Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 110

Search results for: juvenile

110 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

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China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: China, history, juvenile justice, legal traditions

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109 Human Rights and Juvenile Justice System: A Case Study of Warangal District, Telangana State, India

Authors: Vijaya Chandra Tenneti

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The juvenile justice delivery system in India suffers from many lacunae at the operational level and ignores many dimensions of human rights guaranteed to the juvenile delinquents. The present study begins with the hypothesis that the existing justice delivery system seemingly ignores the basic tenets of the fair trial and systemic support to the delinquent juveniles in integrating them into the mainstream of society. As per the designed methodology, data has been collected from the unit of the present study, and other stakeholders, namely, Juvenile Justice Board, Observation Homes etc., of Warangal district of Telangana state, India. The study shows that there is the overemphasis on procedural laws. The juvenile integration programs are not effective. The administrators lack training. Juveniles lack formal education. The study indicates the incidents of juvenile crimes is on the rise and that the majority of the juvenile delinquents hold a low socio-economic profile. Another significant observation of the study is that the juvenile justice system lacks a holistic and human rights-centric approach.

Keywords: delinquency, human rights, juvenile justice, rehabilitation

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108 Juvenile Justice Reforms for the 21st Century: Promising Approaches in Bangladesh

Authors: Nahid Ferdousi

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Juvenile justice is a key component of the child rights to keep the best interest and completely different from criminal justice. After independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Children Act 1974 and the Children Rules 1976 were considered as the basic law for juvenile justice which written before many international instruments on children’s rights came into existence, did not align with the international mandate set by those instruments. These Acts were not really child rights-based and modern concept such as diversion, restorative justice and community-based rehabilitation has not developed accordingly. In this backdrop, government has enacted the new Children Act 2013 and introduced extensive reforms to the juvenile justice system in Bangladesh. The Act has been adopted with the provisions for child-friendly juvenile courts in each district and different kinds of child-oriented practices in a number of settings, such as, child affairs police officer, probation officer, national child welfare board, diversion, alternative preventive measures on the basis of international principles. Prior to the Act, there had been a number of High Court rulings which considered the international standards for juvenile justice. But the recent reforms to juvenile justice system hail a new commitment to the country’s international obligations to its children and a change in the philosophy guiding the treatment of offender children. This is high time to create an effective juvenile justice system for the 21st century in Bangladesh by the proper implementation of the Children Act 2013. Additionally, the new Children Rules should be enacted and juvenile courts along with correctional institutions should be established in each district in Bangladesh. This study assesses the juvenile justice reforms in Bangladesh over the five decades (1974-2014) and focuses on changes that will improve the system as a whole and enable us to better achieve the ends of fair juvenile justice.

Keywords: Juvenile justice reforms, international obligations, child-oriented practices, commitment of the state

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107 Juvenile Justice System in India: Pre and Post Nirbhaya Case

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Parihar

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Incidents of serious offenses being committed by children are increasing day by day thereby becoming a matter of great concern. The involvement of a 17-year-old boy in the incident that took place on 16th December 2012 (most commonly known as ‘Nirbhaya Case’)wherein a 23-year-old girl was brutally gang-raped and thrown out of the moving bus, took the entire nation by shock. Previously, the legislation dealing with juvenile delinquency in India considered a child to be juvenile if he/she was below the age of 18 years. As a consequence, the accused who was just six months short of attaining the age of 18 years was convicted for only three years. The primary objective of the study is to understand the gravity as to why the need for distinguishing a child and juvenile arose in this time and to what extent legislations are successful in this regard. It initially explains the history and evolution of juvenile legislation in India and the provisions contained in the Indian Constitution. It then goes on to explain the causes of juvenile delinquency in India. Further, the study focuses on the latest trends that have developed in juvenile delinquency, explaining how the Nirbhaya Case led to the amendments made to the Juvenile Justice Act, 2010. Also, it focuses on the Child Rights and Child Protection and the stand taken by the National Human Rights Commission and the international community. An attempt has been made to settle the debate as to whether the juvenile justice system in India is reformative or punitive. The need for amendment in the Juvenile Justice Act is also highlighted. The outcome of the study suggests that the legislation relating to juvenile delinquency have not been able to achieve the desired results. The age determination method in our system has been given paramount importance. The maximum punishment prescribed, even for heinous crimes, is only three years. Also, the reformative style of punishment is not adequate and more emphasis should be laid on penalization. Finally, the author concludes that the legislation has failed at creating a deterrent effect. It is suggested to strengthen the role of government authorities and to sensitize people in this regard to increase community participation. A non-doctrinal and analytical approach has been adopted and secondary sources of data have been relied upon by the author for conducting the research for the study.

Keywords: child, delinquency, juvenile, Nirbhaya case

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106 Juvenile Paget’s Disease(JPD) of Bone

Authors: Aftab Ahmed, Ghulam Mehboob

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The object of presentation is to highlight the importance of condition which is a very rare genetic disorder although Paget’s disease is common but its juvenile type is very rare and a late presentation due to very slow onset and lack of earlier standard management. We present a case of 25 years old male with a chronic history of bone pain and a slow onset of mild swelling, later on diagnosed as juvenile Paget disease of bone. Rarity of this condition with inaccessibility for standard health treatment can lead to a significant delay in presentation and its management. There have been 50 reported cases worldwide according to Genetic Home Reference. There is increased osteoclastic activity along with osteoblastic activity related to gene alteration and osteoprotegrin deficiency. Morbidity of disease is very significant which lead children to become immobilize.

