Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Subhasree Majumdar

25 Exploring Paper Mill Sludge and Sugarcane Bagasse as Carrier Matrix in Solid State Fermentation for Carotenoid Pigment Production by Planococcus sp. TRC1

Authors: Subhasree Majumdar, Sovan Dey, Sayari Mukherjee, Sourav Dutta, Dalia Dasgupta Mandal

Abstract:

Bacterial isolates from Planococcus genus are known for the production of yellowish orange pigment that belongs to the carotenoid family. These pigments are of immense pharmacological importance as antioxidant, anticancer, eye and liver protective agent, etc. The production of this pigment in a cost effective manner is a challenging task. The present study explored paper mill sludge (PMS), a solid lignocellulosic waste generated in large quantities from pulp and paper mill industry as a substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1. PMS was compared in terms of efficacy with sugarcane bagasse, which is a highly explored substrate for valuable product generation via solid state fermentation. The results showed that both the biomasses yielded the highest carotenoid during 48 hours of incubation, 31.6 mg/gm and 42.1 mg/gm for PMS and bagasse respectively. Compositional alterations of both the biomasses showed reduction in lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content by 41%, 15%, 1% for PMS and 38%, 25% and 6% for sugarcane bagasse after 72 hours of incubation. Structural changes in the biomasses were examined by FT-IR, FESEM, and XRD which further confirmed modification of solid biomasses by bacterial isolate. This study revealed the potential of PMS to act as cheap substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1, as it showed a significant production in comparison to sugarcane bagasse which gave only 1.3 fold higher production than PMS. Delignification of PMS by TRC1 during pigment production is another important finding for the reuse of this waste from the paper industry.

Keywords: carotenoid, lignocellulosic, paper mill sludge, Planococcus sp. TRC1, solid state fermentation, sugarcane bagasse

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24 Pregnancy Outcome in Pregnancy with Low Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester

Authors: Sumi Manjipparambil Surendran, Subrata Majumdar

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of the study is to find out if low PAPP-A (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A) levels in the first trimester are associated with adverse obstetric outcome. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 114 singleton pregnancies having undergone combined test screening. Results: There is statistically significant increased incidence of low birth weight infants in the low PAPP-A group. However, significant association was not found in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, and placental abruption. Conclusion: Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with fetal growth restriction. Recommendation: Women with low PAPP-A levels in first trimester pregnancy screening require consultant-led care and serial growth scans.

Keywords: pregnancy, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, PAPP-A, fetal growth restriction, trimester

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23 Studies on Plasma Spray Deposited La2O3 - YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) Composite Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Prashant Sharma, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

The present study concerns development of a composite thermal barrier coating consisting of a mixture of La2O3 and YSZ (with 8 wt.%, 32 wt.% and 50 wt.% 50% La2O3) by plasma spray deposition technique on a CoNiCrAlY based bond coat deposited on Inconel 718 substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF) technique. The addition of La2O3 in YSZ causes the formation of pyrochlore (La2Zr2O7) phase in the inter splats boundary along with the presence of LaYO3 phase. The coefficient of thermal expansion is significantly reduced from due to the evolution of different phases and structural defects in the sprayed coating. The activation energy for TGO growth under isothermal and cyclic oxidation was increased in the composite coating as compared to YSZ coating.

Keywords: plasma spraying, oxidation resistance, thermal barrier coating, microstructure, X-ray method

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22 Epitaxial Growth of Crystalline Polyaniline on Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: D. Majumdar, M. Baskey, S. K. Saha

Abstract:

Graphene has already been identified as a promising material for future carbon based electronics. To develop graphene technology, the fabrication of a high quality P-N junction is a great challenge. In the present work, we have described a simple and general technique to grow single crystalline polyaniline (PANI) films on graphene sheets using in situ polymerization via the oxidation-reduction of aniline monomer and graphene oxide, respectively, to fabricate a high quality P-N junction, which shows diode-like behavior with a remarkably low turn-on voltage (60 mV) and high rectification ratio (1880:1) up to a voltage of 0.2 Volt. The origin of these superior electronic properties is the preferential growth of a highly crystalline PANI film as well as lattice matching between the d-values [~2.48 Å] of graphene and {120} planes of PANI.

Keywords: epitaxial growth, PANI, reduced graphene oxide, rectification ratio

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21 Improvement in Properties of Ni-Cr-Mo-V Steel through Process Control

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Sanjoy Sadhukhan

Abstract:

Although gun barrel steels are an important variety from defense view point, available literatures are very limited. In the present work, an IF grade Ni-Cr-Mo-V high strength low alloy steel is produced in Electric Earth Furnace-ESR Route. Ingot was hot forged to desired dimension with a reduction ratio of 70-75% followed by homogenization, hardening and tempering treatment. Sample chemistry, NMIR, macro and micro structural analyses were done. Mechanical properties which include tensile, impact, and fracture toughness were studied. Ultrasonic testing was done to identify internal flaws. The existing high strength low alloy Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel shows improved properties in modified processing route and heat treatment schedule in comparison to properties noted earlier for manufacturing of gun barrels. The improvement in properties seems to withstand higher explosive loads with the same amount of steel in gun barrel application.

