Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Ulva linza zoospores

16 Construction and Cross-Linking of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Based on Polysaccharides as Antifouling Coatings

Authors: Wenfa Yu, Thuva Gnanasampanthan, John Finlay, Jessica Clarke, Charlotte Anderson, Tony Clare, Axel Rosenhahn

Abstract:

Marine biofouling is a worldwide problem at vast economic and ecological costs. Historically it was combated with toxic coatings such as tributyltin. As those coatings being banned nowadays, finding environmental friendly antifouling solution has become an urgent topic. In this study antifouling coatings consisted of natural occurring polysaccharides hyaluronic acid (HA), alginic acid (AA), chitosan (Ch) and polyelectrolyte polyethylenimine (PEI) are constructed into polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) in a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) method. LbL PEM construction is a straightforward way to assemble biomacromolecular coatings on surfaces. Advantages about PEM include ease of handling, highly diverse PEM composition, precise control over the thickness and so on. PEMs have been widely employed in medical application and there are numerous studies regarding their protein adsorption, elasticity and cell adhesive properties. With the adjustment of coating composition, termination layer charge, coating morphology and cross-linking method, it is possible to prepare low marine biofouling coatings with PEMs. In this study, using spin coating technology, PEM construction was achieved at smooth multilayers with roughness as low as 2nm rms and highly reproducible thickness around 50nm. To obtain stability in sea water, the multilayers were covalently cross-linked either thermally or chemically. The cross-linking method affected surface energy, which was reflected in water contact angle, thermal cross-linking led to hydrophobic surfaces and chemical cross-linking generated hydrophilic surfaces. The coatings were then evaluated regarding its protein resistance and biological species resistance. While the hydrophobic thermally cross-linked PEM had low resistance towards proteins, the resistance of chemically cross-linked PEM strongly depended on the PEM termination layer and the charge of the protein, opposite charge caused high adsorption and same charge low adsorption, indicating electrostatic interaction plays a crucial role in the protein adsorption processes. Ulva linza was chosen as the biological species for antifouling performance evaluation. Despite of the poor resistance towards protein adsorption, thermally cross-linked PEM showed good resistance against Ulva spores settlement, the chemically cross-linked multilayers showed poor resistance regardless of the termination layer. Marine species adhesion is a complex process, although it involves proteins as bioadhesives, protein resistance its own is not a fully indicator for its antifouling performance. The species will pre select the surface, responding to cues like surface energy, chemistry, or charge and so on. Thus making it difficult for one single factors to determine its antifouling performance. Preparing PEM coating is a comprehensive work involving choosing polyelectrolyte combination, determining termination layer and the method for cross-linking. These decisions will affect PEM properties such as surface energy, charge, which is crucial, since biofouling is a process responding to surface properties in a highly sensitive and dynamic way.

Keywords: hyaluronic acid, polyelectrolyte multilayers, protein resistance, Ulva linza zoospores

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15 Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Growth of Ulva Pertusa Kjellman Seedling

Authors: HengJiang Cai, RuiJin Zhang, JinSong Gui

Abstract:

Enhanced UV-B (280-320nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion was one of the global environmental problems. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on marine macro-algae were exposed to be the greatest in shallow intertidal environments because the macro-alga was often at or above the water during low tide. Ulva pertusa Kjellman was belonged to Chlorophyta (Phylum), Ulvales (Order), Ulvaceae (Family) which was widely distributed in the western Pacific coast, and the resources were extremely rich in China. Therefore, the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling were studied in this research. Ulva pertusa seedling appearances were mainly characterized by rod shapes and tadpole shapes. The percentage of rod shapes was 90.68%±2.50%. UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling, and the growth inhibition was more significant with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. The relative inhibition rates of Ulva pertusa seedling length were16.11%, 24.98%and 39.04% respectively on the 30th day at different doses (30.96, 61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1) of UV-B radiation. Ulva pertusa seedling had emerged death under UV-B radiation, and the death rates were increased with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. Physiology and biochemistry of Ulva pertusa seedling could be affected by UV-B radiation treatment. The SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was increased at low-dose UV-B radiation (30.96 Jm-2d-1), while was decreased at high-dose UV-B radiation (61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1). UV-B radiation could inhibit CAT (catalase) activity all the while. It speculated that the reasons for growth inhibition and death of Ulva pertusa seedling were excess ROS (reactive oxygen species), which produced by UV-B radiation.