Keywords: juvenile, Paget’s disease, bone, Northern Area of Pakistan

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105 Interdisciplinary Expressive Artistic Activities within Prevention of Crisis Situations and Pathological Strains in Educational Facilities of Juvenile Detention Centres

Authors: Marie Bajnarová

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The core part of the research project is represented by taking a perspective on the role of an educator in Juvenile Institutional Centres. In accordance with the research questions, the research explores impact of the environment, situations, practices, attitudes, values and also experience of the respondents. Art activities minimize risky behaviours and contribute to a healthy lifestyle. They also help children and adolescents with conduct disorders develop positive social behaviour, psychosocial skills and cope with difficult life situations.

Keywords: Juvenile Detention Centres, drawing, conduct disorders, art therapy

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104 The Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility in the Philippines: Balancing International Standards and Domestic Concerns

Authors: Harold P. Pareja

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This paper answers the question whether the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) as amended by Republic Act No. 10630 should be lowered to 15 years of age or not in the light of international standards and domestic concerns both of which will definitely elicit strong views. It also explores the specific provision on the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) and traces the bases of such law by discussing its presented evidences and justifications as reflected in the records of proceedings in the law-making phase. On one hand, the paper discusses the impact of lowering the minimum age to the state of juvenile delinquencies and to the rate of rehabilitation for those CICL who have undergone the DSWD-supervised recovery programs. On the other hand, it presents its impact to the international community specifically to the Committee of the Rights of the Child and the UNICEF considering that the even the current minimum age set in RA 9344 is lower than the international standards. Document review and content analysis are the major research tools. Primary and secondary sources were used as references such as Philippine laws on juvenile justice and from the different states international think-tanks. The absence of reliable evidences on criminal capacity made the arguments in increasing the MACR in the harder position. Studies on criminal capacity vary from different countries and from practitioners in in the fields of psychology, psychiatry and forensics. Juvenile delinquency is mainly contributed by poverty and dysfunctional families. On the other hand, the science of the criminal mind specifically among children has not been established yet. Philippines have the legal obligations to be faithful to the CRC and other related international instruments for the juvenile justice and welfare system. Decreasing MACR does not only send wrong message to the international community but the Philippines is violating its own laws.

Keywords: juvenile justice, minimum age of responsibility (MAR), juvenile justice act of the Philippines, children in conflict with the law, international standards on juvenile justice

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103 Juvenile Delinquency of Senior High School Students in Surabaya, Indonesia

Authors: Herdina Indrijati

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This research aims to describe teenager delinquency behavior (Juvenile Delinquency) of senior high school students in Surabaya, Indonesia. Juvenile Delinquency is a broad range of behaviors start from socially unacceptable behavior (overreact in school), violation (escape from home) to crimes (like stealing). This research uses quantitative descriptive method using 498 students who come from 8 different schools in Surabaya as subjects. Juvenile Delinquency behavior form questionnaire has been completed by subjects and was used to measure and describe the behavior. The result of this research is presented in statistic descriptive forms. Result shows that 169 subjects skip school, 55 subjects get out of home without parent’s permission, 110 subjects engage in smoking behavior, 74 subjects damage other people properties, 32 subjects steal, 16 subjects exploit others and 7 subjects engage in drug abuse. Frequency of the top five mentioned behavior are 1-10 times. It is also found that subject’s peers are most likely to be the victim of Juvenile Delinquency. The reasons teenagers engage in Juvenile Delinquency include (1) feeling tired, bored or lazy – that contributes to their skip school behavior (2) Having a lot of problem with parents - contrives them to run away from home, (3) accidentally damage other people’s properties, (4) financial problems – force them to steal and exploit, (5) feeling like having a lot of life problems – that makes them do drugs (6) trying smoking for experience.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, senior high school, student

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102 Justice and the Juvenile: Changing Trends and Developments

Authors: Shikhar Shrivastava, Varun Khare

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Background: We are confronted by a society that is becoming more complex, more mobile, and more dysfunctional. Teen pregnancy, suicide, elopement, and the perusal of dangerous drugs have become commonplace. In addition, children do not settle their disputes as they once did. Guns and knives are quotidian. Therefore, it has been an exigent to have a "Juvenile Code" that would provide specific substantive and procedural rules for juveniles in the justice system. However, until the twentieth century, there was little difference between how the justice system treated adults and children. Age was considered only in terms of appropriate punishment and juveniles were eligible for the same punishment as adults. Findings: The increased prevalence and legislative support for specialized courts, Juvenile Justice Boards, including juvenile drug, mental health and truancy court programs, as well as diversion programs and evidence-based approaches into the fabric of juvenile justice are just a few examples of recent advances. In India, various measures were taken to prosecute young offenders who committed violent crimes as adults. But it was argued that equating juveniles with adult criminals was neither scientifically correct nor normatively defensible. It would defeat the very purpose of the justice system. Methodology and Conclusion: This paper attempts to bring forth the results of analytical and descriptive research that examined changing trends in juvenile justice legislation. It covers the investigative and inspective practices of police, the various administrative agencies who have roles in implementing the legislation, the courts, and the detention centers. In this paper we shall discuss about how the juvenile justice system is the dumping ground for many of a youths’ problem. The changing notions of justice, from retributive to restorative and rehabilitative shall be discussed. A comparative study of the Juvenile act in India and that of the U.S has been discussed. Specific social institutions and forces that explain juvenile delinquency are identified. In addition, various influences on juvenile delinquency are noted, such as families, schools, peer groups and communities. The text concludes by addressing socialization, deterrence, imprisonments, alternatives, restitution and preventions.