Keywords: gun barrel steels, IF grade, chemistry, physical properties, thermal and mechanical processing, mechanical properties, ultrasonic testing

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20 Paradigms of Assessment, Valuation and Quantification to Trade Ecosystem Services: A Review Focusing on Mangroves and Wetlands

Authors: Rama Seth, Luise Noring, Pratim Majumdar

Abstract:

Based on an extensive literature review, this paper presents distinct approaches to value, quantify and trade ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on services provided by mangroves and wetlands. Building on diverse monetary and market-based systems for the improved allocation of natural resources, such trading and exchange-based methods can help tackle the degradation of ecosystem services in a more targeted and structured manner than achievable with stand-alone policy and administrative regulations. Using various threads of literature, the paper proposes a platform that serves as the skeletal foundation for developing an efficient global market for ecosystem services trading. The paper bridges a significant research and practice gap by recommending how to establish an equilibrium in the biosphere via trading mechanisms while also discovering other research gaps and future research potential in the domain of ecosystem valuation.

Keywords: environment, economics, mangroves, wetlands, markets, ESG, global capital, climate investments, valuation, ecosystem services

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19 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen

Abstract:

In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.

Keywords: cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, double drift impatt diode, millimetre wave, optimised bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor

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18 Investigation into Relationship between Spaced Repetitions and Problems Solving Efficiency

Authors: Sidharth Talan, Rajlakshmi G. Majumdar

Abstract:

Problem-solving skill is one the few skills which is constantly endeavored to improve upon by the professionals and academicians around the world in order to sustain themselves in the ever-growing competitive environment. The given paper focuses on evaluating a hypothesized relationship between the problems solving efficiency of an individual with spaced repetitions, conducted with a time interval of one day over a period of two weeks. The paper has utilized uni-variate regression analysis technique to assess the best fit curve that can explain the significant relationship between the given two variables. The paper has incorporated Anagrams solving as the appropriate testing process for the analysis. Since Anagrams solving involves rearranging a jumbled word to form a correct word, it projects to be an efficient process to observe the attention span, visual- motor coordination and the verbal ability of an individual. Based on the analysis for a sample population of 30, it was observed that problem-solving efficiency of an individual, measured in terms of the score in each test was found to be significantly correlated with time period measured in days.

Keywords: Anagrams, histogram plot, moving average curve, spacing effect

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17 Plasma Spray Deposition of Bio-Active Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

Authors: Renu Kumari, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

In the present study, composite coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) + 50 wt% TiO2 has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition technique. Followed by plasma spray deposition, detailed surface roughness and microstructural characterization were carried out by using optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The composition and phase analysis were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, respectively. The bio-activity behavior of the uncoated and coated samples was also compared by dipping test in Hank’s solution. The average surface roughness of the coating was 10 µm (as compared to 0.5 µm of as-received Ti-6Al-4V substrate) with the presence of porosities. The microstructure of the coating was found to be continuous with the presence of solidified splats. A detailed XRD analysis shows phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile, decomposition of hydroxyapatite, and formation of CaTiO3 phase. Standard dipping test confirmed a faster kinetics of deposition of calcium phosphate in the coated HA+50% wt.% TiO2 surface as compared to the as-received substrate.

Keywords: titanium, plasma spraying, microstructure, bio-activity, TiO2, hydroxyapatite

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16 Investigation of Suspected Viral Hepatitis Outbreaks in North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Manasi Majumdar, Kapil Goyal, Pvm Lakshmi, Deepak Bhatia, Radha Kanta Ratho

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India is endemic for Hepatitis E virus and frequent water borne outbreaks are reported. The conventional diagnosis rests on the detection of serum anti-HEV IgM antibodies which may take 7-10 days to develop. Early diagnosis in such a situation is desirable for the initiation of prompt control measures. The present study compared three diagnostic methods in 60 samples collected during two suspected HEV outbreaks in the vicinity of Chandigarh, India. The anti-HEV IgM, HEV antigen and HEV-RNA could be detected in serum samples of 52 (86.66%), 16 (26.66%) and 18 (30%) patients respectively. The suitability of saliva samples for antibody detection was also evaluated in 21 paired serum- saliva samples. A total of 15 serum samples showed the presence of anti HEV IgM antibodies, out of which 10 (10/15; 66.6%) were also positive for these antibodies in saliva samples (χ2 = 7.636, p < 0.0057), thus showing a concordance of 76.91%. The positivity of reverse transcriptase PCR and HEV antigen detection was 100% within one week of illness which declined to 5-10% thereafter. The outbreak was attributed to HEV Genotype 1, Subtype 1a and the clinical and environmental strains clustered together. HEV antigen and RNA were found to be an early diagnostic marker with 96.66% concordance. The results indicate that the saliva samples can be used as an alternative to serum samples in an outbreak situation.

