Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: PANI

34 Elaboration of Composites with Thermoplastic Matrix Polypropylene Charged by the Polyaniline Synthesized by the Self-Curling Method

Authors: Selma Saadia, Nacira Naar, Ahmed Benaboura


This work is dedicated to the elaboration of composites (PP/PANI) with Polypropylene (PP) as thermoplastic polymer and the polyaniline (PANI) as electric charge doped with sulfanilic acid (PANI-As). These realized formulations are intended for the antistatic domain. The used conductive polymer is synthesized by the method self-curling which proved the obtaining of the nanoparticles of PANI in regular morphological forms. The PANI and PP composites are fabricated into a film by a twin-screw extruding. Several methods of characterization are proposed: spectroscopic, thermal, and electric. The realized composites proved a pseudo-homogeneous aspect and the threshold percolation study, showed that the formulation with 7% of PANI presents a better formulation which can be used in the antistatic domain.

Keywords: extruding, PANI, Polypropylene, sulfanilic acid, self-Curling

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33 Polymerspolyaniline/CMK-3/Hydroquinone Composite Electrode for Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Hu-Cheng Weng, Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang, An-Ya Lo


In this study, carbon mesoporous material, CMK-3, was adopted as supporting material for electroactive polymerspolyaniline (PANI), polyaniline, for supercapacitor application, where hydroquinone (HQ) was integrated to enhance the redox reaction of PANI. The results show that the addition of PANI improves the capacitance of electrode from 89 F/g (CMK-3) to 337 F/g (PANI/CMK-3), the addition of HQ furtherly improves the capacitance to 463 F/g (PANI/CMK-3/HQ). The PANI provides higher energy density and also acts as binder of the electrode; the CMK-3 provides higher electron double layer capacitance EDLC and stabilize the polyaniline by its highly porosity. With the addition of HQ, the capacitance of PANI/CMK-3 was further enhanced. In-situ analyses including cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), electron impedance spectrum (EIS) analyses were applied for electrode performance examination. For materials characterization, the crystal structure, morphology, microstructure, and porosity were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 77K N2 adsorption/desorption analyses, respectively. The effects of electrolyte pH value, PANI polymerization time, HQ concentration, and PANI/CMK-3 ratio on capacitance were discussed. The durability was also studied by long-term operation test. The results show that PANI/CMK-3/HQ with great potential for supercapacitor application. Finally, the potential of all-solid PANI/CMK-3/HQ based supercapacitor was successfully demonstrated.

Keywords: CMK3, PANI, redox electrolyte, solid supercapacitor

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32 Poly(Butadiene-co-Acrylonitrile)-Polyaniline Dodecylbenzenesulfonate [NBR-PAni.DBSA] Blends for Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

Authors: Kok-Chong Yong


Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)-polyaniline Dodecylbenzenesulfonate [NBR-PAni.DBSA] blends with useful electrical conductivity (up to 0.1 S/cm) were prepared and their corrosion inhibiting behaviours for carbon steel were successfully assessed for the first time. The level of compatibility between NBR and PAni.DBSA was enhanced through the introduction of 1.0 wt % hydroquinone. As found from both total immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests, NBR-PAni.DBSA blends with 10.0-30.0 wt% of PAni.DBSA content exhibited the best corrosion inhibiting behaviour for carbon steel, either in acid or artificial brine environment. On the other hand, blends consisting of very low and very high PAni.DBSA contents (i.e. ≤ 5.0 wt % and ≥ 40.0 wt %) showed significantly poorer corrosion inhibiting behaviour for carbon steel.

Keywords: conductive rubber, nitrile rubber, polyaniline, carbon steel, corrosion inhibition

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31 Dielectric Properties of PANI/h-BN Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Emrah Cakmakci