Keywords: juvenile, justice system, retributive, rehabilitative, delinquency

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101 Cross-Cultural Study of Stroop Interference among Juvenile Delinquents

Authors: Tanusree Moitra, Garga Chatterjee, Diganta Mukherjee, Anjali Ghosh

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Stroop task is considered to be an important measure of selective attention. However, the color – word Stroop task cannot be administered to the illiterate population. Some of the participants in the present study are illiterate, therefore, object – color Stroop task was used among male juvenile delinquents of India and Bangladesh citizenship (IC & BC), housed in delinquent home in India. The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that over - selective attention is present among juvenile delinquents across both the countries. Eighty juvenile delinquents and matched control of 12 – 18 years (50 IC juvenile delinquents, 30 BC juvenile delinquents and 50 Indian control) were shown 24 familiar objects in both typical (e.g. a red apple) and atypical (e.g. a blue apple) color. Repeated – measure factorial ANOVA was used and it was found that all the three groups have taken longer response time in the atypical condition compared to the typical condition. However, contrary to the over - selective attention hypothesis, both groups of juvenile delinquents displayed higher Stroop interference in comparison to the matched control group. The findings of the study can be explained on the basis of anxiety score. IC and BC juvenile delinquents have high anxiety score compared to the control group which indicates that increased anxiety is correlated with the interference produced by the atypical color object stimuli when compared with the typical object stimuli. Funding acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for financial support to the first author of the paper vide Reference no. SR/CSRI/PDF -01/2013 under Cognitive Science Research Initiative (CSRI) to carry out this work.

Keywords: Bangladesh, India, male juvenile delinquent, objects - color Stroop task

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100 Parental and Peer Influences on Juvenile Delinquency: Case Studies in Malaysia

Authors: Tan Bee Piang

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The family is always seen as the most important agent of socialization, therefore, abusive parents and broken family have often been highlighted as two main factors contributing to juvenile delinquency. However, several studies have indicated that the peer group is one of the most powerful socialization agents in adolescent development, the influences of family are insignificant after peer influences are taken. This study aimed to investigate the relative influence of parents and peers on juvenile delinquency in Malaysia. Malaysia is a multicultural society, so different types of traditional values and religions permeate all aspects of Malaysian society, and the influences of family and parents are always seen as the most important agents of socialization. 80 juveniles from a reform school in Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study. Based on the experiences of juveniles in this study, it found that peer groups play an important role when the adolescents try to create their own identities. Adolescents merely make friends with those who have similar life experiences, so adolescents are easily influenced by their friends and the juvenile delinquency is mostly group behavior. This research found that there is no significant relationship between family factors and delinquency. The data shows that a significant percentage of juveniles come from middle-class family and most of them are not from broken family. However, most of them have strained family relationship. This research suggests that we should take a look into other causes, like peer influence, of juvenile delinquency in Malaysia.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, peer influence, group behaviour, family relationship

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99 Who Killed Kalief? Examining the Effects of Solitary Confinement on Juvenile Detainees in the United States

Authors: Esther Baldwin

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It is well settled that the use of solitary confinement can cause psychological and physical harm to detainees. For juveniles, who are more susceptible to irreparable harm due to their underdeveloped psyches, the risks are exacerbated. Despite these risks, across the United States juvenile detainees are regularly held in isolation for prolonged periods of time. This essay will examine the broad impact of solitary confinement on juvenile detainees while giving particular focus to the story of Kalief Browder, a juvenile awaiting trial on Rikers Island in New York for a period of three years, nearly two years of which were spent in solitary confinement. Although sadly, his story is not uncommon, Kalief’s story offers a unique perspective in that it provides first-hand insight on the effects of solitary confinement on juveniles. It is our hope that by sharing his story, we will demand better detention practices and policies for juveniles under correctional control in the United States.

Keywords: criminal justice system, juveniles, Kalief browder, solitary confinement

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98 Participation of Juvenile with Driven of Tobacco Control in Education Institute: Case Study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

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This paper studied the participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in education institute: case study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University is qualitative research has objective to study participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in University, as guidance of development participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in education institute the university is also free-cigarette university. There are qualitative researches on collection data of participation observation, in-depth interview of group conversation and agent of student in each faculty and college and exchange opinion of student. Result of study found that participation in tobacco control has 3 parts; 1) Participation in campaign of tobacco control, 2) Academic training and activity of free-cigarette of university and 3) As model of juvenile in tobacco control. For guidelines on youth involvement in driven tobacco control is universities should promote tobacco control activities. Reduce smoking campaign continues include a specific area for smokers has living room as sign clearly, staying in the faculty / college and developing network of model students who are non-smoking. This is a key role in the coordination of university students driving to the free cigarette university. Including the strengthening of community in the area and outside the area as good social and quality of country.