Keywords: growth, physiology and biochemistry, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, UV-B radiation

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14 Growth Response and Nutrient Utilization of African Mud Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Fed Processed Macroalgae and Macroalgae-Based Formulated Feeds

Authors: A. O Amosu, A. M Hammed, G. W. Maneveldt, D. V. Robertson-Andersson

Abstract:

In aquaculture, feed utilization is an important factor affecting growth of the target species, and thus the success of the aquaculture operation. Growth of C. gariepinus fingerlings (weight 1.60 ± 0.05 g; length 4.50 ± 0.07cm) was monitored in a closed door hatchery for a period of 21 days in an experiment consisting of 4 treatments stocked at 20 fish/10 litre tanks, fed in triplicate twice daily (08:30, 17:30) at 4% body weight with weight changes recorded every 3 days. Treatments were: 1) FeedX; 2) 35% crude protein diet + non enriched Ulva spp (11.18% crude protein) (CD + NEU); 3) 35% crude protein diet + enriched Ulva spp (11.98% crude protein)(CD +EU) and 4) control diet of 35% crude protein (CD). The production of Ulva spp. biomass was cultivated for a period of 3 months. The result shows that the fish fed macroalgal enriched diet had good growth, though no significant difference (p > 0.05) was recorded amongst the weight gain, %weight gain, specific growth rates and nitrogen metabolism of diets CD + NEU, CD + EU and CD. Significant differences (p < 0.05), were, however, found in the food conversion ratio (FCR) and gross food conversion ratio (gFCR) among the fingerlings across all the different experimental diets. The best FCRs were recorded for control diet (0.79 ± 2.39) and the Ulva enriched (1.75 ± 1.34) diets. The results suggest that the fingerlings were able to utilize Ulva supplemented with control diet better than the FeedX. We have shown that Ulva supplemented diets are good substitutes for formulated and commercial feeds, with potential to be successful fish feed in aquaculture systems.

Keywords: aquaculture, clarias gariepinus, growth, macroalgae, nutrient, ulva

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13 Studies on Bioaccumulation of 51Cr by Ulva sp. and Ruppia maritima

Authors: Clarissa L. de Araujo, Kátia N. Suzuki, Wilson T. V. Machado, Luis F. Bellido, Alfredo V.B. Bellido

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This study aims at contributing to the characterization of the process of biological incorporation of chromium by two benthonic species, the macroalgae Ulva sp. and the aquatic macrophyte Ruppia maritima, to subsidize future activities of monitoring the contamination of aquatic biota. This study is based on laboratory experiments to characterize the incorporation kinetics of the radiotracer 51Cr in two oxidation states (III and VI), under different salinities (7, 15, and 21 ‰). Samples of two benthonic species were collected on the margins of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acclimated in the laboratory and subsequently subjected to experiments. In tests with 51Cr (III and IV), it was observed that accumulation of the metal in Ulva sp. has inverse relationship with salinity, while for R. maritima, the maximum accumulation occurs in salinity 21‰. In experiments with Cr(III), increases in the uptake of ion by both species were verified. The activity of Cr(III) was up to 19 times greater than the Cr(VI). As regards the potential for accumulation of metals, a better sensitivity of Ulva sp. for any chromium tri or hexavalent forms was verified, while for the Cr(VI) it will require low salinities and longer exposure (>24h). For R. maritima, the results showed the uptake of Cr(VI) increase along with time (>20h), because this species is more resistant for the hexavalent form and useful for any salinity as well.