Keywords: HEV-antigen, outbreak, phylogenetic analysis, saliva

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15 Do Career Expectancy Beliefs Foster Stability as Well as Mobility in One's Career? A Conceptual Model

Authors: Bishakha Majumdar, Ranjeet Nambudiri

Abstract:

Considerable dichotomy exists in research regarding the role of optimism and self-efficacy in work and career outcomes. Optimism and self-efficacy are related to performance, commitment and engagement, but also are implicated in seeing opportunities outside the firm and switching jobs. There is absence of research capturing these opposing strands of findings in the same model and providing a holistic understanding of how the expectancy beliefs operate in case of the working professional. We attempt to bridge this gap by proposing that career-decision self-efficacy and career outcome expectations affect intention to quit through the competitive mediation pathways of internal and external marketability. This model provides a holistic picture of the role of career expectancy beliefs on career outcomes, by considering perceived career opportunities both inside and outside one’s present organization. The understanding extends the application of career expectancy beliefs in the context of career decision-making by the employed individual. Further, it is valuable for reconsidering the effectiveness of hiring and retention techniques used by a firm, as selection, rewards and training programs need to be supplemented by interventions that specifically strengthen the stability pathway.

Keywords: career decision self-efficacy, career outcome expectations, marketability, intention to quit, job mobility

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14 Porosity and Ultraviolet Protection Ability of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Polona Dobnik Dubrovski, Abhijit Majumdar

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The increasing awareness of negative effects of ultraviolet radiation and regular, effective protection are actual themes in many countries. Woven fabrics as clothing items can provide convenient personal protection however not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. Porous structure of the material has a great effect on UPF. The paper is focused on an overview of porosity in woven fabrics, including the determination of porosity parameters on the basis of an ideal geometrical model of porous structure. Our experiment was focused on 100% cotton woven fabrics in a grey state with the same yarn fineness (14 tex) and different thread densities (to achieve relative fabric density between 59 % and 87 %) and different type of weaves (plain, 4-end twill, 5-end satin). The results of the research dealing with the modelling of UPF and the influence of volume and open porosity of tested samples on UPF are exposed. The results show that open porosity should be lower than 12 % to achieve good UV protection according to AS/NZ standard of tested samples. The results also indicate that there is no direct correlation between volume porosity and UPF, moreover, volume porosity namely depends on the type of weave and affects UPF as well. Plain fabrics did not offer any UV protection, while twill and satin fabrics offered good UV protection when volume porosity was less than 64 % and 66 %, respectively.

Keywords: fabric engineering, UV radiation, porous materials, woven fabric construction, modelling

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13 Designing a Cricket Team Selection Method Using Super-Efficient DEA and Semi Variance Approach

Authors: Arnab Adhikari, Adrija Majumdar, Gaurav Gupta, Arnab Bisi

Abstract:

Team formation plays an instrumental role in the sports like cricket. Existing literature reveals that most of the works on player selection focus only on the players’ efficiency and ignore the consistency. It motivates us to design an improved player selection method based on both player’s efficiency and consistency. To measure the players’ efficiency measurement, we employ a modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique namely ‘super-efficient DEA model’. We design a modified consistency index based on semi variance approach. Here, we introduce a new parameter called ‘fitness index’ for consistency computation to assess a player’s fitness level. Finally, we devise a single performance score using both efficiency score and consistency score with the help of a linear programming model. To test the robustness of our method, we perform a rigorous numerical analysis to determine the all-time best One Day International (ODI) Cricket XI. Next, we conduct extensive comparative studies regarding efficiency scores, consistency scores, selected team between the existing methods and the proposed method and explain the rationale behind the improvement.