Keywords: participation, juvenile, tobacco control, institute

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97 The Causes and Effects of Delinquent Behaviour among Students in Juvenile Home: A Case Study of Osun State

Authors: Baleeqs, O. Adegoke, Adeola, O. Aburime

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Juvenile delinquency is fast becoming one of the largest problems facing many societies due to many different factors ranging from parental factors to bullying at schools all which had led to different theoretical notions by different scholars. Delinquency is an illegal or immoral behaviour, especially by the young person who behaves in a way that is illegal or that society does not approve of. The purpose of the study was to investigate causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun State. A descriptive survey research type was employed. The random sampling technique was used to select 100 adolescents in Juvenile home in Osun State. Questionnaires were developed and given to them. The data collected from this study were analyzed using frequency counts and percentage for the demographic data in section A, while the two research hypotheses postulated for this study were tested using t-test statistics at the significance level of 0.05. Findings revealed that the greatest school effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun by respondents were their aggressive behaviours. Findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun State. It was also revealed that there was no significant difference in the causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among secondary school students in Osun based on gender. These recommendations were made in order to address the findings of this study: More number of teachers should be appointed in the observation home so that it will be possible to provide teaching to the different age group of delinquents. Developing the infrastructure facilities of short stay homes and observation home is a top priority. Proper counseling session’s interval is highly essential for these juveniles.

Keywords: behaviour, delinquency, juvenile, random sampling, statistical techniques, survey

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96 Criminal Responsibility of Minors in Russia: The Age of Liability and Penalties

Authors: Natalia Selezneva

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The level of crime depends on a number of factors, such as political and economic instability, social inequality and ineffective legislation. A special place in the overall level of crime takes juvenile delinquency. United Nations Standard Minimum developed rules for the administration of juvenile justice (The Beijing Rules), in order to ensure the rights of juvenile offenders under the various legal systems. Most countries support these recommendations, and Russia is no exception. Russia's criminal code establishes the minimum age of criminal liability; types of crimes for which the possible involvement of minors to justice; punishment; sentencing and execution of punishment for minors. However, these provisions cause heated debates in the scientific literature. The high level of juvenile crime indicates the ineffectiveness of legal regulation of criminal liability of minors. In order to ensure compliance with international standards require new and modern approaches to improve national legislation and practice of its application. Achieving this goal will be achieved through the following tasks: 1. Create sub-branches of law regulating the legal status of minors; 2. Improving the types of penalties; 3. The possibility of using alternative measures; 4. The introduction of the procedure of extrajudicial settlement of the conflict. The criminal law of each country depends on the historical, national and cultural characteristics. The development of the Russian legislation taking into account international experience is extremely essential and will be a new stage in the formation of a legal state, especially in the sphere of protection of the rights of juvenile offenders.

Keywords: criminal law, juvenile offender, punishment, the age of criminal responsibility

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95 Juvenile Justice in Maryland: The Evidence Based Approach to Youth with History of Victimization and Trauma

Authors: Gabriela Wasileski, Debra L. Stanley

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Maryland efforts to decrease the juvenile criminality and recidivism shifts towards evidence based sentencing. While in theory the evidence based sentencing has an impact on the reduction of juvenile delinquency and drug abuse; the assessment of juveniles’ risk and needs usually lacks crucial information about juvenile’s prior victimization. The Maryland Comprehensive Assessment and Service Planning (MCASP) Initiative is the primary tool for developing and delivering a treatment service plan for juveniles at risk. Even though it consists of evidence-based screening and assessment instruments very little is currently known regarding the effectiveness and the impact of the assessment in general. In keeping with Maryland’s priority to develop successful evidence-based recidivism reduction programs, this study examined results of assessments based on MCASP using a representative sample of the juveniles at risk and their assessment results. Specifically, it examined: (1) the results of the assessments in an electronic database (2) areas of need that are more frequent among delinquent youth in a system/agency, (3) the overall progress of youth in an agency’s care (4) the impact of child victimization and trauma experiences reported in the assessment. The project will identify challenges regarding the use of MCASP in Maryland, and will provide a knowledge base to support future research and practices.

Keywords: Juvenile Justice, assessment of risk and need, victimization and crime, recidivism

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94 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Juvenile Justice in Rehabilitating the Youth in South Africa

Authors: Leah Gwatimba, Nanga Raymond Raselekoane

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The incidences of youth who engage in unlawful or criminal activities are of great concern for the criminal justice system and government in South Africa. In terms of the juvenile justice system in South Africa, under-age youth who have been found guilty and sentenced to serve a jail term cannot be sent to the same detention facility as adults. The juvenile justice system is meant to protect young offenders from physical, emotional and mental exploitation by adult prisoners. Under-age young offenders should be assisted and exposed to educational, entrepreneurial and behavioral programmes that can equip them with the much needed skills that will turn them into law-abiding and economically productive citizens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the justice system in South Africa in the rehabilitation young offenders. A qualitative method was used. The study used the non-probability purposive sampling to select the respondents. In-depth interviews, focus groups, observation and thematic coding were used to collect and analyse the data respectively. The study population consisted of social workers and offending youth. The sample comprised of 16 respondents (i.e. 4 social workers and twelve offending youth (6 males and 6 females). The study indicated that there is worrying recurrence of the anti-social behavior by some of the young offenders. According to this study, the effectiveness of the juvenile justice system in the rehabilitation of the offending youth can be achieved by paying serious attention to follow-up services, participation of families of the offending youth in the diversion programmes and by improving the socio-economic conditions in the homes and communities of the offending youth.