Keywords: chromium, Cr-51, macroalgae, macrophyte, uptake

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12 Bioremoval of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae: Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanistic Study

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian

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This study reports the removal of Malachite Green (MG) from simulated wastewater by using marine macro algae Ulva lactuca. Batch biosorption experiments were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity. The biosorption capacity was found to be maximum at pH 10. The effect of various other operation parameters such as biosorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and agitation was also investigated. The equilibrium attained at 120 min with 0.1 g/L of biosorbent. The isotherm experimental data fitted well with Langmuir Model with R² value of 0.994. The maximum Langmuir biosorption capacity was found to be 76.92 mg/g. Further, Langmuir separation factor RL value was found to be 0.004. Therefore, the adsorption is favorable. The biosorption kinetics of MG was found to follow pseudo second-order kinetic model. The mechanistic study revealed that the biosorption of malachite onto Ulva lactuca was controlled by film diffusion. The solute transfer in a solid-liquid adsorption process is characterized by the film diffusion and/or particle diffusion. Thermodynamic study shows ΔG° is negative indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature for the biosorption of malachite green. The biosorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (CHNS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphur). This study showed that Ulva lactuca can be used as promising biosorbent for the removal of MG from wastewater.

Keywords: biosorption, Ulva lactuca, wastewater, malachite green, isotherm, kinetics

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11 Potential of Macroalgae Ulva lactuca for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Fruitfly Food

Authors: Shuang Qiu, Lingfeng Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

Macroalgae are considered a promising approach for wastewater treatment as well as an alternative animal feed in addition to a biofuel feedstock. Their large size and/or tendency to grow as dense floating mats or substrate-attached turfs lead to lower separation and drying costs than microalgae. In this study, the macroalgae species Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) were used to investigate their capacity for treating municipal wastewaters, and the feasibility of using the harvested biomass as an alternative food source for the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, an animal model for biological research. Results suggested that U. lactuca could successfully grow on three types of wastewaters studied with biomass productivities of 8.12-64.3 g DW (dry weight)/(m²∙d). The secondary wastewater (SW) was demonstrated as the most effective wastewater medium for U. lactuca growth. However, both high nitrogen (92.5-98.9%) and phosphorus (64.5-88.6%) removal efficiencies were observed in all wastewaters, particularly in primary wastewater (PW) and SW, however, in central wastewater (CW), the highest removal rates were obtained (N 24.7 ± 0.97 and P 0.69 ± 0.01 mg/(g DW·d)). Additionally, the inclusion of 20% washed U. lactuca with 80% standard fruitfly food (w/w) resulted in a longer lifespan and more stable body weights in flies. On the other hand, similar results were not obtained for the food treatment with the addition of 20 % unwashed U. lactuca. This study suggests a promising method for the macroalgae-based treatment of municipal wastewater and the biomass for animal feed.

Keywords: animal feed, flies, macroalgae, nutrient recovery, Ulva lactuca, wastewater

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10 Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Seaweed Extracts

Authors: Salmin K. Alshalmani, Nada H. Zobi, Ismaeel H. Bozakouk

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Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bio active secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Libyan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bio activities. The phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic extracts of some commonly occurring seaweed Cystoseira compressa, enteromorpha intestinals, corallina, and Ulva lactuca and their evaluated for antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay were studied. Four different solvents namely water, ethanol 99 %, methanol 99 %, and methylated spirit 95 % were used for extraction. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, tannin & phenols, saponins, proteins, and glycosides. The extracts were subjected for study of antibacterial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 8 to 16 mm in aqueous extract and up to 16 mm in methanol extract. The maximum activity (16 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Ulva lactuca against Staphylococcus aureus and, minimum activity (8mm) recorded by Cystoseira compressa against S. aureus.