Polyaniline (PANI), the most studied member of the conductive polymers, has a wide range of uses from several electronic devices to various conductive high-technology applications. Boron nitride (BN) is a boron and nitrogen containing compound with superior chemical and thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Even though several composites of PANI was prepared in literature, the preparation of h-BN/PANI composites is rare. In this work PANI was polymerized in the presence of different amounts of h-BN (1, 3 and 5% with respect to PANI) by using 0.1 M solution of NH4S2O8 in HCl as the oxidizing agent and conductive composites were prepared. Composites were structurally characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Thermal properties of conductive composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric measurements were performed in the frequency range of 106–108 Hz at room temperature. The corresponding bands for the benzenoid and quinoid rings at around 1593 and 1496 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of the composites proved the formation of polyaniline. Together with the FTIR spectra, XRD analysis also revealed the existence of the interactions between PANI and h-BN. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the composites increased with the increasing amount of PANI (from 87 to 101). TGA revealed that the char yield of the composites increased as the amount of h-BN was increased in the composites. Finally the dielectric permittivity of 3 wt.%h-BN-containing composite was measured and found as approximately 17. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: dielectric permittivity, h-BN, PANI, thermal analysis

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30 Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Polyaniline Films for Improved Dielectric Properties

Authors: Anjana Jain, S. Jayanth Kumar


Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a well-known material for remarkable mechanical properties, resistance to chemicals and superior ferroelectric performances. This endows PVDF the potential for application in supercapacitor devices. The dielectric properties of PVDF, however, are not very high. To improve the dielectric properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), Piezoelectric polymer nanocomposites are prepared without affecting the other useful properties of PVDF. Polyaniline (PANI) was chosen as a filler material to prepare the nanocomposites. PVDF-PANI nanocomposite films were prepared using solvent cast method with different volume fractions of PANI varying from 0.04% to 0.048% of PANI content. The films are characterized for structural, mechanical, and surface morphological properties using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, Raman spectra, Infrared spectra, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, prepared films were in β-phase. The DSC scans indicated that the degree of crystallinity in PVDF-PANI is improved. Raman and Infrared spectrum further confirm the presence of β-phase of PVDF-PANI film. Tensile properties of PVDF-PANI films were in good agreement with those reported in literature. The surface feature shows that PANI is uniformly distributed in PVDF and also results in disappearance of spherulites. The influence of volume fraction of PANI in PVDF on dielectric properties was analyzed. The results showed that the dielectric permittivity of PVDF-PANI (120) was much higher than that of PVDF (12). The sensitivity of these films was studied on application of a pressure and a constant output voltage was obtained.

Keywords: dielectric Properties, PANI, PVDF, smart materials

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29 Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings

Authors: N. Boshkova, K. Kamburova, N. Tabakova, N. Boshkov, Ts. Radeva


Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.

Keywords: corrosion, polyaniline-silica particles, zinc, protective ability

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28 Electrical and Structural Properties of Polyaniline-Fullerene Nanocomposite

Authors: M. Nagaraja, H. M. Mahesh, K. Rajanna, M. Z. Kurian, J. Manjanna


In recent years, composites of conjugated polymers with fullerenes (C60) has attracted considerable scientific and technological attention in the field of organic electronics because they possess a novel combination of electrical, optical, ferromagnetic, mechanical and sensor properties. These properties represent major advances in the design of organic electronic devices. With the addition of C60 in the conjugated polymer matrix, the primary photo-excitation of the conjugated polymer undergoes an ultrafast electron transfer, and it has been demonstrated that fullerene molecules may serve as efficient electron acceptors in polymeric solar cells. The present paper includes the systematic studies on the effect of electrical, structural and sensor properties of polyaniline (PANI) matrix by the presence of C60. Polyaniline-fullerene (PANI/C60) composite is prepared by the introduction of fullerene during polymerization of aniline with ammonium persulfate and dodechyl benzene sulfonic acid as oxidant and dopant respectively. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the interaction between PANI and C60. X-ray diffraction proved the formation of a PANI/C60 complex. SEM image shows the highly branched chain structure of the PANI in the presence of C60. The conductivity of the PANI/C60 was found to be more than ten orders of magnitude over the pure PANI.

