Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Saprolegniasis

2 Bioprophylaxis of Saprolegniasis in Incubated Clarias gariepinus Eggs Using Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: G. A. Oladosu1, P. O. Ogbodogbo, C. I. Makinde1, M. O. Tijani, O. A. Adegboyega

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is a major pathogenic infection that contributes significantly to poor hatching rates in incubated fish eggs in the Africa catfish hatchery in Nigeria. Malachite green known to be very effective against this condition has been banned because it is carcinogenic. There is, therefore, the need for other effective yet safer methods of controlling saprolegniasis in incubated fish eggs. A total of 50 ml crude, chloroform extract of pyocyanin from which solvent was removed to attain 30 ml, having a concentration of 12.16 ug/ml was produced from 700 ml broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a previous study. In-vitro susceptibility of the fungus was investigated by exposing fungal infected eggs to two different time-concentration ratios of pyocyanin; 0.275 ug/ml and 2.75 ug/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and 5 mg/L malachite green as positive control while normal saline was the control. The efficacy of pyocyanin was evaluated using the degree of mycelial growth inhibition in different treatments. Fertilized Clarias gariepinus eggs (between 45 to 64 eggs) were then incubated in 20 ml of medium containing similar concentrations of pyocyanin and malachite green, with freshwater as a control for 24 hours. Hatching rates of the incubated eggs were observed. Three samples of un-hatched eggs were taken from each medium and observed for the presence of fungal pathogens using microscopy. Another batch of three samples of un-hatched eggs from each treatment was also inoculated on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA) using Egg-Agar Transfer Technique to observe for fungal growth. Mycelial growth was inhibited in fungal infected eggs treated with 2.75 ug/ml for 24 hrs and the 5 mg/L malachite green for both 1 hr and 24 hrs. The mortality rate was 100% in fertilized C. gariepinus eggs exposed for 24 hrs to 0.275 and 2.75 ug/ml of pyocyanin. The mortality rate was least in malachite green followed by the control treatment. Embryonic development was observed to be arrested in the eggs treated with the two pyocyanin concentrations as they maintain their colour but showed no development beyond the gastrula stage, whereas viable eggs in the control and malachite green treatments developed fully into healthy hatchlings. Furthermore, microscopy of the un-hatched eggs revealed the presence of a protozoan ciliate; Colpidium sp, (Tetrahymenidae), as well as a pathogenic fungus; Saprolegnia sp. in the control but not in the malachite green and pyocyanin treatments. Growth of Saprolegnia sp was also observed in SDA culture of un-hatched eggs from the control, but not from pyocyanin and malachite green treated eggs. Pyocyanin treatment of incubated eggs of Clarias gariepinus effectively prevented fungal infection in the eggs, but also arrested the development of the embryo. Therefore, crude chloroform extract of pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used in the control of Saprolegniasis in incubated Clarias gariepinus eggs at the concentration and duration tested in this study.

Keywords: African catfish, bioprophylaxis, catfish embryo, Saprolegniasis

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1 Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model

Authors: Sangyeop Shin, D. C. M. Kulatunga, S. H. S. Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.

Keywords: host-pathogen interactions, lawsone, rainbow trout, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegniasis, zebrafish

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