Keywords: decision support systems, sports, super-efficient data envelopment analysis, semi variance approach

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12 An Attempt to Explore Occupational Stressors among West Bengal Police Officials

Authors: Malini Nandi Majumdar, Avijan Dutta

Abstract:

The West Police (WBP) is restructured under provisions of the Police Act 1861 during the period of British domination. It is one of the two police forces of the Indian state of west Bengal and is headed by an officer designated as Director General of Police (DG) who directly reports to the State Government. It covers a jurisdiction with eighteen revenue districts of the state and a District Superintendent of Police (SP) controls each district. The purpose of this empirical study is to explore the causes and factors of occupational stress in West Bengal Police officers so that the incumbents can perform their assigned tasks more diligently and the society could be free from evils and devils at a large. Using a self-developed close ended questionnaire that covers 20 critical job-related stressors, the study captures 310 respondents across the organizational hierarchy ranging from Sub Inspectors to the Superintendant of police and covers 5 districts and one commision rate under the jurisdiction of West Bengal Police. The present research has successfully indicated four major occupational stressors such as Organizational Stressors, Hierarchical Stressors, Situational Stressors and Environmental Stressors with 64% of the variance. Further we have employed CFA to determine the goodness of fit indices in terms of i) Absolute Fit Measures like CMIN, FMIN, RMSEA, ECVI ii) Incremental Fit Measures like TLI, NFI, AGFI, CFI(Byne, 2010) demonstrate that value of the measure has passed the requirement criteria and thus fit the model. The major stressors of West Bengal Police have been explored and the ways to deal with these inevitable stressors have been suggested.

Keywords: organizational stressors, hierarchical stressors, situational stressors, environmental stressors

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11 Quality of Life of Elderly People in Urban West Bengal, India

Authors: Debalina Datta, Pratyaypratim Datta, Kunal Kanti Majumdar

Abstract:

Introduction: In India 8.1% of total population is elderly. The standard of living and meaningfulness of life are indirectly measured by assessing quality of life of elderly. So, it is important to improve quality of life. Quality of life is an individual’s understanding of his/ her life situation with respect to his/ her values and cultural context as well as in relation to his/her goals, expectations and concerns. The present study was planned to assess the quality of life of geriatric people in urban West Bengal, India. Materials and methods: It was a community based cross sectional observational study conducted among people aged 60 years and above in Kolkata and Sonarpur region of West Bengal, India. Data collection was done by house to house visit using Quality of Life- BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BERF) developed by WHO. Analysis of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental domain was done using SPSS (version 16.0). Results: Transformed score (0-100 scale) was used for each domain. Mean of physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental domain were found to be 42.25, 40.84, 39.62 and 48.36 respectively. There was no significant difference in score between Kolkata and Sonarpur people in any domain except social relationship domain, where people living at Sonarpur scored significantly better. Conclusion: Rehabilitation of old age people can be done by improving their quality of life. Social interaction with people of all ages, allowing them to take important family decision, engaging them in different social activities can help a lot.

Keywords: quality of life, elderly, Urban West Bengal, India

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10 Study on Mitigation Measures of Gumti Hydro Power Plant Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Concordance Analysis Techniques

Authors: K. Majumdar, S. Datta

Abstract:

Electricity is recognized as fundamental to industrialization and improving the quality of life of the people. Harnessing the immense untapped hydropower potential in Tripura region opens avenues for growth and provides an opportunity to improve the well-being of the people of the region, while making substantial contribution to the national economy. Gumti hydro power plant generates power to mitigate the crisis of power in Tripura, India. The first unit of hydro power plant (5 MW) was commissioned in June 1976 & another two units of 5 MW was commissioned simultaneously. But out of 15 MW capacity at present only 8-9 MW power is produced from Gumti hydro power plant during rainy season. But during lean season the production reduces to 0.5 MW due to shortage of water. Now, it is essential to implement some mitigation measures so that the further atrocities can be prevented and originality will be possible to restore. The decision making ability of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Concordance Analysis Techniques (CAT) are utilized to identify the better decision or solution to the present problem. Some related attributes are identified by the method of surveying within the experts and the available reports and literatures. Similar criteria are removed and ultimately seven relevant ones are identified. All the attributes are compared with each other and rated accordingly to their importance over the other with the help of Pair wise Comparison Matrix. In the present investigation different mitigation measures are identified and compared to find the best suitable alternative which can solve the present uncertainties involving the existence of the Gumti Hydro Power Plant.

Keywords: concordance analysis techniques, analytic hierarchy process, hydro power

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9 Flexural Behavior of Eco-Friendly Prefabricated Low Cost Bamboo Reinforced Wall Panels

Authors: Vishal Puri, Pradipta Chakrabortty, Swapan Majumdar

Abstract:

Precast concrete construction is the most commonly used technique for a rapid construction. This technique is very frequently used in the developed countries. Different guidelines required to utilize the potential of prefabricated construction are still not available in the developing countries. This causes over dependence on in-situ construction procedure which further affects the quality, scheduling, and duration of construction. Also with the ever increasing costs of building materials and their negative impact on the environment it has become imperative to look out for alternate construction materials which are cheap and sustainable. Bamboo and fly ash are alternate construction materials having great potential in the construction industry. Thus there is a great need to develop prefabricated components by utilizing the potential of these materials. Bamboo reinforced beams, bamboo reinforced columns and bamboo arches as researched previously have shown great prospects for prefabricated construction industry. But, many other prefabricated components still need to be studied and widely tested before their utilization in the prefabricated construction industry. In the present study, authors have showcased prefabricated bamboo reinforced wall panel for the prefabricated construction industry. It presents a detailed methodology for the development of such prefabricated panels. It also presents the flexural behavior of such panels as tested under flexural loads following ASTM guidelines. It was observed that these wall panels are much flexible and do not show brittle failure as observed in traditional brick walls. It was observed that prefabricated walls are about 42% cheaper as compared to conventional brick walls. It was also observed that prefabricated walls are considerably lighter in weight and are environment friendly. It was thus concluded that this type of wall panels are an excellent alternative for partition brick walls.

Keywords: bamboo, prefabricated walls, reinforced structure, sustainable infrastructure

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8 Altered Expression of Ubiquitin Editing Complex in Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ishani Majumdar, Jaishree Paul

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Introduction: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon resulting from an autoimmune response towards individual’s own microbiota. Excessive inflammation is characterized by hyper-activation of NFkB, a transcription factor regulating expression of various pro-inflammatory genes. The ubiquitin editing complex consisting of TNFAIP3, ITCH, RNF11 and TAX1BP1 maintains homeostatic levels of active NFkB through feedback inhibition and assembles in response to various stimuli that activate NFkB. TNFAIP3 deubiquitinates key signaling molecules involved in NFkB activation pathway. ITCH, RNF11 and TAX1BP1 provide substrate specificity, acting as adaptors for TNFAIP3 function. Aim: This study aimed to find expression of members of the ubiquitin editing complex at the transcript level in inflamed colon tissues of UC patients. Materials and Methods: Colonic biopsy samples were collected from 30 UC patients recruited at Department of Gastroenterology, AIIMS (New Delhi). Control group (n= 10) consisted of individuals undergoing examination for functional disorders. Real Time PCR was used to determine relative expression with GAPDH as housekeeping gene. Results: Expression of members of the ubiquitin editing complex was significantly altered during active disease. Expression of TNFAIP3 was upregulated while concomitant decrease in expression of ITCH, RNF11, TAX1BP1 was seen in UC patients. Discussion: This study reveals that increase in expression of TNFAIP3 was unable to control inflammation during active UC. Further, insufficient upregulation of ITCH, RNF11, TAX1BP1 may limit the formation of the ubiquitin complex and contribute to pathogenesis of UC.

Keywords: altered expression, inflammation, ubiquitin editing complex, ulcerative colitis

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7 Exploring the Role of Immune-Modulators in Pathogen Recognition Receptor NOD2 Mediated Protection against Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Junaid Jibran Jawed, Prasanta Saini, Subrata Majumdar

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Background: Leishmania donovani infection causes severe host immune-suppression through the modulation of pathogen recognition receptors. Apart from TLRs (Toll Like Receptor), recent studies focus on the important contribution of NLR (NOD-Like Receptor) family member NOD1 and NOD2 as these receptors are capable of triggering host innate immunity. The aim of this study was to decipher the role of NOD1/NOD2 receptors during experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and the important link between host failure and parasite evasion strategy. Method: The status of NOD1 and NOD2 receptors were analysed in uninfected and infected cells through western blotting and RT-PCR. The active contributions of these receptors in reducing parasite burden were confirmed by siRNA mediated silencing, and over-expression studies and the parasite numbers were calculated through microscopic examination of the Giemsa-stained slides. In-vivo studies were done by using non-toxic dose of Mw (Mycobacterium indicus pranii), Ara-LAM(Arabinoasylated lipoarabinomannan) along with MDP (Muramyl dipeptide) administration. Result: Leishmania donovani infection of the macrophages reduced the expression of NOD2 receptors whereas NOD1 remain unaffected. MDP, a NOD2-ligand, treatment during over-expression of NOD2, reduced the parasite burden effectively which was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine generation and NO production. In experimental mouse model, Ara-LAM treatment increased the expression of NOD2 and in combination with MDP it showed active therapeutic potential against VL and found to be more effective than Mw which was already reported to be involved in NOD2 modulation. Conclusion: This work explores the essential contribution of NOD2 during experimental VL and mechanistic understanding of Ara-LAM + MDP combination therapy to work against this disease and highlighted NOD2 as an essential therapeutic target.