Keywords: conductivity, fullerene, nanocomposite, polyaniline

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27 Disposable PANI-CeO2 Sensor for the Electrocatalytic Simultaneous Quantification of Amlodipine and Nebivolol

Authors: Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain, Swati Sharma


A chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML) and nebivolol (NBV). Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was fabricated by the addition of Gr/PANI-CeO2. Gr/PANI-CeO2/CPE has achieved excellent electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity. AML and NBV exhibited oxidation peaks at 0.70 and 0.90 V respectively on Gr/ PANI-CeO2/CPE. The linearity range of AML and NBV was 0.1 to 1.6 μgmL-1 in BR buffer (pH 8.0). The Limit of detection (LOD) was 20.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 30.0 ngmL-1 for NBV and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 80.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 100 ngmL-1 for NBV respectively. These analyses were also determined in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum and good recovery was obtained for the developed method.

Keywords: amlodipine, nebivolol, square wave voltammetry, carbon paste electrode, simultaneous quantification

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26 Formation of Stable Aqueous Dispersions of Polyaniline-Silica Particles for Application in Anticorrosive Coatings on Steel

Authors: K. Kamburova, N. Boshkova, N. Boshkov, T. Radeva


Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. Two forms of PANI are generally accepted to have effective protection of steel: the conducting emeraldine salt (ES) and the non-conducting emeraldine base (EB). The ability to intercept electrons at the metal surface and to transport them is typically attributed to ES, while the success of EB as an anticorrosive additive in the coating is attributed to its ability to oxidize and reduce in a reversible way. This electrochemical mechanism is probably combined with barrier effect against corrosion species. In this work, we describe the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO₂ particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO₂ particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO₂ particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH > 5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO₂ particles. We anticipate that incorporation of the small particles will provide a more homogeneous distribution in the coating matrix and will decrease the negative effect on barrier properties of the composite coating.

Keywords: particles, stable dispersion, composite coatings, corrosion protection

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25 Epitaxial Growth of Crystalline Polyaniline on Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: D. Majumdar, M. Baskey, S. K. Saha


Graphene has already been identified as a promising material for future carbon based electronics. To develop graphene technology, the fabrication of a high quality P-N junction is a great challenge. In the present work, we have described a simple and general technique to grow single crystalline polyaniline (PANI) films on graphene sheets using in situ polymerization via the oxidation-reduction of aniline monomer and graphene oxide, respectively, to fabricate a high quality P-N junction, which shows diode-like behavior with a remarkably low turn-on voltage (60 mV) and high rectification ratio (1880:1) up to a voltage of 0.2 Volt. The origin of these superior electronic properties is the preferential growth of a highly crystalline PANI film as well as lattice matching between the d-values [~2.48 Å] of graphene and {120} planes of PANI.

Keywords: epitaxial growth, PANI, reduced graphene oxide, rectification ratio

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24 Magnetoresistance Transition from Negative to Positive in Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube and Composite with Polyaniline

Authors: Krishna Prasad Maity, Narendra Tanty, Ananya Patra, V. Prasad


Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a well-known material for very good electrical, thermal conductivity and high tensile strength. Because of that, it’s widely used in many fields like nanotechnology, electronics, optics, etc. In last two decades, polyaniline (PANI) with CNT and functionalized CNT (fCNT) have been promising materials in application of gas sensing, electromagnetic shielding, electrode of capacitor etc. So, the study of electrical conductivity of PANI/CNT and PANI/fCNT is important to understand the charge transport and interaction between PANI and CNT in the composite. It is observed that a transition in magnetoresistance (MR) with lowering temperature, increasing magnetic field and decreasing CNT percentage in CNT/PANI composite. Functionalization of CNT prevent the nanotube aggregation, improves interfacial interaction, dispersion and stabilized in polymer matrix. However, it shortens the length, breaks C-C sp² bonds and enhances the disorder creating defects on the side walls. We have studied electrical resistivity and MR in PANI with CNT and fCNT composites for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2K and up to magnetic field 5T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long-range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

Keywords: coulomb interaction, magnetoresistance transition, polyaniline composite, polaron-bipolaron

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23 Electrochemical Response Transductions of Graphenated-Polyaniline Nanosensor for Environmental Anthracene

Authors: O. Tovide, N. Jahed, N. Mohammed, C. E. Sunday, H. R. Makelane, R. F. Ajayi, K. M. Molapo, A. Tsegaye, M. Masikini, S. Mailu, A. Baleg, T. Waryo, P. G. Baker, E. I. Iwuoha


A graphenated–polyaniline (GR-PANI) nanocomposite sensor was constructed and used for the determination of anthracene. The direct electro-oxidation behavior of anthracene on the GR-PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as the sensing principle. The results indicate thatthe response profile of the oxidation of anthracene on GR-PANI-modified GCE provides for the construction of sensor systems based onamperometric and potentiometric signal transductions. A dynamic linear range of 0.12- 100 µM anthracene and a detection limit of 0.044 µM anthracene were established for the sensor system.