Keywords: juvenile delinquent, juvenile justice system, diversion programmes, rehabilitation, restorative justice

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93 Where the Girls Are: Gender Trends in Juvenile Crime

Authors: Revital Sela-Shayovitz

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There is growing evidence that female rates of criminal nonlethal violent offending have increased during the 1990s. However, the debate regarding whether the gender gap in violence is closing is ongoing. This paper examines the trends in juvenile violent offending in Israel between the years 1996 and 2012. The findings indicate that female-to-male offending rate ratios have increased over time for simple assaults, aggravated assault, and knife crime. Moreover, the closing of the gender gap among youth (ages 12 to 14 years), principally results from the increase in female rates of offending, which is greater than the rise in male rates of offending. These findings are discussed in the context of existing research on the gender gap in the perpetration of violence with reference to future directions in research.

Keywords: gender violence, youth violence, crime rates, juvenile delinquency, crime policy

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92 Understanding Staff Beliefs and Attitudes about Implementation of Restorative Justice Practices for Juvenile Justice Involved Youth

Authors: Lilian Ijomah

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Restorative justice practices continue to gain recognition globally in the criminal and juvenile justice systems and schools. Despite considerable research, little is known about how juvenile detention center staff members’ knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes affect implementation. As with many interventions, effective implementation relies on the staff members who must do the daily work. This phenomenological study aimed to add to the existing literature by examining staff knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on restorative justice practices, barriers to effective implementation, and potential differences in knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes between education staff and juvenile detention officers at the research site. The present study used semi-structured interviews and focus groups of both types of staff members who work with the youth in a juvenile justice facility to answer three research questions: (1) To what extent are staff members knowledgeable about the principles behind restorative approach to discipline and about how the approach should be carried out?; (2) What are staff member beliefs and attitudes toward the restorative justice program and its implementation in a juvenile justice setting?; and (3) What similarities and differences are there between (a) knowledge and (b) beliefs and attitudes of the educators and juvenile detention officers? A total of 28 staff members participated, nine educators, and 19 detention officers. The findings for the first research question indicated that both groups (educators and juvenile detention officers) were knowledgeable about two of the three principles of restorative justice: repairing the harm done by the offender and reducing risks for future occurrence; but did not show clear knowledge of one principle, active involvement from all stakeholders. For research question 2, staff beliefs and attitudes were categorized into two types, positive beliefs and attitudes (e.g., that restorative justice is more appropriate than the use of punitive measures) and negative beliefs and attitudes (e.g., that restorative justice is ‘just another program that creates extra work for staff’). When the two staff groups were compared to answer research question 3, both groups were found to have similar knowledge (showing knowledge of two of the three principles) and somewhat different beliefs and attitudes – both groups showed a mix of positive and negative, but the educators showed somewhat more on the positive side. Both groups also identified barriers to implementation such as the perception of restorative justice as ‘soft’, lack of knowledge and exposure to restorative justice, shortage of resources and staff, and difficulty sustaining the restorative justice approach. The findings of this study are largely consistent with current literature but also extend the literature by studying staff knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in a juvenile detention center and comparing the two staff groups. Recommendations include assessing staff knowledge and attitudes toward restorative justice during the hiring process, ensuring adequate staff training, communicating clearly to build positive attitudes and beliefs, providing adequate staffing, and building a sense of community.

Keywords: juvenile justice, restorative justice, restorative practices, staff attitudes and beliefs

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91 Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in Juvenile Institutions

Authors: Nazirah Hassan, Andrew Kendrick

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This study investigates the prevalence of perpetration behavior and victimization in juvenile correctional institutions. It investigates the dimensions of institutional environments and explores which environmental features relate to perpetration behaviors. The project focused on two hundred and eighty nine male and female young offenders aged 12 to 21 years old, in eight juvenile institutions in Malaysia. The research collected quantitative and qualitative data using a mixed-method approach. All participants completed the scale version of Direct and Indirect Prisoner behavior Checklist (DIPC-SCALED) and the Measuring the Quality of Prison life (MQPL). In addition, twenty-four interviews were carried out which involved sixteen residents and eight institutional staff. The findings showed that 95 per cent reported at least one behavior indicative of perpetration, and 99 per cent reported at least one behavior indicative of victimization in the past month. The DIPC-SCALED scored significantly higher on the verbal sub-scale. In addition, factors such as harmony, staff professionalism, security, family and wellbeing showed significant relation to the perpetration behavior. In the interviews, the residents identified circumstances, which affected their behavior within the institutions. This reflected the choices and decisions about how to confront the institutional life. These findings are discussed in terms of existing literature and their practical implications are considered.