Keywords: Ara-LAM (Arabinoacylated Lipoarabinomannan), NOD2 (nucleotide binding oligomerization receptor 2), MDP (muramyl di peptide), visceral Leishmaniasis

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6 Water Reclamation and Reuse in Asia’s Largest Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: Naveen Porika, Snigdho Majumdar, Niraj Sethi

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Water, food and energy securities are emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India and the world. Hyderabad urban agglomeration (HUA), the capital city of Andhra Pradesh State in India, is the sixth largest city has a population of about 8.2 million. The Musi River, which is a tributary of Krishna river flows from west to east right through the heart of Hyderabad, about 80% of the water used by people is released back as sewage, which flows back into Musi every day with detrimental effects on the environment and people downstream of the city. The average daily sewage generated in Hyderabad city is 950 MLD, however, treatment capacity exists only for 541 Million Liters per Day (MLD) but only 407 MLD of sewage is treated. As a result, 543 MLD of sewage daily flows into Musi river. Hyderabad’s current estimated water demand stands at 320 Million Gallons per Day (MGD). However, its installed capacity is merely 270 MGD; by 2020 estimated demand will grow to 400 MGD. There is huge gap between current supply and demand, and this is likely to widen by 2021. Developing new fresh water sources is a challenge for Hyderabad, as the fresh water sources are few and far from the City (about 150-200 km) and requires excessive pumping. The constraints presented above make the conventional alternatives for supply augmentation unsustainable and unattractive .One such dependable and captive source of easily available water is the treated sewage. With proper treatment, water of desired quality can be recovered from the waste water (sewage) for recycle and reuse. Hyderabad Amberpet sewage treatment of capacity 339 MLD is Asia’s largest sewage treatment plant. Tertiary sewage treatment Standard basic engineering modules of 30 MLD,60 MLD, 120MLD & 180 MLD for sewage treatment plants has been developed which are utilized for developing Sewage Reclamation & Reuse model in Asia’s largest sewage treatment plant. This paper will focus on Hyderabad Water Supply & Demand, Sewage Generation & Treatment, Technical aspects of Tertiary Sewage Treatment and Utilization of developed standard modules for reclamation & reuse of treated sewage to overcome the deficit of 130 MGD as projected by 2021.

Keywords: water reclamation, reuse, Andhra Pradesh, hyderabad, musi river, sewage, demand and supply, recycle, Amberpet, 339 MLD, engineering modules, tertiary treatment

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5 Sequential Padding: A Method to Improve the Impact Resistance in Body Armor Materials

Authors: Ankita Srivastava, Bhupendra S. Butola, Abhijit Majumdar

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Application of shear thickening fluid (STF) has been proved to increase the impact resistance performance of the textile structures to further use it as a body armor material. In the present research, STF was applied on Kevlar woven fabric to make the structure lightweight and flexible while improving its impact resistance performance. It was observed that getting a fair amount of add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric is difficult as Kevlar fabric comes with a pre-coating of PTFE which hinders its absorbency. Hence, a method termed as sequential padding is developed in the present study to improve the add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric. Contrary to the conventional process, where Kevlar fabric is treated with STF once using any one pressure, in sequential padding method, the Kevlar fabrics were treated twice in a sequential manner using combination of two pressures together in a sample. 200 GSM Kevlar fabrics were used in the present study. STF was prepared by adding PEG with 70% (w/w) nano-silica concentration. Ethanol was added with the STF at a fixed ratio to reduce viscosity. A high-speed homogenizer was used to make the dispersion. Total nine STF treated Kevlar fabric samples were prepared by using varying combinations and sequences of three levels of padding pressure {0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 bar). The fabrics were dried at 80°C for 40 minutes in a hot air oven to evaporate ethanol. Untreated and STF treated fabrics were tested for add-on%. Impact resistance performance of samples was also tested on dynamic impact tester at a fixed velocity of 6 m/s. Further, to observe the impact resistance performance in actual condition, low velocity ballistic test with 165 m/s velocity was also performed to confirm the results of impact resistance test. It was observed that both add-on% and impact energy absorption of Kevlar fabrics increases significantly with sequential padding process as compared to untreated as well as single stage padding process. It was also determined that impact energy absorption is significantly better in STF treated Kevlar fabrics when 1st padding pressure is higher, and 2nd padding pressure is lower. It is also observed that impact energy absorption of sequentially padded Kevlar fabric shows almost 125% increase in ballistic impact energy absorption (40.62 J) as compared to untreated fabric (18.07 J).The results are owing to the fact that the treatment of fabrics at high pressure during the first padding is responsible for uniform distribution of STF within the fabric structures. While padding with second lower pressure ensures the high add-on of STF for over-all improvement in the impact resistance performance of the fabric. Therefore, it is concluded that sequential padding process may help to improve the impact performance of body armor materials based on STF treated Kevlar fabrics.