Keywords: electrochemical sensors, environmental pollutants, graphenated-polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon

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22 Synthesis and D.C. Conductivity Measurements of Polyaniline/CopperOxide Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, P. Madhusudana Rao


The Polyaniline / Copper Oxide(PANI / CuO) nanocomposite was prepared by solution mixing of prepared Polyaniline and copper Oxide in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The synthesis involved the formation of dark green colored Polyaniline-Copper Oxide nanocomposite. The synthesized polymer nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the presence of CuO in the polymer structure. SEM analysis revealed formation of PANI/CuO nano composite The D.C. conductivity measurements were performed using two probe method for various temperatures.

Keywords: polyaniline/copper oxide (PANI/CuO) nanocomposite, XRD, SEM, FTIRand DC- conductivity, UV-visible spectra

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21 Chemical Synthesis, Electrical and Antibacterial Properties of Polyaniline/Gold Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, M. Kalpana, P. Madhusudana Rao


Polyaniline/gold (PANI/Au) nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. The synthesis involved the formation of polyaniline-gold nanocomposite, by in-situ redox reaction and the dispersion of gold nano particles throughout the polyaniline matrix. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in FTIR and UV-visible spectra confirmed the expected structure of polymer as reported in the literature. Further, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of gold nano particles. The crystallite size of 30 nm for nanoAu was supported by the XRD pattern. Further, the A.C. conductivity, dielectric constant (€’(w)) and dielectric loss (€’’(w)) of PANI/Au nano composite was measured using impedance analyzer. The effect of doping on the conductivity was investigated. The antibacterial activity was examined for this nano composite and it was observed that PANI/Au nanocomposite could be used as an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: AC-conductivity, anti-microbial activity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, polyaniline/gold (PANI/AU) nanocomposite

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20 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar


Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

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19 Removal of Tartrazine Dye Form Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on the Surface of Polyaniline/Iron Oxide Composite

Authors: Salem Ali Jebreil


In this work, a polyaniline/Iron oxide (PANI/Fe2O3) composite was chemically prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline in acid medium, in presence of ammonium persulphate as an oxidant and amount of Fe2O3. The composite was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composite has been used as adsorbent to remove Tartrazine dye form aqueous solutions. The effects of initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity of PANI/Fe2O3 for Tartrazine dye have been studied in this paper. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models have been used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium data. The best fit is obtained using the Freundlich isotherm with an R2 value of 0.998. The change of Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption has been also evaluated for the adsorption of Tartrazine onto PANI/ Fe2O3. It has been proved according the results that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature.

Keywords: adsorption, composite, dye, polyaniline, tartrazine

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18 Synthesis and Electromagnetic Property of Li₀.₃₅Zn₀.₃Fe₂.₃₅O₄ Grafted with Polyaniline Fibers

Authors: Jintang Zhou, Zhengjun Yao, Tiantian Yao


Li₀.₃₅Zn₀.₃Fe₂.₃₅O₄(LZFO) grafted with polyaniline (PANI) fibers was synthesized by in situ polymerization. FTIR, XRD, SEM, and vector network analyzer were used to investigate chemical composition, micro-morphology, electromagnetic properties and microwave absorbing properties of the composite. The results show that PANI fibers were grafted on the surfaces of LZFO particles. The reflection loss exceeds 10 dB in the frequency range from 2.5 to 5 GHz and from 15 to 17GHz, and the maximum reflection loss reaches -33 dB at 15.9GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption properties of LZFO/PANI-fiber composites are mainly ascribed to the combined effect of both dielectric loss and magnetic loss and the improved impedance matching.

