV array 4,794kWh/yr, wind turbine 11,243kWh/yr and generator 92 kWh/yr.

Keywords: hybrid, design, renewable, energy, fossil fuel, electric power, electrolyzer

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12 Dependence of Ionomer Loading on the Hydrogen Generation Rate of a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Chih Chi Hsu, Chiao-Chih Hu

Abstract:

Membrane electrode assemblies MEAs for proton exchange membrane PEM water electrolyzers were prepared by employing 175um perfluorosulfonic acid PFSA membranes as the PEM, onto which iridium oxide catalyst was coated on one side as the anode and platinum catalyst was coated on the other side as the cathode. The cathode catalyst ink was prepared so that the weight ratio of the catalyst powder to ionomer was 75:25, 70:30, 65:35, 60:40, and 55:45, respectively. Whereas, the ratio of catalyst powder to ionomer of the anode catalyst ink keeps constant at 50:50. All the MEAs have a catalyst coated area of 5cm*5cm. The test cell employs a platinum plated titanium grid as anode gas diffusion media; whereas, carbon paper was employed as the cathode gas diffusion media. The measurements of the MEA gases production rate were carried out by holding the cell voltage ranging from 1.6 to 2.8 volts at room temperature. It was found that the MEA with cathode catalyst to ionomer ratio of 65:35 gives the largest hydrogen production rate which is 2.8mL/cm2*min.

Keywords: electrolyzer, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane, ionomer, hydrogen

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11 Modeling and Analysis the Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Gas-Crossover in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Abdul Hadi Bin Abdol Rahim, Alhassan Salami Tijani

Abstract:

Hydrogen produced by means of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEME) is one of the most promising methods due to clean and renewable energy source. In the process, some energy loss due to mass transfer through a PEM is caused by diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and the pressure difference between the cathode channel and anode channel. In PEME water molecules and ionic particles transferred between the electrodes from anode to cathode, Extensive mixing of the hydrogen and oxygen at anode channel due to gases cross-over must be avoided. In recent times the consciousness of safety issue in high pressure PEME where the oxygen mix with hydrogen at anode channel could create, explosive conditions have generated a lot of concern. In this paper, the steady state and simulation analysis of gases crossover in PEME on the temperature and pressure effect are presented. The simulations have been analysis in MATLAB based on the well-known Fick’s Law of molecular diffusion. The simulation results indicated that as temperature increases, there is a significant decrease in operating voltage.

Keywords: diffusion, gases crosover, steady state, Fick’s law

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10 Matlab/Simulink Simulation of Solar Energy Storage System

Authors: Mustafa A. Al-Refai

Abstract:

This paper investigates the energy storage technologies that can potentially enhance the use of solar energy. Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Starting from the analysis of the models of the system components, a complete simulation model was realized in the Matlab-Simulink environment. Results of the numerical simulations are provided. The operation of electrolysis and photovoltaic array combination is verified at various insulation levels. It is pointed out that solar cell arrays and electrolysers are producing the expected results with solar energy inputs that are continuously varying.

Keywords: electrolyzer, simulink, solar energy, storage system

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9 Energy Harvesting and Storage System for Marine Applications

Authors: Sayem Zafar, Mahmood Rahi

Abstract:

Rigorous international maritime regulations are in place to limit boat and ship hydrocarbon emissions. The global sustainability goals are reducing the fuel consumption and minimizing the emissions from the ships and boats. These maritime sustainability goals have attracted a lot of research interest. Energy harvesting and storage system is designed in this study based on hybrid renewable and conventional energy systems. This energy harvesting and storage system is designed for marine applications, such as, boats and small ships. These systems can be utilized for mobile use or off-grid remote electrification. This study analyzed the use of micro power generation for boats and small ships. The energy harvesting and storage system has two distinct systems i.e. dockside shore-based system and on-board system. The shore-based system consists of a small wind turbine, photovoltaic (PV) panels, small gas turbine, hydrogen generator and high-pressure hydrogen storage tank. This dockside system is to provide easy access to the boats and small ships for supply of hydrogen. The on-board system consists of hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cells. The wind turbine and PV panels generate electricity to operate electrolyzer. A small gas turbine is used as a supplementary power system to contribute in case the hybrid renewable energy system does not provide the required energy. The electrolyzer performs the electrolysis on distilled water to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen is stored in high-pressure tanks. The hydrogen from the high-pressure tank is filled in the low-pressure tanks on-board seagoing vessels to operate the fuel cell. The boats and small ships use the hydrogen fuel cell to provide power to electric propulsion motors and for on-board auxiliary use. For shore-based system, a small wind turbine with the total length of 4.5 m and the disk diameter of 1.8 m is used. The small wind turbine dimensions make it big enough to be used to charge batteries yet small enough to be installed on the rooftops of dockside facility. The small dimensions also make the wind turbine easily transportable. In this paper, PV, sizing and solar flux are studied parametrically. System performance is evaluated under different operating and environmental conditions. The parametric study is conducted to evaluate the energy output and storage capacity of energy storage system. Results are generated for a wide range of conditions to analyze the usability of hybrid energy harvesting and storage system. This energy harvesting method significantly improves the usability and output of the renewable energy sources. It also shows that small hybrid energy systems have promising practical applications.