Keywords: body armor, impact resistance, Kevlar, shear thickening fluid

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4 Prevalence and Intensity of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections among the School Children in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Prasanta Saini, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Subrata Majumdar

Abstract:

Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the major problem in all the nations of the world. The major focus of STH research is to study the prevalence of three major helminths, such as Ascaris, Trituris and hookworm. Here we are reporting the prevalence and intensity of the STH in the school children of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of STH infection among the school children, aged between 5-10 years in 27 districts randomly selected districts with covering nine agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. For this cross-sectional survey, we have selected the populations of government primary school going children in Uttar Pradesh. The sampling was performed in the nine different agro-climatic zones. Every individual of the study populations filled their daily information in the questioner's form and then the sample was collected and processed by kato-katz methods by following the guidelines of WHO. In this method, the sampling was performed in total of 6421 populations. A total of 6,421 children from 130 schools were surveyed. Infection with any soil-transmitted helminths was detected among 4,578 children with an overall prevalence of 75.6% (95% CI: 65.3-83.6). Among the 6421 population, the prevalence of Ascaris is 69.6% (95% CL 57.97-79.11), hookworm is 22.7% (95%CL 19.3-26.3) and Trichuris sp is 4.6% (95% CL 0.8-21.6), so the predicted prevalence map indicates that the STH infection was hyperendemic in this state. The findings of our survey in 130 schools covering 9 agro-climatic with one or more soil transmitted helminths. Majority of STH infections were of light intensity. STH infection was hyper-endemic in entire state, except three zones in western Uttar Pradesh. High prevalence ( > 75%) in all age groups also indicate little impact of existing deworming initiatives, including those among pre-school aged children. WHO recommends annual treatment in areas where STH prevalence is between 20% and 50%, and, a bi-annual treatment in areas with prevalence rates of over 50%. In view of high prevalence of STH infection in Uttar Pradesh, it is strongly recommended to initiate a deworming programme for school children in the state. Although our survey was among primary school children, high prevalence among children aged 4-6 years also indicates the need to strengthen the existing deworming programs for pre-school children. Extending the benefits of deworming to pre-school children through deworming in Anganwadi schools would further reduce to decrease the load of infection in community. As a long-term solution for control STH infection, it is also necessary to improve the sanitation levels in the area, as majority of the houses did not have latrines and most of the children were defecating in open fields, a factor that was found to be significantly associated with STH infection.

Keywords: prevalence, school going children, soil transmitted helminthes, Uttar Pradesh-India

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3 Immunomodulatory Role of Heat Killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii against Cervical Cancer

Authors: Priyanka Bhowmik, Subrata Majumdar, Debprasad Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the third major cause of cancer in women and the second most frequent cause of cancer related deaths causing 300,000 deaths annually worldwide. Evasion of immune response by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), the key contributing factor behind cancer and pre-cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix, makes immunotherapy a necessity to treat this disease. Objective: A Heat killed fraction of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a non-pathogenic Mycobacterium has been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects on different cancer cells, including human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study is to decipher the mechanism of MIP induced HeLa cell death. Methods: The cytotoxicity of Mycobacterium indicus pranii against HeLa cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V and Propidium iodide (PI) staining. The assessment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell cycle analysis were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis associated genes was analyzed by real time PCR. Result: MIP could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell in a time and dose dependent manner but caused minor damage to normal cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the cell surface presentation of phosphatidyl serine, DNA fragmentation, and mitochondrial damage. MIP caused very early (as early as 30 minutes) transcriptional activation of p53, followed by a higher activation (32 fold) at 24 hours suggesting prime importance of p53 in MIP-induced apoptosis in HeLa cell. The up regulation of p53 dependent pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bak, PUMA, and Noxa followed a lag phase that was required for the transcriptional p53 program. MIP also caused the transcriptional up regulation of Toll like receptor 2 and 4 after 30 minutes of MIP treatment suggesting recognition of MIP by toll like receptors. Moreover, MIP caused the inhibition of expression of HPV anti apoptotic gene E6, which is known to interfere with p53/PUMA/Bax apoptotic cascade. This inhibition might have played a role in transcriptional up regulation of PUMA and subsequently apoptosis. ROS was generated transiently which was concomitant with the highest transcription activation of p53 suggesting a plausible feedback loop network of p53 and ROS in the apoptosis of HeLa cells. Scavenger of ROS, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, decreased apoptosis suggesting ROS is an important effector of MIP induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Taken together, MIP possesses full potential to be a novel therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: cancer, mycobacterium, immunity, immunotherapy.