Keywords: juvenile institutions, incarcerated offenders, perpetration, victimization

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90 Role of Social Workers in Juvenile Justice Board as a Child Protection Mechanism for Children in Conflict with Law

Authors: Ida D. Souza, Lena Ashok

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Every child has a fundamental right to be protected and it is only a safe, supported child who can effectively cope with difficult circumstances and lead a happy childhood. The vulnerability of children has increased due to emerging lifestyles, raising cost of living, higher expectations from adults, parental and care-giver stress /burn-out and a general raise in demand for services for children. A major area of concern is the rise of juvenile crimes in the overall crimes committed in the country. The UNCRC 1989 and JJ Act 2000 enables the structures to handle the juvenile children in care and concern in its real terms. One of the mechanisms to protect the children is the JJB a justice system. The aim is to hold a child culpable (guilty) for offence they committed, not through punishment, but counseling the child to understand their actions and persuade them away from such deviated activities in the future. The JJB consists of two social workers and a judicial magistrate and one of whom should be a woman. This study aims at understanding the role of social workers in best practices in deciding the best course of action for the rehabilitation of the child. Two case studies were carried out through in-depth interviews with the social worker member of the JJB of two Udupi and Mangalore districts. The best practices reported in which children are being allowed to express themselves in a child friendly environment and in the best interest of the child. The study highlighted team work to be very effective in understanding the child in their reformation.

Keywords: child protection, best practices, juvenile justice, reformation teamwork

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89 The Neuroscience Dimension of Juvenile Law Effectuates a Comprehensive Treatment of Youth in the Criminal System

Authors: Khushboo Shah

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Categorical bans on the death penalty and life-without-parole sentences for juvenile offenders in a growing number of countries have established a new era in juvenile jurisprudence. This has been brought about by integration of the growing knowledge in cognitive neuroscience and appreciation of the inherent differences between adults and adolescents over the last ten years. This evolving understanding of being a child in the criminal system can be aptly reflected through policies that incorporate the mitigating traits of youth. First, the presentation will delineate the structures in cognitive neuroscience and in particular, focus on the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the basal ganglia. These key anatomical structures in the brain are linked to three mitigating adolescent traits—an underdeveloped sense of responsibility, an increased vulnerability to negative influences, and transitory personality traits—that establish why juveniles have a lessened culpability. The discussion will delve into the details depicting how an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex results in the heightened emotional angst, high-energy and risky behavior characteristic of the adolescent time period or how the amygdala, the emotional center of the brain, governs different emotional expression resulting in why teens are susceptible to negative influences. Based on this greater understanding, it is incumbent that policies adequately reflect the adolescent physiology and psychology in the criminal system. However, it is important to ensure that these views are appropriately weighted while considering the jurisprudence for the treatment of children in the law. To ensure this balance is appropriately stricken, policies must incorporate the distinctive traits of youth in sentencing and legal considerations and yet refrain from the potential fallacies of absolving a juvenile offender of guilt and culpability. Accordingly, three policies will demonstrate how these results can be achieved: (1) eliminate housing of juvenile offenders in the adult prison system, (2) mandate fitness hearings for all transfers of juveniles to adult criminal court, and (3) use the post-disposition review as a type of rehabilitation method for juvenile offenders. Ultimately, this interdisciplinary approach of science and law allows for a better understanding of adolescent psychological and social functioning and can effectuate better legal outcomes for juveniles tried as adults.

Keywords: criminal law, Juvenile Justice, interdisciplinary, neuroscience

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88 Constitutional Transition and Criminal Justice: Proposals for Reform of Kenya’s Youth Justice System Based on Restorative Justice Principles

Authors: M. Wangai

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Following the promulgation of a new Constitution of Kenya in 2010, wide-ranging proposals for reform of the criminal justice system have been made. Proposed measures include a clear and separate system of dealing with juvenile offenders with a greater focus on rehabilitation and reintegration. As part of a broader constitutional transition, this article considers the contribution of restorative justice to reforming the youth justice system. The paper analyses Kenya’s juvenile justice legal framework measured against current international trends in youth justice. It identifies the first post-independence juvenile justice system as a remnant of the colonial period and notes that the post-2001 system is a marked improvement. More recent legal and institutional efforts to incorporate restorative justice are also examined. The paper advocates further development of the juvenile justice system by mainstreaming of restorative justice principles through national level legislative amendments. International and comparative perspectives are used to inform a diversion centered model of restorative justice. In addition, a case is made for the use of existing forms of alternative dispute resolution. Conscious of a tense political climate, the paper also proposes strategies to address challenges posed by a punitive penal environment, chiefly the linking of restorative justice to wider democratic goals and community spirit. The article concludes that restorative justice led juvenile justice reform will contribute to better treatment of young offenders under the criminal justice system and has the potential to set a new precedent for fair, sustainable and effective justice. Further, as part of far-reaching criminal justice reform, the proposed efforts may strengthen democratic progress in Kenya’s ensuing phase of political transition.