Keywords: Li₀.₃₅Zn₀.₃Fe₂.₃₅O₄, polyaniline, electromagnetic properties, microwave absorbing properties

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17 Synthesis and Properties of Photocured Surface Modified Polyaniline Hybrid Composites

Authors: Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Memet Vezi̇r Kahraman


Organic–inorganic hybrids have become an effective source of advanced materials because they combine the advantages of both the organic moiety such as flexibility, low dielectric constant, and processability, and inorganic moiety as rigidity, strength, durability, and thermal stability. By incorporating cross-linkable side chains, the hybrid materials can be made photosensitive and UV curable, which offers many advantages including low processing temperature, low equipment cost and compatibility. In this study, uv-curable organic-inorganic hybrid material, which was contained surface modified polyaniline particles (PANI), was prepared. PANI surface photografted with hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to produce hydroxyl groups. Hydroxyl functionalized PANI/HEMA was acrylated using isocyanato ethyl methacrylate (IEM) in order to improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction in composites. UV-curable formulation was prepared by mixing the surface modified PANI, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), hydrolized 3- methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (hyd. MEMO) and photoinitiator. Chemical structure of nano-hybrid material was characterized by FTIR. FTIR spectra showed that the photografting of PANI was prepared successfully. Thermal properties of the nano-hybrid material were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of the nano-hybrid material was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: polyaniline, photograft, sol-gel, uv-curable polymer

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16 Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength

Authors: J. Subbalakshmi, G. Dhruvasamhith, S. M. Hussain


Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.

Keywords: surface morphology, processed films, polyvinyl alcohol, templated polyanilines, tensile testing

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15 Synthesis, Characterization and Electrical Studies of Solid Polymer Electrolyte (1-x) PANI-KAg₄I₅.xAl₂O₃

Authors: Rafiuddin


Solid polymer electrolytes have emerged as an area of interest in the field of solid state chemistry owing to their facile and cost-effective synthesis and number of applications in different areas of chemistry, extending over a wide range of temperatures. In the present work, polymer composite solid electrolyte comprising of Polyaniline (PANI) as polymer and potassium silver iodide (KAg4I5) using alumina (Al2O3) of different compositions having the formula (1-x) PANI- KAg4I5. x Al2O3 with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 was prepared by solid state reaction method. The structural elucidation and characterization was done by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric- Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and Impedance Spectroscopy. The thermal analysis shows a phase transition at 147°C attributed to β-α phase transition of AgI due to the disproportionation of KAg4I5 to AgI and KAg2I3 at temperatures higher than 36°C. The X Ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of both AgI and KAg2I3 in the samples. The conductivities recorded over a temperature range of 40-250° C lie in the range of 10-1 to 10-3 S cm-1. Maximum conductivity was seen in the compositon x = 0.4 i.e. 1.84 × 10-2 Scm-1 at 313 K and 1.38 × 10-1 Scm-1 at 513 K, with a minimum activation energy of 0.14 eV.

Keywords: polymer solid electrolytes, XRD, DTA, electrical conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

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14 Comparative Studies of Modified Clay/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatima Zohra Zeggai, Benjamin Carbonnier, Aïcha Hachemaoui, Ahmed Yahiaoui, Samia Mahouche-Chergui, Zakaria Salmi


A series of polyaniline (PANI)/modified Montmorillonite (MMT) Clay nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by In-Situ polymerization in the presence of modified MMT-Clay or Diazonium-MMT-Clay. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized and compared by various physicochemical techniques. The presence of physicochemical interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, between clay and polyaniline, which was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of the obtained nanocomposites were also studied by cyclic voltammograms.

Keywords: polyaniline, clay, nanocomposites, in-situ polymerization, polymers conductors, diazonium salt

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13 Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Polyaniline/Nickel Sulphide Nanocomposite