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2 Impact of Agricultural Infrastructure on Diffusion of Technology of the Sample Farmers in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal

Authors: Saikat Majumdar, D. C. Kalita

Abstract:

The Agriculture sector plays an important role in the rural economy of India. It is the backbone of our Indian economy and is the dominant sector in terms of employment and livelihood. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important source of raw materials as well as of demand for many industrial products particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods, etc. The performance of the agricultural sector influences the growth of Indian economy. According to the 2011 Agricultural Census of India, an estimated 61.5 percentage of rural populations are dependent on agriculture. Proper Agricultural infrastructure has the potential to transform the existing traditional agriculture into a most modern, commercial and dynamic farming system in India through its diffusion of technology. The rate of adoption of modern technology reflects the progress of development in agricultural sector. The adoption of any improved agricultural technology is also dependent on the development of road infrastructure or road network. The present study was consisting of 300 sample farmers out which 150 samples was taken from the developed area and rest 150 samples was taken from underdeveloped area. The samples farmers under develop and underdeveloped areas were collected by using Multistage Random Sampling procedure. In the first stage, North 24 Parganas District have been selected purposively. Then from the district, one developed and one underdeveloped block was selected randomly. In the third phase, 10 villages have been selected randomly from each block. Finally, from each village 15 sample farmers was selected randomly. The extents of adoption of technology in different areas were calculated through various parameters. These are percentage area under High Yielding Variety Cereals, percentage area under High Yielding Variety pulses, area under hybrids vegetables, irrigated area, mechanically operated area, amount spent on fertilizer and pesticides, etc. in both developed and underdeveloped areas of North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal. The percentage area under High Yielding Variety Cereals in the developed and underdeveloped areas was 34.86 and 22.59. 42.07 percentages and 31.46 percentages for High Yielding Variety pulses respectively. In the case the area under irrigation it was 57.66 and 35.71 percent while for the mechanically operated area it was 10.60 and 3.13 percent respectively in developed and underdeveloped areas of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. It clearly showed that the extent of adoption of technology was significantly higher in the developed area over underdeveloped area. Better road network system helps the farmers in increasing his farm income, farm assets, cropping intensity, marketed surplus and the rate of adoption of new technology. With this background, an attempt is made in this paper to study the impact of Agricultural Infrastructure on the adoption of modern technology in agriculture in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal.

Keywords: agricultural infrastructure, adoption of technology, farm income, road network

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1 Time Travel Testing: A Mechanism for Improving Renewal Experience

Authors: Aritra Majumdar

Abstract:

While organizations strive to expand their new customer base, retaining existing relationships is a key aspect of improving overall profitability and also showcasing how successful an organization is in holding on to its customers. It is an experimentally proven fact that the lion’s share of profit always comes from existing customers. Hence seamless management of renewal journeys across different channels goes a long way in improving trust in the brand. From a quality assurance standpoint, time travel testing provides an approach to both business and technology teams to enhance the customer experience when they look to extend their partnership with the organization for a defined phase of time. This whitepaper will focus on key pillars of time travel testing: time travel planning, time travel data preparation, and enterprise automation. Along with that, it will call out some of the best practices and common accelerator implementation ideas which are generic across verticals like healthcare, insurance, etc. In this abstract document, a high-level snapshot of these pillars will be provided. Time Travel Planning: The first step of setting up a time travel testing roadmap is appropriate planning. Planning will include identifying the impacted systems that need to be time traveled backward or forward depending on the business requirement, aligning time travel with other releases, frequency of time travel testing, preparedness for handling renewal issues in production after time travel testing is done and most importantly planning for test automation testing during time travel testing. Time Travel Data Preparation: One of the most complex areas in time travel testing is test data coverage. Aligning test data to cover required customer segments and narrowing it down to multiple offer sequencing based on defined parameters are keys for successful time travel testing. Another aspect is the availability of sufficient data for similar combinations to support activities like defect retesting, regression testing, post-production testing (if required), etc. This section will talk about the necessary steps for suitable data coverage and sufficient data availability from a time travel testing perspective. Enterprise Automation: Time travel testing is never restricted to a single application. The workflow needs to be validated in the downstream applications to ensure consistency across the board. Along with that, the correctness of offers across different digital channels needs to be checked in order to ensure a smooth customer experience. This section will talk about the focus areas of enterprise automation and how automation testing can be leveraged to improve the overall quality without compromising on the project schedule. Along with the above-mentioned items, the white paper will elaborate on the best practices that need to be followed during time travel testing and some ideas pertaining to accelerator implementation. To sum it up, this paper will be written based on the real-time experience author had on time travel testing. While actual customer names and program-related details will not be disclosed, the paper will highlight the key learnings which will help other teams to implement time travel testing successfully.

Keywords: time travel planning, time travel data preparation, enterprise automation, best practices, accelerator implementation ideas

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