Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3169

Search results for: oxidation resistance

3169 High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Aluminized Steel by Arc Spray and Cementation Techniques

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Alireza Kiani Rashid, Abbas Afrasiabi

Abstract:

An aluminum coating deposited on mild steel substrate by electric arc spray and diffused to the base steel material by diffusion treatment at 800 and 900°C for 1 and 3 hours in a static air. Alloy layers formed by diffusion at both temperatures were investigated, and their features were compared with those of pack cementation aluminized steel. High-temperature oxidation tests were carried out in air at 600 °C for 145 hours. Results indicated that the aluminide coatings obtained from this process have significantly improved the high-temperature oxidation resistance in both methods due to the Al2O3 scale formation. Furthermore, it showed that the isothermal oxidation resistance of arc spray technique is better than pack cementation method. This can be attributed to voids that formed at the intermetallic layer /Al layer interface which is increased in the pack cementation method.

Keywords: electric arc spray, pack cementation, oxidation resistance, aluminized steel

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3168 Inter-Filling of CaO and MgO Mixed Layer in Surface Behavior of Al-Mg Alloys Containing Al2Ca

Authors: Seong-Ho Ha, Young-Ok Yoon, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Oxide layer of normal Al-Mg alloy can be characterized by upper MgO and lower MgAl2O4 spinel. The formation of the MgO outmost layer occurs by the surface segregation of Mg in the initial oxidation. After then, the oxidation is proceeded with the formation of MgA12O4 spinel beneath the MgO. Growth of the oxide layer is accelerated by constant formation of MgA12O4 spinel. On the other hand, the oxidation resistance of Al-Mg alloys can be significantly improved simply by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy use as the Mg alloying element and such an improvement is attributed to the CaO/MgO mixed layer. Al-Mg alloy containing Al2Ca shows CaO as the upper layer and MgO as the lower one without MgA12O4 spinel. Such a dense oxide film acts as a protective layer. However, the CaO/MgO scale has the outmost MgO, partly, after a long time exposure to a harsh oxidation condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-filling behaviour of CaO and MgO mixed layer in oxidation resistance mechanism of Al-Mg alloys containing Al2Ca. The process of outmost MgO layer formation will be clarified.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy, Al2Ca, oxidation, MgO

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3167 Chelating Effect of Black Tea Extract Compared to Citric Acid in the Process of the Oxidation of Sunflower, Canola, Olive, and Tallow Oils

Authors: Yousef Naserzadeh, Niloufar Mahmoudi

Abstract:

Oxidation resistance is one of the important parameters in maintaining the quality of olive oil during its storage. Ensuring the stability of the quality of olive oil is one of the important concerns of the producers and consumers. Prooxidants such as iron and copper accelerate the oxidation reaction, and also anti-oxidants and chelating compounds delay it. In this study, chelating effect of tea extract which contains significant amounts of tannic acid is investigated in comparison with citric acid. To do it, 0.1 ppm copper was added to these four kinds of oil, sunflower, olive, canola, and tallow, and then chelating effect of citric acid (0.01%), tannic acid (0.01%) and tea extract (0.1%) were measured by adding to this composition. To this end, the resistance time of the oils against oxidation was measured at 120 °C and an air flow of 20 liters per hour. And the value of peroxide was measured by oven test in six periods of 24 hours at 105 °C. The results showed that citric acid, tannic acid and tea extract had chelating property and increased the resistance time of the studied oils. As a result, considering chelating property and increasing resistance of oil, tannic acid showed better effect than tea extract and tea extract had better effect than citric acid.

Keywords: tannic acid, chelate, edible oils, black tea extract, TBHQ

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3166 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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3165 Effect of Sulfur on the High-Temperature Oxidation of DIN1.4091

Authors: M. J. Kim, D. B. Lee

Abstract:

Centrifugal casting is a metal casting method that uses forces make by centripetal acceleration to distribute molten material in mold. Centrifugal cast parts manufactured in industry contain gas pipes and water supply lines, moreover rings, turbocharger, bushings, brake drums. Turbochargers were exposed to exhaust temperatures of 900-1050°C require a material for the corrosion resistance that will withstand such high component temperatures during the entire service life of the vehicle. Hence, the study of corrosion resistance for turbocharger is important for practical application. DIN1.4091 steels were used widely. The DIN1.4091 steels whose compositions were Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) were centrifugally cast, and oxidized at 900°C for 50-200 h in order to find the effect of sulfur on the high-temperature oxidation of Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) alloys. These alloys formed oxide scales that consisted primarily of Cr₂O₃ as the major oxide and Cr₂MnO₄ as the minor one through preferential oxidation of Cr and Mn. Cr formed a thin CrOx oxide film on the surface to prevent further oxidation, and when it is added more than 20%, the sulphide decreased corrosion rate. The high affinity of Mn with S, led to the formation of scattered MnS inclusions, particularly in the 0.35S-containing cast alloy. Sulfur was harmful to the oxidation resistance because it deteriorated the scale/alloy adherence so as to accelerate the adherence and compactness of the formed scales. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A2B1013169).

Keywords: centrifugal casting, turbocharger, sulfur, oxidation, Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni alloy

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3164 Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Al, Y Modified Silicide Coatings Prepared on an Nb-Si Based Ultrahigh Temperature Alloy

Authors: Xiping Guo, Jing Li

Abstract:

The microstructure of an Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating prepared on an Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy by pack cementation process at 1250°C for eight hours was studied. The results showed that the coating was composed of a (Nb,X)Si₂ (X represents Ti, Cr and Hf elements) outer layer, a (Ti,Nb)₅Si₄ middle layer and an Al, Cr-rich inner layer. For comparison, the oxidation behaviors of the coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C were investigated respectively. Linear oxidation kinetics was found with the parabolic rate constants of 5.29×10⁻², 9×10⁻²and 5.81 mg² cm⁻⁴ h⁻¹, respectively. Catastrophic pesting oxidation has not been found at 800°C even for 100 h. The surface of the scale was covered by compact glassy SiO₂ film. The coating was able to effectively protect the Nb-Si based alloy from oxidation at 1350°C for at least 100 h. The formation process of the scale was testified following an epitaxial growth mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the oxidation behavior of the Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C was proposed.

Keywords: Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy, oxidation resistance, pack cementation, silicide coating, Al and Y modified

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3163 Optimizing Oxidation Process Parameters of Al-Li Base Alloys Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Muna K. Abbass, Laith A. Mohammed, Muntaha K. Abbas

Abstract:

The oxidation of Al-Li base alloy containing small amounts of rare earth (RE) oxides such as 0.2 wt% Y2O3 and 0.2wt% Nd2O3 particles have been studied at temperatures: 400ºC, 500ºC and 550°C for 60hr in a dry air. Alloys used in this study were prepared by melting and casting in a permanent steel mould under controlled atmosphere. Identification of oxidation kinetics was carried out by using weight gain/surface area (∆W/A) measurements while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis were used for micro structural morphologies and phase identification of the oxide scales. It was observed that the oxidation kinetic for all studied alloys follows the parabolic law in most experimental tests under the different oxidation temperatures. It was also found that the alloy containing 0.2 wt %Y 2O3 particles possess the lowest oxidation rate and shows great improvements in oxidation resistance compared to the alloy containing 0.2 wt % Nd2O3 particles and Al-Li base alloy. In this work, Taguchi method is performed to estimate the optimum weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter in oxidation process of Al-Li base alloys to obtain a minimum thickness of oxidation layer. Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyses the effect of each parameter (time, temperature and alloy type) on the oxidation generation and to predict the optimal choice for each parameter and analyzed the effect of these parameters on the weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter. The analysis shows that, the temperature significantly affects on the (∆W/A) parameter.

Keywords: Al-Li base alloy, oxidation, Taguchi method, temperature

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3162 Comparison of Structure and Corrosion Properties of Titanium Oxide Films Prepared by Thermal Oxidation, DC Plasma Oxidation, and by the Sol-Gel

Authors: O. Çomaklı, M. Yazıcı, T. Yetim, A. F. Yetim, A. Çelik

Abstract:

In this work, TiO₂ films were deposited on Cp-Ti substrates by thermal oxidation, DC plasma oxidation, and by the sol-gel method. Microstructures of uncoated and TiO₂ film coated samples were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM. Thin oxide film consisting of anatase (A) and rutile (R) TiO₂ structures was observed on the surface of CP-Ti by under three different treatments. Also, the more intense anatase and rutile peaks appeared at samples plasma oxidized at 700˚C. The thicknesses of films were about 1.8 μm at the TiO₂ film coated samples by sol-gel and about 2.7 μm at thermal oxidated samples, while it was measured as 3.9 μm at the plasma oxidated samples. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated specimens was mainly carried out by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Results showed that at the plasma oxidated samples exhibited a better resistance property to corrosion than that of other treatments.