Keywords: macroalgae, phytochemicals, antibacterial activity, methanolic extract

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9 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

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Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

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8 Bioethanol Production from Marine Algae Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum Swartzii: Saccharification and Process Optimization

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian, A. George, B.S. Ashik, S. S. Kumar

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Bioethanol is a sustainable biofuel that can be used alternative to fossil fuels. Today, third generation (3G) biofuel is gaining more attention than first and second-generation biofuel. The more lignin content in the lignocellulosic biomass is the major drawback of second generation biofuels. Algae are the renewable feedstock used in the third generation biofuel production. Algae contain a large number of carbohydrates, therefore it can be used for the fermentation by hydrolysis process. There are two groups of Algae, such as micro and macroalgae. In the present investigation, Macroalgae was chosen as raw material for the production of bioethanol. Two marine algae viz. Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii were used for the experimental studies. The algal biomass was characterized using various analytical techniques like Elemental Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to understand the physio-Chemical characteristics. The batch experiment was done to study the hydrolysis and operation parameters such as pH, agitation, fermentation time, inoculum size. The saccharification was done with acid and alkali treatment. The experimental results showed that NaOH treatment was shown to enhance the bioethanol. From the hydrolysis study, it was found that 0.5 M Alkali treatment would serve as optimum concentration for the saccharification of polysaccharide sugar to monomeric sugar. The maximum yield of bioethanol was attained at a fermentation time of 9 days. The inoculum volume of 1mL was found to be lowest for the ethanol fermentation. The agitation studies show that the fermentation was higher during the process. The percentage yield of bioethanol was found to be 22.752% and 14.23 %. The elemental analysis showed that S. swartzii contains a higher carbon source. The results confirmed hydrolysis was not completed to recover the sugar from biomass. The specific gravity of ethanol was found to 0.8047 and 0.808 for Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii, respectively. The purity of bioethanol also studied and found to be 92.55 %. Therefore, marine algae can be used as a most promising renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

Keywords: algae, biomass, bioethaol, biofuel, pretreatment

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7 Comparison of Fat Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids and Cholesterol Content in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa and Ulva rigida from the Black Sea

Authors: Diana A. Dobreva, Veselina Panayotova, Albena Merdzhanova, Lubomir Makedonski, Mona Stancheva

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Many studies suggest that marine mollusks are healthy food, characterized by low fat and high digestible proteins content. They are one of the most important dietary sources of fat soluble vitamins. The most common species of mollusks in the Bulgarian Black Sea waters are the black mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the sea snail Rapana (Rapana venosa). One of the main problems of the region is the lack of information about chemical composition of these important marine species. Due to these facts, the aim of the present work was to determine the fat soluble vitamins A, D2, D3, and E, carotenoids–β-carotene and astaxanthin, and total cholesterol contents of mollusk samples and compare them to sample of green algae (Ulva rigida). Samples were collected during autumn from north region of the Black Sea coast, and their wet tissues were used for evaluation of vitamins A, D2, D3, and E, astaxanthin, β-carotene and cholesterol compositions. All fat soluble analytes were simultaneously analyzed by RP- HPLC/UV/FL system. The results were calculated as milligrams per gram total lipid (mg.g-1TL). Alpha-tocopherol and b-carotene were most abundant in algae samples, while mussel samples presented the highest amounts of vitamin D3 (several times higher than the recommended daily intake in Bulgaria (Ordinance № 23 / 19.07.2005)). In all samples, cholesterol content was significantly low, which falls within recommendation of the same ordinance (upper daily consumption should not exceed 300 mg per day). From data, it can be concluded that all samples were characterized as beneficial sources of biologically active compounds.

Keywords: fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids, mussel, rapana, algae

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6 Ecosystem Approach in Aquaculture: From Experimental Recirculating Multi-Trophic Aquaculture to Operational System in Marsh Ponds