Authors: Ugwu Laeticia Udodiri, Bashiru Lukuman, Okpaneje Onyinye Theresa


This work is on the synthesis and study of optical characterization of polyaniline/nickel sulphide nanocomposite. Polyaniline (PANI) and nickel sulphide (NiS) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization and sol gel method. The polyaniline nickel sulphide nanocomposites with various concentrations of NiS were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer. In each case, the nickel sulphide nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the aniline hydrochloride before initiation of chemical oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate. The samples formed were subjected to optical characterization using ultraviolet (UV)-visible light (VIS) spectrophotometer (model: 756S UV – VIS). Optical analysis of the synthesized nanoparticles and nanocomposites showed absorption of radiation within VIS regions. Other optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient and energy band gap were evaluated. Tauc model was used to obtain the optical band gap. Energy band gap values of PANI and NiS were found to be 2.50 eV and 1.95 eV, respectively. PANI/NiS nanocomposites have an energy band gap that decreased from 2.25 eV to 1.90 eV as the amount of NiS increased (from 0.5g to 2.0g). These optical results showed that these nanocomposites are potential materials to be considered in solar cell and optoelectronics devices.

Keywords: polyaniline, nickel sulphide, polyaniline-nickel sulphide nanocomposite, optical characterization

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12 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites

Authors: Yashfeen Khan, Anees Ahmad


In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.

Keywords: biosensors, CNT, hybrids, polyaniline, synergism

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11 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava


Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles, characterization, pharmaceutical sciences

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10 Flexible Polyaniline-Based Composite Films for High-Performance Super Capacitors

Authors: A. Khosrozadeh, M. A. Darabi, M. Xing, Q. Wang


Fabrication of a high-performance supercapacitor (SC) using a flexible cellulose-based composite film of polyaniline (PANI), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and silver nanowires (AgNWs) is reported. The flexibility, high capacitive behaviour, and cyclic stability of the entire device make it a good candidate for wearable SCs. The results show that a capacitance as high as 73.4 F/g (1.6 F/cm2) at a discharge rate of 1.1 A/g is achieved by the device. In addition, the SC demonstrates a power density up to 468.8 W/kg and an energy density up to 5.1 wh/kg. The flexibility of the composite film is attributed to the binding effect of cellulose fibers as well as reinforcing effect of AgNWs. The excellent electrochemical performance of the device is found to be owing to the synergistic effect between PANI/RGO/AgNWs ternary in a cushiony cellulose matrix and porous structure of the composite.

Keywords: cellulose, polyaniline, reduced graphene oxide, silver, super capacitor

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9 Synthesis of Fullerene Nanorods for Detection of Ethylparaben an Endocrine Disruptor in Cosmetics

Authors: Jahangir Ahmad Rather, Emad A. Khudaish, Ahsanulhaq Qurashi, Palanisamy Kannan


Chemical modification and assembling of fullerenes are fundamentally important for the application of fullerenes as functional molecules and in molecular devices and organic electronic devices. We have synthesized fullerene nanorods C60NRs conjugate via liquid-liquid interface and the synthesized C60NRs was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The C60NRs were immobilized on glassy carbon electrode via surface bound diazonium salts as an impact strategy. This method involves electrografting of p–nitrophenyl to give GCE–Ph–NO2 and then the terminal nitro-group was chemically reduced to GCE–Ph–NH2 in a presence of sodium borohydride/gold–polyaniline nanocomposite (NaBH4/Au–PANI). The Au–PANI composite was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, UV-vis, SEM and EDX techniques. The C60NRs were immobilized on GCE–Ph–NH2 via amination reaction which involves N-H addition across a π-bond on [60] fullerene. The immobilized C60NRs/GCE was subjected to electrochemical reduction in 1.0 M KOH to yield ERC60NRs/GCE sensor. The developed sensor shows high electrocatalytic activity for the detection of ethylparaben (EP) over a concentration range from 0.01 to 0.52 µM with a detection limit (LOD) 3.8 nM. The amount of EP present in the nourishing repair cream (OlAY®) was determined by standard addition method at the developed ERC60NRs/GCE sensor. The total concentration of EP was found to be 0.011 µM (0.1%) and is within the permissible limit of 0.19 % EP in cosmetics according to the European scientific committee (SCCS) on consumer safety on 22 March 2011 (SCCS/1348/11).