Keywords: TiO₂, CP-Ti, corrosion properties, thermal oxidation, plasma oxidation, sol-gel

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3161 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, high temperature oxidation, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure

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3160 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

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3159 Dissimilar Welding Of New High Oxidation Material – Thor™ 115 With Vm-12 Shc

Authors: Michal Urzynicok, Krzysztof Kwiecinski

Abstract:

The development of materials used in the power generation industry for the production of boilers and their parts is characterized by high steam parameters, which present new challenges. Implementation of new combinations of alloying elements that lead to the best possible mechanical properties, including creep resistance, greatly affects new steels' weldability. All new grades have to undergo many different examinations, in regards to bending and welding, in order to enable the development of fabrication technologies, ensuring failure-free production and assembly of boiler components. 12% Cr martensitic steels like THOR™ 115 or VM-12 SHC are characterized by high oxidation resistance in high-temperature environments. At the moment, VM-12 SHC can be found in many boilers where both headers and superheater coils were produced. As this material is very difficult to obtain, a search for a proper replacement has begun. A new creep strength-enhanced ferritic steel for service in supercritical and ultra-supercritical boiler applications was developed by Tenaris in Italy and it is designated as Thor™115 (Tenaris High Oxidation Resistance). As high demand in power plants occurred to replace some parts of existing installations fabricated from VM12-SHC with other alternatives, a new development of welding procedures has begun to prepare fabricators for the challenges of joining old components with new THOR™ 115 material. This paper covers the first research of welding of dissimilar joints made out of VM12-SHC and THOR™ 115.

Keywords: thor, vm12, dissimilar welding, weldability

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3158 Micro-Arc Oxidation Titanium and Post Treatment by Cold Plasma and Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid for Biomedical Application

Authors: Shu-Chuan Liao, Chia-Ti Chang, Ko-Shao Chen

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloy are widely used in many fields such as dentistry or orthopaedics. Due to their high strength low elastic modulus that chemical inertness and bio inert. The micro-arc oxidation used to formation a micro porous ceramic oxide layer film on Titanium surface and also to improve the resistance corrosion. For improving the biocompatibility, micro-arc oxidation surfaces bio-inert need to introduce reactive group. We introduced boundary layer by used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and organic active layer by UV light graft reactive monomer acrylic acid (AAc) therefore we can immobilize Chondroitin sulphate on surface easily by crosslinking EDC/NHS. The surface properties and composition of the modified layer were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and water contact angle. Water contact angle of the plasma-treated Ti surface decreases from 60° to 38°, which is an indication of hydrophilicity. The results of electrochemical polarization analysis showed that the sample plasma treated at micro-arc oxidation after plasma treatment has the best corrosion resistance. The result showed that we can immobilize chondroitin sulfate successful by a series of modification and MTT assay indicated the biocompatibility has been improved in this study.

Keywords: MAO, plasma, graft polymerization, biomedical application

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3157 High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of NiCrAl Bond Coat Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering as Thermal Barrier Coatings

Authors: Folorunso Omoniyi, Peter Olubambi, Rotimi Sadiku

Abstract:

Thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is used in both aero engines and other gas turbines to offer oxidation protection to superalloy substrate component. In the present work, it shows the ability of a new fabrication technique to develop rapidly new coating composition and microstructure. The compact powders were prepared by Powder Metallurgy method involving powder mixing and the bond coat was synthesized through the application of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at 10500C to produce a fully dense (97%) NiCrAl bulk samples. The influence of sintering temperature on the hardness of NiCrAl, done by Micro Vickers hardness tester, was investigated. And Oxidation test was carried out at 1100oC for 20h, 40h, and 100h. The resulting coat was characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Micro XRD analysis after the oxidation test revealed the formation of protective oxides and non-protective oxides.