Authors: R. Simide, T. Miard

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Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is used to reduce waste from aquaculture and increase productivity by co-cultured species. In this study, we designed a recirculating multi-trophic aquaculture system which requires low energy consumption, low water renewal and easy-care. European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were raised with co-cultured sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), deteritivorous polychaete fed on settled particulate matter, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) used to extract suspended matters, macroalgae (Ulva sp.) used to uptake dissolved nutrients and gastropod (Phorcus turbinatus) used to clean the series of 4 tanks from fouling. Experiment was performed in triplicate during one month in autumn under an experimental greenhouse at the Institute Océanographique Paul Ricard (IOPR). Thanks to the absence of a physical filter, any pomp was needed to pressure water and the water flow was carried out by a single air-lift followed by gravity flow.Total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), turbidity, phytoplankton estimation and dissolved nutrients (ammonium NH₄, nitrite NO₂⁻, nitrate NO₃⁻ and phosphorus PO₄³⁻) were measured weekly while dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously recorded. Dissolved nutrients stay under the detectable threshold during the experiment. BOD5 decreased between fish and macroalgae tanks. TSS highly increased after 2 weeks and then decreased at the end of the experiment. Those results show that bioremediation can be well used for aquaculture system to keep optimum growing conditions. Fish were the only feeding species by an external product (commercial fish pellet) in the system. The others species (extractive species) were fed from waste streams from the tank above or from Ulva produced by the system for the sea urchin. In this way, between the fish aquaculture only and the addition of the extractive species, the biomass productivity increase by 5.7. In other words, the food conversion ratio dropped from 1.08 with fish only to 0.189 including all species. This experimental recirculating multi-trophic aquaculture system was efficient enough to reduce waste and increase productivity. In a second time, this technology has been reproduced at a commercial scale. The IOPR in collaboration with Les 4 Marais company run for 6 month a recirculating IMTA in 8000 m² of water allocate between 4 marsh ponds. A similar air-lift and gravity recirculating system was design and only one feeding species of shrimp (Palaemon sp.) was growth for 3 extractive species. Thanks to this joint work at the laboratory and commercial scales we will be able to challenge IMTA system and discuss about this sustainable aquaculture technology.

Keywords: bioremediation, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), laboratory and commercial scales, recirculating aquaculture, sustainable

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5 Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model

Authors: Sangyeop Shin, D. C. M. Kulatunga, S. H. S. Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.

Keywords: host-pathogen interactions, lawsone, rainbow trout, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegniasis, zebrafish

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4 Functionalized Carbon-Base Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Emerging Contaminants Targeted Analysis

Authors: Alexander Rodríguez-Hernández, Arnulfo Rojas-Perez, Liz Diaz-Vazquez

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The rise in consumerism over the past century has resulted in the creation of higher amounts of plasticizers, personal care products and other chemical substances, which enter and accumulate in water systems. Other sources of pollutants in Neotropical regions experience large inputs of nutrients with these pollutants resulting in eutrophication of water which consume large quantities of oxygen, resulting in high fish mortality. This dilemma has created a need for the development of targeted detection in complex matrices and remediation of emerging contaminants. We have synthesized carbon nanoparticles from macro algae (Ulva fasciata) by oxidizing the graphitic carbon network under extreme acidic conditions. The resulting material was characterized by STEM, yielding a spherical 12 nm average diameter nanoparticles, which can be fixed into a polysaccharide aerogel synthesized from the same macro algae. Spectrophotometer analyses show a pH dependent fluorescent behavior varying from 450-620 nm in aqueous media. Heavily oxidized edges provide for easy functionalization with enzymes for a more targeted analysis and remediation technique. Given the optical properties of the carbon base nanoparticles and the numerous possibilities of functionalization, we have developed a selective and robust targeted bio-detection and bioremediation technique for the treatment of emerging contaminants in complex matrices like estuarine embayment.

Keywords: aerogels, carbon nanoparticles, fluorescent, targeted analysis

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3 In-House Enzyme Blends from Polyporus ciliatus CBS 366.74 for Enzymatic Saccharification of Pretreated Corn Stover

Authors: Joseph A. Bentil, Anders Thygesen, Lene Langea, Moses Mensah, Anne Meyer