Keywords: diazonium salt reduction, ethylparaben (EP), endocrine disruptor, fullerene nanorods (C60NRs), gold–polyaniline nanocomposite (Au–PANI)

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8 Designing Modified Nanocarriers Containing Selenium Nanoparticles Extracted from the Lactobacillus acidophilus and Their Anticancer Properties

Authors: Mahnoosh Aliahmadi, Akbar Esmaeili


This study synthesized new modified imaging nanocapsules (NCs) of [email protected]/folic acid/chitosan/polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol ([email protected]/FA/CS/PANI/PVA) containing Morus nigra extract by selenium nanoparticles prepared from Lactobacillus acidophilus. Se nanoparticles were then deposited on ([email protected]/FA/CS/PANI/PVA) using the impregnation method. The modified contrast agents were mixed with M. nigra extract, and their antibacterial activities were investigated by applying them to L929 cell lines. The influence of variable factors including surfactant, solvent, aqueous phase, pH, buffer, minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), cytotoxicity on cancer cells, antibiotic, antibiogram, release and loading, stirring effect, the concentration of nanoparticle, olive oil, and thermotical methods was investigated. The structure and morphology of the synthesized contrast agents were characterized by zeta potential sizer analysis (ZPS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental section was conducted and monitored by response surface methods (RSM) and MTT conversion assay. Antibiogram testing of NCs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria was successful, and the MIC=2 factor was obtained with a less harmful effect.

Keywords: imaging contrast agent, nanoparticles, response surface method, Lactobacillus acidophilus, selenium

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7 MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19/Polyanilie Nanocomposite for Microwave Absorbing Applications

Authors: Pallab Bhattacharya, C. K. Das


Development of microwave absorbing material is a growing field of research in both the commercial and defense sector, and also to enrich the field of stealth technology. The recent work is attentive to the preparation of nanocomposite based on acid modified MWCNT, hexagonal shaped magnetic M-type hexaferrite (CuFe10Al2O19) and polyaniline. CuFe10Al2O19 was prepared by a facile chemical co-precipitation method. An in-situ approach was employed for the coating of polyaniline on MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19 nanocomposite. The final fabrication of this nanocomposite for microwave measurements was done suitably in the matrix of thermoplastic polyurethane with 10% filler content. The nanocomposites showed the maximum reflection loss of -60.2 dB (in X-band) at the thickness of 2.5 mm with a broad absorption range in contrast to the pristine MWCNT and CuFe10Al2O19. Addition of PANI improves the microwave absorption property of the nanocomposites. The thermal stability of the prepared nanocomposites is also very high.

Keywords: magnetic materials, microwave absorption, MWCNT, nanocomposites

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6 Bienzymatic Nanocomposites Biosensors Complexed with Gold Nanoparticles, Polyaniline, Recombinant MN Peroxidase from Corn, and Glucose Oxidase to Measure Glucose

Authors: Anahita Izadyar


Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we are fabricating a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial novel biosensor to measure glucose. We are applying Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP), glucose oxidase (GOx), polyaniline (PANI) as conductive polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Au electrode using electrochemical response to detect glucose. We applied the entrapment method of enzyme composition, which is generally used to immobilize conductive polymer and facilitate electron transfer from the enzyme oxidation-reduction center to the sample solution. In this work, the oxidation of glucose on the modified gold electrode was quantified with Linear Sweep Voltammetry(LSV). We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold nanoparticles electrode, polyaniline

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5 Divalent Iron Oxidative Process for Degradation of Carbon and Nitrogen Based Pollutants from Dye Intermediate Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Nibedita Pani, Vishnu Tejani, T. S. Anantha Singh


Water pollution resulting from discharge of partial/not treated textile wastewater containing high carbon and nitrogen pollutants pose a huge threat to the environment, ecosystem, and human health. It is essential to remove carbon- and nitrogen-based organic pollutants more effectively from industrial wastewater before discharging. The present study focuses on removal of carbon-based pollutant in particular COD (chemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen-based pollutants, in particular, ammoniacal nitrogen by Fenton oxidation process using Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ as reagents. The study was carried out with high strength wastewater containing initial COD 5632 mg/L and NH⁴⁺-N 1372 mg/L. The major operating condition like pH was varied between 1.0 to 4.0. The maximum degradation was obtained at pH 3.0 taking the molar ratio of Fe²⁺/H₂O₂ as 1:1. At this pH, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were found to be 77.27% and 74.9%, respectively. The Fenton process can be the best alternative for the simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, Fenton oxidation, industrial wastewater

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