Keywords: high-temperature oxidation, powder metallurgy, spark plasma sintering, thermal barrier coating

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3156 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation, corrosion, wear, thermal property

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3155 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng

Abstract:

Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: oxidation, wettability, silicon, SiC

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3154 Electro-Oxidation of Glycerol Using Nickel Deposited Carbon Ceramic Electrode and Product Analysis Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Mulatu Kassie Birhanu

Abstract:

Electro-oxidation of glycerol is an important process to convert the less price glycerol into other expensive (essential) and energy-rich chemicals. In this study, nickel was electro-deposited on laboratory-made carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) substrate using electrochemical techniques that is cyclic voltammetry (CV) to prepare an electro-catalyst (Ni/CCE) for electro-oxidation of glycerol. Carbon ceramic electrode was prepared from graphite and methyl tri-methoxy silane (MTMOS) through the processes called hydrolysis and condensation with methanol in acidic media (HCl) by a sol-gel technique. Physico-chemical characterization of bare CCE and modified (deposited) CCE (Ni/CCE) was measured and evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electro-oxidation of glycerol was performed in 0.1 M glycerol in alkaline media (0.5 M NaOH). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to identify and determine the concentration of glycerol, reaction intermediates and oxidized products of glycerol after its electro-oxidation is performed. The conversion (%) of electro-oxidation of glycerol during 9-hour oxidation was 73% and 36% at 1.8V and 1.6V vs. RHE, respectively. Formate, oxalate, glycolate and glycerate are the main oxidation products of glycerol with selectivity (%) of 75%, 8.6%, 1.1% and 0.95 % at 1.8 V vs. RHE and 55.4%, 2.2%, 1.0% and 0.6% at 1.6 V vs. RHE respectively. The result indicates that formate is the main product in the electro-oxidation of glycerol on Ni/CCE using the indicated applied potentials.

Keywords: carbon-ceramic electrode, electrodeposition, electro-oxidation, Methyltrimethoxysilane

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3153 Catalytic Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Oxidation of Paraffin-Based Fuels

Authors: Lin-Lin Liu, Song-Qi Hu, Yin Wang

Abstract:

Paraffin-based fuels are regarded to be a promising fuel of hybrid rocked motor because of the high regression rate, low price, and environmental friendliness. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an attractive energetic material which is expected to be widely used in propellants, explosives, and some high energy fuels. Paraffin-based fuels with paraffin and GO as raw materials were prepared, and the oxidation process of the samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) under oxygen (O₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) atmospheres. The oxidation reaction kinetics of the fuels was estimated through the non-isothermal measurements and model-free isoconversional methods based on the experimental results of TGA. The results show that paraffin-based fuels are easier oxidized under O₂ rather than N₂O with atmospheres due to the lower activation energy; GO plays a catalytic role for the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels under the both atmospheres, and the activation energy of the oxidation process decreases with the increase of GO; catalytic effect of GO on the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels are more obvious under O₂ atmospheres than under N₂O atmospheres.

Keywords: graphene oxide, paraffin-based fuels, oxidation, activation energy, TGA

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3152 Proecological Antioxidants for Stabilisation of Polymeric Composites

Authors: A. Masek, M. Zaborski

Abstract:

Electrochemical oxidation of dodecyl gallate (lauryl gallate), the main monomer flavanol found in green tea, was investigated on platinum electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse (DPV) methods. The rate constant, electron transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients were determined for dodecyl gallate electrochemical oxidation. The oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps related to the hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring of dodecyl gallate. Confirmed antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate verified its use in polymers as an environment-friendly stabiliser to improve the resistance to aging of the elastomeric materials. Based on the energy change of the deformation, cross-linking density and time of the oxygen induction with the TG method, we confirmed the high antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate in polymers. Moreover, the research on biodegradation confirmed the environment-friendly influence of the antioxidant by increasing the susceptibility of the elastomeric materials to disintegration by mildew mushrooms.

Keywords: polymers, flavonoids, stabilization, ageing

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3151 Microstructures of Si Surfaces Fabricated by Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation with Agarose Stamps

Authors: Hang Zhou, Limin Zhu

Abstract:

This paper investigates the fabrication of microstructures on Si surfaces by using electrochemical anodic oxidation with agarose stamps. The fabricating process is based on a selective anodic oxidation reaction that occurs in the contact area between a stamp and a Si substrate. The stamp which is soaked in electrolyte previously acts as a current flow channel. After forming the oxide patterns as an etching mask, a KOH aqueous is used for the wet etching of Si. A complicated microstructure array of 1 cm2 was fabricated by the method with high accuracy.