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The study investigated the saccharification potential of in-house enzymes produced from a white-rot basidiomycete strain, Polyporus ciliatus CBS 366.74. The in-house enzymes were produced by growing the fungus on mono and composite substrates of cocoa pod husk (CPH) and green seaweed (GS) (Ulva lactuca sp.) with and without the addition of 25mM ammonium nitrate at 4%w/v substrate concentration in submerged condition for 144 hours. The crude enzyme extracts preparations (CEE 1-5 and CEE 1-5+AN) obtained from the fungal cultivation process were sterile-filtered and used as enzyme sources for enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated corn stover using a commercial cocktail enzyme, Cellic Ctec3, as benchmark. The hydrolysis was conducted at 50ᵒC with 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5 based on enzyme dosages of 5 and 10 CMCase Units/g biomass at 1%w/v dry weight substrate concentration at time points of 6, 24, and 72 hours. The enzyme activity profile of the in-house enzymes varied among the growth substrates with the composite substrates (50-75% GS and AN inclusion), yielding better enzyme activities, especially endoglucanases (0.4-0.5U/mL), β-glucosidases (0.1-0.2 U/mL), and xylanases (3-10 U/mL). However, nitrogen supplementation had no significant effect on enzyme activities of crude extracts from 100% GS substituted substrates. From the enzymatic hydrolysis, it was observed that the in-house enzymes were capable of hydrolysing the pretreated corn stover at varying degrees; however, the saccharification yield was less than 10%. Consequently, theoretical glucose yield was ten times lower than Cellic Ctec3 at both dosage levels. There was no linear correlation between glucose yield and enzyme dosage for the in-house enzymes, unlike the benchmark enzyme. It is therefore recommended that the in-house enzymes are used to complement the dosage of commercial enzymes to reduce the cost of biomass saccharification.

Keywords: enzyme production, hydrolysis yield, feedstock, enzyme blend, Polyporus ciliatus

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2 Changing the Landscape of Fungal Genomics: New Trends

Authors: Igor V. Grigoriev

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Understanding of biological processes encoded in fungi is instrumental in addressing future food, feed, and energy demands of the growing human population. Genomics is a powerful and quickly evolving tool to understand these processes. The Fungal Genomics Program of the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) partners with researchers around the world to explore fungi in several large scale genomics projects, changing the fungal genomics landscape. The key trends of these changes include: (i) rapidly increasing scale of sequencing and analysis, (ii) developing approaches to go beyond culturable fungi and explore fungal ‘dark matter,’ or unculturables, and (iii) functional genomics and multi-omics data integration. Power of comparative genomics has been recently demonstrated in several JGI projects targeting mycorrhizae, plant pathogens, wood decay fungi, and sugar fermenting yeasts. The largest JGI project ‘1000 Fungal Genomes’ aims at exploring the diversity across the Fungal Tree of Life in order to better understand fungal evolution and to build a catalogue of genes, enzymes, and pathways for biotechnological applications. At this point, at least 65% of over 700 known families have one or more reference genomes sequenced, enabling metagenomics studies of microbial communities and their interactions with plants. For many of the remaining families no representative species are available from culture collections. To sequence genomes of unculturable fungi two approaches have been developed: (a) sequencing DNA from fruiting bodies of ‘macro’ and (b) single cell genomics using fungal spores. The latter has been tested using zoospores from the early diverging fungi and resulted in several near-complete genomes from underexplored branches of the Fungal Tree, including the first genomes of Zoopagomycotina. Genome sequence serves as a reference for transcriptomics studies, the first step towards functional genomics. In the JGI fungal mini-ENCODE project transcriptomes of the model fungus Neurospora crassa grown on a spectrum of carbon sources have been collected to build regulatory gene networks. Epigenomics is another tool to understand gene regulation and recently introduced single molecule sequencing platforms not only provide better genome assemblies but can also detect DNA modifications. For example, 6mC methylome was surveyed across many diverse fungi and the highest among Eukaryota levels of 6mC methylation has been reported. Finally, data production at such scale requires data integration to enable efficient data analysis. Over 700 fungal genomes and other -omes have been integrated in JGI MycoCosm portal and equipped with comparative genomics tools to enable researchers addressing a broad spectrum of biological questions and applications for bioenergy and biotechnology.

Keywords: fungal genomics, single cell genomics, DNA methylation, comparative genomics

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1 In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'

Authors: S. F. Afzali, W. L. Wong

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The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, goldfish, organic extract, treatment

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