Keywords: energy harvesting, fuel cell, hybrid energy system, hydrogen, wind turbine

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8 Thermo-Economic Evaluation of Sustainable Biogas Upgrading via Solid-Oxide Electrolysis

Authors: Ligang Wang, Theodoros Damartzis, Stefan Diethelm, Jan Van Herle, François Marechal

Abstract:

Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic sludge from wastewater treatment as well as various urban and agricultural organic wastes is of great significance to achieve a sustainable society. Two upgrading approaches for cleaned biogas can be considered: (1) direct H₂ injection for catalytic CO₂ methanation and (2) CO₂ separation from biogas. The first approach usually employs electrolysis technologies to generate hydrogen and increases the biogas production rate; while the second one usually applies commercially-available highly-selective membrane technologies to efficiently extract CO₂ from the biogas with the latter being then sent afterward for compression and storage for further use. A straightforward way of utilizing the captured CO₂ is on-site catalytic CO₂ methanation. From the perspective of system complexity, the second approach may be questioned, since it introduces an additional expensive membrane component for producing the same amount of methane. However, given the circumstance that the sustainability of the produced biogas should be retained after biogas upgrading, renewable electricity should be supplied to drive the electrolyzer. Therefore, considering the intermittent nature and seasonal variation of renewable electricity supply, the second approach offers high operational flexibility. This indicates that these two approaches should be compared based on the availability and scale of the local renewable power supply and not only the technical systems themselves. Solid-oxide electrolysis generally offers high overall system efficiency, and more importantly, it can achieve simultaneous electrolysis of CO₂ and H₂O (namely, co-electrolysis), which may bring significant benefits for the case of CO₂ separation from the produced biogas. When taking co-electrolysis into account, two additional upgrading approaches can be proposed: (1) direct steam injection into the biogas with the mixture going through the SOE, and (2) CO₂ separation from biogas which can be used later for co-electrolysis. The case study of integrating SOE to a wastewater treatment plant is investigated with wind power as the renewable power. The dynamic production of biogas is provided on an hourly basis with the corresponding oxygen and heating requirements. All four approaches mentioned above are investigated and compared thermo-economically: (a) steam-electrolysis with grid power, as the base case for steam electrolysis, (b) CO₂ separation and co-electrolysis with grid power, as the base case for co-electrolysis, (c) steam-electrolysis and CO₂ separation (and storage) with wind power, and (d) co-electrolysis and CO₂ separation (and storage) with wind power. The influence of the scale of wind power supply is investigated by a sensitivity analysis. The results derived provide general understanding on the economic competitiveness of SOE for sustainable biogas upgrading, thus assisting the decision making for biogas production sites. The research leading to the presented work is funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 under grant agreements n° 699892 (ECo, topic H2020-JTI-FCH-2015-1) and SCCER BIOSWEET.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, solid-oxide electrolyzer, co-electrolysis, CO₂ utilization, energy storage

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7 Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Smart Micro-Grids and Decentralised Sector-Coupling

Authors: C.Trapp, A.Vijay, M.Khorasani

Abstract:

Decentralised micro-grids with sector coupling can combat the spatial and temporal intermittence of renewable energy by combining power, transportation and infrastructure sectors. Intelligent energy conversion concepts such as electrolysers, hydrogen engines and fuel cells combined with energy storage using intelligent batteries and hydrogen storage form the back-bone of such a system. This paper describes a micro-grid based on Photo-Voltaic cells, battery storage, innovative modular and scalable Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) electrolyzer with an efficiency of up to 73%, high-pressure hydrogen storage as well as cutting-edge combustion-engine based Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant with more than 85% efficiency at the university campus to address the challenges of decarbonization whilst eliminating the necessity for expensive high-voltage infrastructure.