Keywords: microstructures, anodic oxidation, silicon, agarose stamps

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3150 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂

Authors: Sherif Ismail

Abstract:

Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.

Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysis

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3149 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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3148 Investigating Water-Oxidation Using a Ru(III) Carboxamide Water Coordinated Complex

Authors: Yosra M. Badiei, Evelyn Ortiz, Marisa Portenti, David Szalda

Abstract:

Water-oxidation half-reaction is a critical reaction that can be driven by a sustainable energy source (e.g., solar or wind) and be coupled with a chemical fuel making reaction which stores the released electrons and protons from water (e.g., H₂ or methanol). The use of molecular water-oxidation catalysts (WOC) allow the rationale design of redox active metal centers and provides a better understanding of their structure-activity-relationship. Herein, the structure of a Ru(III) complex bearing a doubly deprotonated N,N'-bis(aryl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide ligand which contains a water molecule in its primary coordination sphere was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Further spectroscopic experimental data and pH-dependent electrochemical studies reveal its water-oxidation reactivity. Emphasis on mechanistic details for O₂ formation of this complex will be addressed.

Keywords: water-oxidation, catalysis, ruthenium, artificial photosynthesis

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3147 Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid by 1O2

Authors: Rayenne Djemil

Abstract:

The mechanism of oxidation reaction of linoleic acid C18: 2 (9 cis12) by singlet oxygen 1O2 were theoretically investigated via using quantum chemical methods. We explored the four reaction pathways at PM3, Hartree-Fock HF and, B3LYP functional associated with the base 6-31G (d) level. The results are in favor of the first and the last reaction ways. The transition states were found by QST3 method. Thus the pathways between the transition state structures and their corresponding minima have been identified by the IRC calculations. The thermodynamic study showed that the four ways of oxidation of linoleic acid are spontaneous, exothermic and, the enthalpy values confirm that conjugate hydroperoxydes are the most favorable products.

Keywords: echanism, quantum mechanics, oxidation, linoleic acid H

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3146 Oxidation of Alcohols Types Using Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan, Mina Roshani

Abstract:

We describe an efficient method for oxidation of alcohols to related aldehydes and ketones by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, under reflux conditions. Nano-graphene oxide (NGO) as a heterogeneous catalyst was used and had their activity compared with other various catalysts. This catalyst was found to be an excellent catalyst for oxidation of alcohols. The effects of various parameters, including catalyst type, nature of the substituent in the alcohols and temperature, on the yield of the carboxylic acids were studied. Nano-graphene oxide was synthesized by the oxidation of graphite powders. This nanocatalyst was found to be highly efficient in this reaction and products were obtained in good to excellent yields. The recovered nano-catalyst was successfully reused for several runs without significant loss in its catalytic activity.

Keywords: nano-graphene oxide, oxidation, aldehyde, ketone, catalyst

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3145 High Temperature Oxidation of Cr-Steel Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Saeed Ghali, Azza Ahmed, Taha Mattar

Abstract:

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising solution for the energy resources leakage. Ferritic stainless steel becomes a suitable candidate for the SOFCs interconnects due to the recent advancements. Different steel alloys were designed to satisfy the needed characteristics in SOFCs interconnect as conductivity, thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Refractory elements were used as alloying elements to satisfy the needed properties. The oxidation behaviour of the developed alloys was studied where the samples were heated for long time period at the maximum operating temperature to simulate the real working conditions. The formed scale and oxidized surface were investigated by SEM. Microstructure examination was carried out for some selected steel grades. The effect of alloying elements on the behaviour of the proposed interconnects material and the performance during the working conditions of the cells are explored and discussed. Refractory metals alloying of chromium steel seems to satisfy the needed characteristics in metallic interconnects.

