Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Chamilani Nikapitiya

2 Application of Bacteriophages as Natural Antibiotics in Aquaculture

Authors: Chamilani Nikapitiya, Mahanama De Zoysa, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Most of the bacterial diseases are associated with high mortalities in aquaculture species and causing huge economic losses. Different approaches have been taken to prevent or control of bacterial diseases including use of vaccines, probiotics, chemotherapy, water quality management, etc. Antibiotics are widely applying as chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases, however, it has been shown that frequent use of antibiotics is favored to develop multi-drug resistance bacteria. Therefore, phages and phage encoded lytic proteins are known to be one of the most promising alternatives for antibiotics to avoid the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We isolated and characterized the two lytic phages, namely pAh-1 and pAs-1 against pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida, respectively. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and host strain specificities were tested with Aeromonas and other closely related bacterial strains. TEM analysis revealed that both pAh-1 and pAsm-1 are composed of an icosahedral head and a segmented tail, and we suggest that, they are new members of Myoviridae family. Genome sizes of isolated phages were estimated by restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA using selected endonucleases followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Estimated genome size of pAh-1 and pAs-1 were approximately 64 Kbp and 120 Kbp, respectively. Both pAh-1 and pAs-1 have shown narrow host specificity. Moreover, protective effects of phage therapy against fish pathogenic A. hydrophila were investigated in zebrafish model. The survival rate was 40% higher when zebrafish received intra-peritoneal injection (i.p.) of pAh-1 were simultaneously challenge A. hydrophila (2 x 106 CFU/fish) compared to that without phage treatment. Overall results suggest that both pAh-1 and pAs-1 can be used as a potential phage therapy to control Aeromonas infections in aquaculture.

Keywords: Aeromonas infections, antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage, bio-control, lytic phage

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1 Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model

Authors: Sangyeop Shin, D. C. M. Kulatunga, S. H. S. Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.

Keywords: host-pathogen interactions, lawsone, rainbow trout, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegniasis, zebrafish

Procedia PDF Downloads 174