Keywords: constitutional transition, criminal justice, restorative justice, young offenders

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87 Neuropsychological Disabilities in Executive Functions and Visuospatial Skills of Juvenile Offenders in a Half-Open Program in Santiago De Chile

Authors: Gabriel Sepulveda Navarro

Abstract:

Traditional interventions for young offenders are necessary but not sufficient to tackle the multiple causes of juvenile crime. For instance, interventions offered to young offenders often are verbally mediated and dialogue based, requiring important metacognitive abilities as well as abstract thinking, assuming average performance in a wide variety of skills. It seems necessary to assess a broader set of abilities and functions in order to increase the efficiency of interventions while addressing offending. In order to clarify these assumptions, Stroop Test, as well as Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test were applied to juvenile offenders tried and sentenced for violent crimes in Santiago de Chile. A random sample was drawn from La Cisterna Half-Open Program, consisting of 50 young males between 18 and 24 years old, residing in different districts of Santiago de Chile. The analysis of results suggests a disproportionately elevated incidence of impairments in executive functions and visuospatial skills. As an outcome, over 40% of the sample shows a significant low performance in both assessments, exceeding four times the same prevalence rates among young people in the general population. While executive functions entail working memory (being able to keep information and use it in some way), cognitive flexibility (to think about something in more than one way) and inhibitory control (being able to self-control, ignore distractions and delay immediate gratification), visuospatial skills permit to orientate and organize a planned conduct. All of these abilities are fundamental to the skill of avoiding violent behaviour and abiding by social rules. Understanding the relevance of neurodevelopmental impairments in the onset of violent and criminal behaviour, as well as recidivism, eventually may guide the deployment of a more comprehensive assessment and treatment for juvenile offenders.

Keywords: executive functions, half-open program, juvenile offenders, neurodisabilities, visuospatial skills

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86 Voices from Inside and the Power of Art to Transform and Restore

Authors: Karen Miner-Romanoff

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Few art programs for incarcerated juveniles exist; however, evaluation results indicate decreased recidivism and behavior problems. This paper reports on an on-going study of a promising art program for incarcerated adolescents with community exhibits and charitable sale of their work. Voices from Inside, a partnership between Franklin University and the Ohio Department of Youth Services, sponsored three exhibits in 2012, 2013, and 2014. In 2013, youth exhibitor survey results (response rate 47%, 16 of 34) showed that 81% cited as benefits cooperation with others, task completion, and increased self-esteem from public recognition and art sales. Community attendee survey results (response rate 29.5%, 59 of 200) showed positive attitude changes toward juvenile offenders, from 40% to 53%. Qualitative responses were similarly positive. The 2014 youth exhibitor sample was larger (response rate 58%, 29 of 50) and showed that 93% cited positive benefits including increase in self-esteem, decrease in stress, pride or recognition of the ability to reach a goal from completing, exhibiting and selling their art to benefit a charity for at-risk youth. This year, the research was able to conduct ten one-on-one interviews inside of the youth facilities, and qualitative responses were even more positive with one youth explaining, “This art represents my joy, my tears, my pain and my hope.” Community attendee survey results (response rate 50%, 86 of 170) were transformative in that that they indicated significant impression on attitudes toward juvenile offenders and their rehabilitative needs with one attendee stating that the event had an, “Immense impact for me bringing into focus the humanity and value these youth still have for us and society.” Future research indicates a need for a correlation study to determine the extent to which these art programs reduce behavioral incidents inside of the facility and long-term reduction in reoffending rates. Generally, further study of juvenile offenders’ art for rehabilitation and restorative justice, the power of art to transform, and university-community partnerships implementing art programs for juvenile offenders should continue.

Keywords: art, juvenile, incarcerated, restorative justice

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85 Intestinal Epithelium of Juvenile Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) Fed with Bovine Colostrum

Authors: Thaline Maira P. Cruz, Debora B. Moretti, Wiolene M. Nordi, José Eurico P. Cyrino, Raul Machado-Neto

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) used as partial source of dietary protein on the histological characteristics of the intestinal epithelium of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis). Juveniles were fed with diets containing 0, 10 or 20% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. For the histological study, the intestine was divided into three segments, S1, S2 and posterior intestine. In the S1 segment, interaction between treatment and period was observed in the number of goblet cells containing sialomucin, effect of treatment in the total number of goblet cells and effect of period in the number of goblet cells containing sulphomucins (P<0.05). In the S2 segment, effect of period was observed in the number of goblet cells containing acid, neutral and total mucins, sialomucins and Vv (P<0.05). In the posterior intestine, effect of period was observed in the thickness of muscle layer and number of goblet cells containing sialomucins and sulphomucins (P<0.05). Considering the aspects studied, the presence of lyophilized bovine colostrum in the diet did not significantly influence the enteric histological characteristics of juvenile dourado during the period of the study.

Keywords: carnivorous fish, goblet cells, mucins, teleost

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84 An Assessment of the Risk and Protective Factors Impacting Criminal Gang Involvement among At-Risk Boys Resident at a Juvenile Home in Trinidad and Tobago: The Peer/Individual Domain of the Risk Factor Prevention ParadIGM

Authors: Dianne Williams

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This study examined the peer/individual domain of the Risk Factor Prevention Paradigm (RFPP) to assess the risk and protective factors that impact criminal gang involvement among at-risk males residing in a juvenile home in Trinidad and Tobago. The RFPP allows for the identification of both risk and protective factors in a single, holistic framework to identify the relationship between risk factors, protective factors, and criminal gang involvement among at-risk male adolescents. Findings showed that having anti-social peers was the most significant risk factor associated with criminal gang involvement, while the most significant protective factor was having a positive social attitude. Moreover, while 65% of the boys reported never having been in a gang, 70% reported having hit, struck or used a weapon against someone, while 52% reported being involved in other violent incidents on more than two occasions. This suggests that while involvement with criminal gangs may not be common among this population, predisposing behavioral patterns are present. Results are expected to assist in the development of targeted strategies to reduce the attractiveness of gang membership.