Keywords: SOFCs, Cr-steel, interconnects, oxidation

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3144 Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Improvement of the Performances of Lead–Acid Batteries

Authors: Malika Foudia, Larbi Zerroual

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to improve the electrical proprieties of lead-acid battery with the addition of additives in electrolyte and in the cured plates before oxidation. The results showed that the addition of surfactant in sulfuric acid and 3% mineral additive in the cured plates change the morphology and the crystallite size of PAM after oxidation. The discharge capacity increases with the decrease of the crystallite size and the resistance of the active mass. This shows that the addition of mineral additive and the surfactant additive to the PAM, the electrical performance and the cycle life of lead- acid battery are significantly increases.

Keywords: lead-acid battery, additives, positive plate, impedance (EIS).

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3143 The Effect of Oxidation Stability Improvement in Calophyllum Inophyllum Palm Oil Methyl Ester Production

Authors: Natalina, Hwai Chyuan Onga, W. T. Chonga

Abstract:

Oxidation stability of biodiesel is very important in fuel handling especially for remote location of biodiesel application. Variety of feedstocks and biodiesel production process resulted many variation of biodiesel oxidation stability. The current study relates to investigation of the impact of fatty acid composition that caused by natural and production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester that correlated with improvement of biodiesel oxidation stability. Firstly, biodiesel was produced from crude oil of palm oil, calophyllum inophyllum and mixing of calophyllum inophyllum and palm oil. The production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester (CIPOME) was divided by including washing process and without washing. Secondly, the oxidation stability was measured from the palm oil methyl ester (POME), calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME), CIPOME with washing process and CIPOME without washing process. Then, in order to find the differences of fatty acid compositions all of the biodiesels were measured by gas chromatography analysis. It was found that mixing calophyllum inophyllum into palm oil increased the oxidation stability. Washing process influenced the CIPOME fatty acid composition, and reduction of washing process during the production process gave significant oxidation stability number of CIPOME (38 h to 114 h).

Keywords: biodiesel, oxidation stability, calophyllum inophyllum, water content

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3142 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova

Abstract:

Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
3141 Isolation of Soil Thiobacterii and Determination of Their Bio-Oxidation Activity

Authors: A. Kistaubayeva, I. Savitskaya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, N. Voronova

Abstract:

36 strains of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated in Southern Kazakhstan soda-saline soils and identified. Screening of strains according bio-oxidation (destruction thiosulfate to sulfate) and enzymatic (Thiosulfate dehydrogenises and thiosulfate reductase) activity was conducted. There were selected modes of aeration and culture conditions (pH, temperature), which provide optimum harvest cells. These strains can be used in bio-melioration technology.

Keywords: elemental sulfur, oxidation activity, Тhiobacilli, fertilizers, heterotrophic S-oxidizers

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3140 Effect of Particle Size and Concentration of Pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) Peel Powder on Suppression of Oxidation of Edible Plant Oils

Authors: D. G. D. C. L. Munasinghe, M. S. Gunawardana, P. H. P. Prasanna, C. S. Ranadheera, T. Madhujith

Abstract:

Lipid oxidation is an important process that affects the shelf life of edible oils. Oxidation produces off flavors, off odors and chemical compounds that lead to adverse health effects. Chemical mechanisms such as autoxidation, photo-oxidation and thermal oxidation are responsible for lipid oxidation. Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (RBD) coconut oil, Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and corn oil are widely used plant oils. Pomegranate fruit is known to possess high antioxidative efficacy. Peel of pomegranate contains high antioxidant activity than aril and pulp membrane. The study attempted to study the effect of particle size and concentration of pomegranate peel powder on suppression of oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. Pomegranate peel powder was incorporated into each oil sample as micro (< 250 µm) and nano particles (280 - 300 nm) at 100 ppm and 200 ppm concentrations. The control sample of each oil was prepared, devoid of pomegranate peel powder. The stability of oils against autoxidation was evaluated by storing oil samples at 60 °C for 28 days. The level of oxidation was assessed by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on 0,1,3,5,7,14 and 28 day, respectively. VCO containing pomegranate particles of 280 - 300 nm at 200 ppm showed the highest oxidative stability followed by RBD coconut oil and corn oil. Results revealed that pomegranate peel powder with 280 - 300 nm particle size at 200 ppm concentration was the best in mitigating oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. There is a huge potential of utilizing pomegranate peel powder as an antioxidant agent in reducing oxidation of edible plant oils.

Keywords: antioxidant, autoxidation, micro particles, nano particles, pomegranate peel powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 376