Keywords: sector coupling, micro-grids, energy self-sufficiency, decarbonization, AEM electrolysis, hydrogen CHP

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6 A Study of the Alumina Distribution in the Lab-Scale Cell during Aluminum Electrolysis

Authors: Olga Tkacheva, Pavel Arkhipov, Alexey Rudenko, Yurii Zaikov

Abstract:

The aluminum electrolysis process in the conventional cryolite-alumina electrolyte with cryolite ratio of 2.7 was carried out at an initial temperature of 970 °C and the anode current density of 0.5 A/cm2 in a 15A lab-scale cell in order to study the formation of the side ledge during electrolysis and the alumina distribution between electrolyte and side ledge. The alumina contained 35.97% α-phase and 64.03% γ-phase with the particles size in the range of 10-120 μm. The cryolite ratio and the alumina concentration were determined in molten electrolyte during electrolysis and in frozen bath after electrolysis. The side ledge in the electrolysis cell was formed only by the 13th hour of electrolysis. With a slight temperature decrease a significant increase in the side ledge thickness was observed. The basic components of the side ledge obtained by the XRD phase analysis were Na3AlF6, Na5Al3F14, Al2O3, and NaF.5CaF2.AlF3. As in the industrial cell, the increased alumina concentration in the side ledge formed on the cell walls and at the ledge-electrolyte-aluminum three-phase boundary during aluminum electrolysis in the lab cell was found (FTP No 05.604.21.0239, IN RFMEFI60419X0239).

Keywords: alumina distribution, aluminum electrolyzer, cryolie-alumina electrolyte, side ledge

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5 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel

Authors: Behzad Panahirad, UğUr Atikol

Abstract:

The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.

Keywords: biomass, exergy assessment, multi-objective plant, CO₂ emission, irreversibility

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4 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel

Abstract:

Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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3 Exergy Analysis of a Green Dimethyl Ether Production Plant

Authors: Marcello De Falco, Gianluca Natrella, Mauro Capocelli

Abstract:

CO₂ capture and utilization (CCU) is a promising approach to reduce GHG(greenhouse gas) emissions. Many technologies in this field are recently attracting attention. However, since CO₂ is a very stable compound, its utilization as a reagent is energetic intensive. As a consequence, it is unclear whether CCU processes allow for a net reduction of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective and whether these solutions are sustainable. Among the tools to apply for the quantification of the real environmental benefits of CCU technologies, exergy analysis is the most rigorous from a scientific point of view. The exergy of a system is the maximum obtainable work during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with its reference environment through a series of reversible processes in which the system can only interact with such an environment. In other words, exergy is an “opportunity for doing work” and, in real processes, it is destroyed by entropy generation. The exergy-based analysis is useful to evaluate the thermodynamic inefficiencies of processes, to understand and locate the main consumption of fuels or primary energy, to provide an instrument for comparison among different process configurations and to detect solutions to reduce the energy penalties of a process. In this work, the exergy analysis of a process for the production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) from green hydrogen generated through an electrolysis unit and pure CO₂ captured from flue gas is performed. The model simulates the behavior of all units composing the plant (electrolyzer, carbon capture section, DME synthesis reactor, purification step), with the scope to quantify the performance indices based on the II Law of Thermodynamics and to identify the entropy generation points. Then, a plant optimization strategy is proposed to maximize the exergy efficiency.