Keywords: risk factor prevention paradigm, risk factors, protective factors, peer/individual domain, gang involvement, at-risk youth, trinidad and tobago, juvenile home

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83 Analysis of a Movie about Juvenile Delinquency

Authors: Guliz Kolburan

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Juvenile delinquency studies has a special place and importance in criminality researches. Young adolescents, have not reached psychological, mental and physical maturity, and they cannot understand their roles and duties in society. In this case, if such an adolescent turns into a crime machine as a gang leader, he has the least responsibility of this result. All institutions, like family, school, community and the state as a whole have duties and responsibilities in this regard. While planning the studies about prevention of juvenile delinquency, all institutions related with the development of the children, should be involved in the center of the study. So that effective goals for prevention studies can be determined only in this way. Most of youth who commit homicide feel no attachment to anybody or society except for themselves. Children who committed homicide generally developed defense mechanisms about their guilt, sadness, fear and anger. For this reason, treatment of these children should be based on the awareness of these feelings and copying with them. In the movie, events making the youth realize his own feelings and responsibilities were studied from a theoretical perspective. In this study, some of the dialogs and the scenes in the movie were analyzed and the factors cause the young gang leader to be drawn to crime were evaluated in terms of the science of psychology. The aim of this study is to analyze the process of the youth to being drawn into criminal behavior in terms of social and emotional developmental phases in a theoretical perspective via the movie produced in 2005 (94. Min.). The method of this study is discourse analysis.

Keywords: crime, child, evaluation (development), psychology

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82 Effects of Feeding Time on Survival Rates, Growth Performance and Feeding Behavior of Juvenile Catfish

Authors: Abdullahi Ibrahim

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The culture of Clarias gariepinus for fish production is becoming increasingly essential as the fish is contributing to the food abundance and nutritional benefit to family health, income generation, and employment opportunities. The effect of feeding frequency was investigated over a period of ten (10) weeks; the experiment was conducted to monitor survival rates, growth performance, and feeding behavior of juvenile catfish. The experimental fish were randomly assigned to five treatment groups; (i.e., with different feeding frequency intervals) of 100 fish each. Each treatment was replicated twice with 50 fish per replicate. All the groups were fed with floating fish feed (blue crown®). The five treatments (feeding frequency) were T1- once a day feeding of night hours only, T2- twice a day feeding time of morning and night hours, T3- trice a day feeding time of morning, evening and night hours, T-4 four times a day feeding of morning, afternoon, evening, and night hours, T-5 five times a day feeding at four hours interval. There were significant differences (p > 0.05) among treatments. Feed intake and weight gain improved significantly (p < 0.05) in T-4 and T-3. The best of the feeding time on weight gain, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio were obtained at three times a day feeding (T-3) compared to other treatments, especially those fed once and five times feeding a regiment. This might be attributed to the high level of dissolve oxygen and less stress. Feeding fish three times a day is therefore recommended for efficient catfish production to maximize profits as the feed represents more than 50% of aquaculture inputs, particularly in intensive farming systems.

Keywords: catfish, floating fish feed, dissolve oxygen, juvenile

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81 Conceptualizing Psycho-Social Intervention with Juvenile Offenders as Attachment Therapy: A Practical Approach

Authors: Genziana Lay

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A wide majority of older children and adolescents who enter the juvenile court system present with an array of problematic symptoms and behaviors including anxiety, depression, aggressive acting out, detachment, and substance abuse. Attachment theory offers a framework for understanding normative and pathological functioning, which during development is influenced by emotional, social and cognitive elements. There is clear evidence that children and adolescents with the highest risk of developing adaptation problems present an insecure attachment profile. Most offending minors have experienced dysfunctional family relationships as well as social and/or economic deprivation. Their maladaptive attachment develops not only through their relationship with caregivers but with the environment at large. Activation of their faulty attachment system leads them to feel emotionally overwhelmed and engage in destructive behaviors and decision-making. A psycho-social intervention with this population conceptualized as attachment therapy is a multi-faceted, practical approach that has shown excellent results in terms of increased psychological well-being and drastically reduced rates of re-offense/ destructive behavior. Through several; components including psychotherapy, monitoring, volunteering, meditation and socialization, the program focuses on seven dimensions: self-efficacy, responsibility, empathy/reparation, autonomy/security, containment/structure, insight building, and relational health. This paper presents the program and illustrates how the framework of attachment theory practically applied to psycho-social intervention has great therapeutic and social reparation potential. Preliminary evidence drawn from the Sassari Juvenile Court is very promising; this paper will illustrate these results and propose an even more comprehensive, applicable approach to psycho-social reparative intervention that leads to greater psychological health and reduced recidivism in the child and adolescent population.

Keywords: attachment, child, adolescent, crime, juvenile, psychosocial

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