Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Mahanama De Zoysa

4 Application of Bacteriophages as Natural Antibiotics in Aquaculture

Authors: Chamilani Nikapitiya, Mahanama De Zoysa, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Most of the bacterial diseases are associated with high mortalities in aquaculture species and causing huge economic losses. Different approaches have been taken to prevent or control of bacterial diseases including use of vaccines, probiotics, chemotherapy, water quality management, etc. Antibiotics are widely applying as chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases, however, it has been shown that frequent use of antibiotics is favored to develop multi-drug resistance bacteria. Therefore, phages and phage encoded lytic proteins are known to be one of the most promising alternatives for antibiotics to avoid the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We isolated and characterized the two lytic phages, namely pAh-1 and pAs-1 against pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida, respectively. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and host strain specificities were tested with Aeromonas and other closely related bacterial strains. TEM analysis revealed that both pAh-1 and pAsm-1 are composed of an icosahedral head and a segmented tail, and we suggest that, they are new members of Myoviridae family. Genome sizes of isolated phages were estimated by restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA using selected endonucleases followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Estimated genome size of pAh-1 and pAs-1 were approximately 64 Kbp and 120 Kbp, respectively. Both pAh-1 and pAs-1 have shown narrow host specificity. Moreover, protective effects of phage therapy against fish pathogenic A. hydrophila were investigated in zebrafish model. The survival rate was 40% higher when zebrafish received intra-peritoneal injection (i.p.) of pAh-1 were simultaneously challenge A. hydrophila (2 x 106 CFU/fish) compared to that without phage treatment. Overall results suggest that both pAh-1 and pAs-1 can be used as a potential phage therapy to control Aeromonas infections in aquaculture.

Keywords: Aeromonas infections, antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage, bio-control, lytic phage

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3 Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model

Authors: Sangyeop Shin, D. C. M. Kulatunga, S. H. S. Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.

Keywords: host-pathogen interactions, lawsone, rainbow trout, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegniasis, zebrafish

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2 The Relationship between the Environmental and Financial Performance of Australian Electricity Producers

Authors: S. Forughi, A. De Zoysa, S. Bhati

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the environmental performance of the companies in the electricity-producing sector and its relationship with their financial performance. We will review the major studies that examined the relationship between the environmental and financial performance of firms in various industries. While the classical economic debates consider the environmental friendly activities costly and harmful to a firm’s profitability, it is claimed that firms will be rewarded with higher profitability in long run through the investments in environmental friendly activities. In this context, prior studies have examined the relationship between the environmental and financial performance of firms operating in different industry sectors. Our study will employ an environmental indicator to increase the accuracy of the results and be employed as an independent variable in our developed econometric model to evaluate the impact of the financial performance of the firms on their environmental friendly activities in the context of companies operating in the Australian electricity-producing sector. As a result, we expect our methodology to contribute to the literature and the findings of the study will help us to provide recommendations and policy implications to the electricity producers.

Keywords: Australian electricity sector, efficiency measurement, environmental-financial performance interaction, environmental index

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1 Analysis of Survivability, Trends, and Status of Sea Turtle Species Found in Sri Lanka

Authors: Lihini Hiranya Kankanamge, L. P. N. D. Premarathna, H. A. C. C. Perera, Kumarasinghe Dudley Hemantha Perera, Charith Dilshan de Zoysa

Abstract:

There are seven living sea turtle species recorded on Earth, of those five species, green turtle (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) are reported in Sri Lanka. The deterioration of the sea turtle population has happened due to illegal egg poaching, incidental by-catch, natural predators, and extreme human intrusion globally. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the rapid growth of civilization and anthropogenic activities have an impact on decreasing the number of sea turtle inhabitants in Sri Lanka. The distributional analysis proves that the prime nesting season in Sri Lanka is from January to June and November to December, and the total number of eggs laid in each destination and the number of species that visit Sri Lanka have decreased throughout the years (P < 0.05). In this study, the stability of the system of ordinary differential equations, which were initially formulated in previous literature, is evaluated and proven that the population of sea turtles in Sri Lanka may decrease when both prey and predator coexist. The contraction of sea turtle species is obtained using the Lefkovitch matrix, proving that the reduction of the number of green sea turtle, hawksbill, and olive ridley sea turtle will happen in Sri Lanka within 12,15 and 24 years, respectively. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the probability of juveniles surviving and growing into the next level is the most sensitive parameter in the model. Accordingly, the present study proposes to head start conservation by protecting the juvenile sea turtle population to prevent the reduction of sea turtle inhabitants. Therefore, conducting awareness programs and declaration of protected areas strictly following and implementing existing laws are recommended for their conservation.

Keywords: extinction, lefkovitch, predator-prey, sea turtles, sensitivity analysis

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