Keywords: green DME production, exergy analysis, energy penalties, exergy efficiency

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2 A Green Optically Active Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation System Employing Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Ultraviolet Solar Irradiance

Authors: H. Shahid

Abstract:

Due to Ozone layer depletion on earth, the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation is recorded at its high index levels such as 25 in South Peru (13.5° S, 3360 m a.s.l.) Also, the planning of human inhabitation on Mars is under discussion where UV radiations are quite high. The exposure to UV is health hazardous and is avoided by UV filters. On the other hand, artificial UV sources are in use for water thermolysis to generate Hydrogen and Oxygen, which are later used as fuels. This paper presents the utility of employing UVA (315-400nm) and UVB (280-315nm) electromagnetic radiation from the solar spectrum to design and implement an optically active, Hydrogen and Oxygen generation system via thermolysis of desalinated seawater. The proposed system finds its utility on earth and can be deployed in the future on Mars (UVB). In this system, by using Fresnel lens arrays as an optical filter and via active tracking, the ultraviolet light from the sun is concentrated and then allowed to fall on two sub-systems of the proposed system. The first sub-system generates electrical energy by using UV based tandem photovoltaic cells such as GaAs/GaInP/GaInAs/GaInAsP and the second elevates temperature of water to lower the electric potential required to electrolyze the water. An empirical analysis is performed at 30 atm and an electrical potential is observed to be the main controlling factor for the rate of production of Hydrogen and Oxygen and hence the operating point (Q-Point) of the proposed system. The hydrogen production rate in the case of the commercial system in static mode (650ᵒC, 0.6V) is taken as a reference. The silicon oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is used in the proposed (UV) system for the Hydrogen and Oxygen production. To achieve the same amount of Hydrogen as in the case of the reference system, with minimum chamber operating temperature of 850ᵒC in static mode, the corresponding required electrical potential is calculated as 0.3V. However, practically, the Hydrogen production rate is observed to be low in comparison to the reference system at 850ᵒC at 0.3V. However, it has been shown empirically that the Hydrogen production can be enhanced and by raising the electrical potential to 0.45V. It increases the production rate to the same level as is of the reference system. Therefore, 850ᵒC and 0.45V are assigned as the Q-point of the proposed system which is actively stabilized via proportional integral derivative controllers which adjust the axial position of the lens arrays for both subsystems. The functionality of the controllers is based on maintaining the chamber fixed at 850ᵒC (minimum operating temperature) and 0.45V; Q-Point to realize the same Hydrogen production rate as-is for the reference system.

Keywords: hydrogen, oxygen, thermolysis, ultraviolet

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1 Magnetron Sputtered Thin-Film Catalysts with Low Noble Metal Content for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

Authors: Peter Kus, Anna Ostroverkh, Yurii Yakovlev, Yevheniia Lobko, Roman Fiala, Ivan Khalakhan, Vladimir Matolin

Abstract:

Hydrogen economy is a concept of low-emission society which harvests most of its energy from renewable sources (e.g., wind and solar) and in case of overproduction, electrochemically turns the excess amount into hydrogen, which serves as an energy carrier. Proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWE) are the backbone of this concept. By fast-response electricity to hydrogen conversion, the PEMWEs will not only stabilize the electrical grid but also provide high-purity hydrogen for variety of fuel cell powered devices, ranging from consumer electronics to vehicles. Wider commercialization of PEMWE technology is however hindered by high prices of noble metals which are necessary for catalyzing the redox reactions within the cell. Namely, platinum for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), running on cathode, and iridium for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on anode. Possible way of how to lower the loading of Pt and Ir is by using conductive high-surface nanostructures as catalyst supports in conjunction with thin-film catalyst deposition. The presented study discusses unconventional technique of membrane electron assembly (MEA) preparation. Noble metal catalysts (Pt and Ir) were magnetron sputtered in very low loadings onto the surface of porous sublayers (located on gas diffusion layer or directly on membrane), forming so to say localized three-phase boundary. Ultrasonically sprayed corrosion resistant TiC-based sublayer was used as a support material on anode, whereas magnetron sputtered nanostructured etched nitrogenated carbon (CNx) served the same role on cathode. By using this configuration, we were able to significantly decrease the amount of noble metals (to thickness of just tens of nanometers), while keeping the performance comparable to that of average state-of-the-art catalysts. Complex characterization of prepared supported catalysts includes in-cell performance and durability tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Our research proves that magnetron sputtering is a suitable method for thin-film deposition of electrocatalysts. Tested set-up of thin-film supported anode and cathode catalysts with combined loading of just 120 ug.cm⁻² yields remarkable values of specific current. Described approach of thin-film low-loading catalyst deposition might be relevant when noble metal reduction is the topmost priority.

Keywords: hydrogen economy, low-loading catalyst, magnetron sputtering, proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer

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