Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 366

Search results for: point-of-care ultrasound

366 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc

Abstract:

The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
365 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz

Abstract:

Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
364 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi

Abstract:

Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
363 The Effect of Colloidal Environments on Ultrasound-Induced Inactivation of Soy Trypsin Inhibitors: Separation, Inactivation Kinetics and Conformational Characteristics

Authors: Yue Wu, Wu Li, Enrico Colombo, Gregory J. O. Martin, Muthupandinan Ashokkumar

Abstract:

In this study, the impact of colloidal environments on low-frequency (20 kHz) and high-frequency (355 kHz) ultrasound-induced trypsin inhibitor (TI) inactivation was investigated. It was found that both low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound could partly reduce the native Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). Compared to high-frequency ultrasound, low-frequency ultrasound showed better performance on the inactivation of trypsin inhibitors at higher initial concentrations (> 500 mg/L). Therefore, low-frequency ultrasound was selected for further study on the effect of power density and pH. It was observed that the trypsin inhibitor reduction was increased and then plateaued with an increase in power density. In addition, lower pH improved the low-frequency ultrasound-induced inactivation by promoting the aggregation of trypsin inhibitors. Overall, the colloidal environment was shown to affect Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitor inactivation via influencing the degree of protein conformational changes and aggregation induced by low-frequency ultrasound and protein conformational changes and oxidation of methionine induced by high-frequency ultrasound.

Keywords: soy trypsin inhibitor, ultrasound, inactivation, initial concentration, PH

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
362 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: specific enzyme, free fatty acids, Hydrolysis, lecitase ultra, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
361 Release of Calcein from Liposomes Using Low and High Frequency Ultrasound

Authors: Ghaleb A. Husseini, Salma E. Ahmed, Hesham G. Moussa, Ana M. Martins, Mohammad Al-Sayah, Nasser Qaddoumi

Abstract:

This abstract aims to investigate the use of targeted liposomes as anticancer drug carriers in vitro in combination with ultrasound applied as drug trigger; in order to reduce the side effects caused by traditional chemotherapy. Pegylated liposomes were used to encapsulate calcein and then release this model drug when 20-kHz, 40-kHz, 1-MHz and 3-MHz ultrasound were applied at different acoustic power densities. Fluorescence techniques were then used to measure the percent drug release of calcein from these targeted liposomes. Results showed that as the power density increases, at the four frequencies studied, the release of calcein also increased. Based on these results, we believe that ultrasound can be used to increase the rate and amount of chemotherapeutics release from liposomes.

Keywords: liposomes, calcein release, high frequency ultrasound, low frequency ultrasound, fluorescence techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
360 Destruction of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Pulse Ultrasound with a Planar Rectangular Ultrasound Transducer

Authors: Christakis Damianou, Christos Christofi, Nicos Mylonas

Abstract:

The aim of the proposed study was to evaluate mechanical mode ultrasound using a flat rectangular (3x10 mm2) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for destroying atherosclerotic plaque. The system was tested initially in a Hydroxyapatite-polyalactide (HA/PLA) model. An optimized protocol was decided and then applied in atherosclerotic plaque of a rabbit. The plaque in the rabbit was created using a high cholesterol diet. The atherosclerotic plaque was imaged using MRI. This study shows that the destruction of atherosclerotic plaque is feasible.

Keywords: mri, ultrasound, atherosclerotic, plaque, pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
359 Application of Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution Technique in Tommy Atkins Mangoes

Authors: Rafael A. B. De Medeiros, Zilmar M. P. Barros, Carlos B. O. De Carvalho, Eunice G. Fraga Neta, Maria I. S. Maciel, Patricia M. Azoubel

Abstract:

The use of the sugar substitution technique (D3S) in mango was studied. It consisted of two stages and the use of ultrasound in one or both stages was evaluated in terms of water loss and solid gain. Higher water loss results were found subjecting the fruit samples to ultrasound in the first stage followed by immersion of the samples in Stevia-based solution with application of ultrasound in the second stage, while higher solids gain were obtained without application of ultrasound in second stage. Samples were evaluated in terms of total carotenoids content and total color difference. Samples submitted to ultrasound in both D3S stages presented higher carotenoid retention compared to samples sonicated only in the first stage. Color of man goes after the D3S process showed notable changes.

Keywords: Mangifera indica L., quality, Stevia rebaudiana, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
358 Reduction of Speckle Noise in Echocardiographic Images: A Survey

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Saida Khachira, Mohamed Ben Slima, Ahmed Ben Hamida

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Speckle noise is a main characteristic of cardiac ultrasound images, it corresponding to grainy appearance that degrades the image quality. For this reason, the ultrasound images are difficult to use automatically in clinical use, then treatments are required for this type of images. Then a filtering procedure of these images is necessary to eliminate the speckle noise and to improve the quality of ultrasound images which will be then segmented to extract the necessary forms that exist. In this paper, we present the importance of the pre-treatment step for segmentation. This work is applied to cardiac ultrasound images. In a first step, a comparative study of speckle filtering method will be presented and then we use a segmentation algorithm to locate and extract cardiac structures.

Keywords: medical image processing, ultrasound images, Speckle noise, image enhancement, speckle filtering, segmentation, snakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
357 Development of Ultrasounf Probe Holder for Automatic Scanning Asymmetric Reflector

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohd Zaini, Wan Fatin Liyana Mutalib

Abstract:

Ultrasound equipment or machine is capable to scan in two dimensional (2D) areas. However there are some limitations occur during scanning an object. The problem will occur when scanning process that involving the asymmetric object. In this project, the ultrasound probe holder for asymmetric reflector scanning in 3D image is proposed to make easier for scanning the phantom or object that has asymmetric shape. Initially, the constructed asymmetric phantom that construct will be used in 2D scanning. Next, the asymmetric phantom will be interfaced by the movement of ultrasound probe holder using the Arduino software. After that, the performance of the ultrasound probe holder will be evaluated by using the various asymmetric reflector or phantom in constructing a 3D image

Keywords: ultrasound 3D images, axial and lateral resolution, asymmetric reflector, Arduino software

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
356 The Effect of Ultrasound as Pre-Treatment for Drying of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz

Abstract:

Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food and an alternative to reduce post-harvest loss of fruits. Different pre-treatment methods have been developed for fruit drying, such as ultrasound. If no pre-treatment is done, the fruits will continue to darken after they are dried. However, the effects of ultrasound as pre-treatment on drying of apples has not been well documented. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ultrasound as pre-treatment before oven drying of red delicious and golden delicious apples. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were dried in different temperatures. Before performing drying experiments in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C, ultrasound as pretreatment was applied in 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Colors of the dried apples were measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300 (Minolta Camera Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) by directly holding the device vertically to the surface of the samples. Content of total phenols was determined spectrophotometrically with the FolinCiocalteau assay, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The samples (both red delicious and golden delicious apples) with longer ultrasound treatment produced higher weight loss due to the changes in tissue structure. However less phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were observed for the samples with longer ultrasound pre-treatment. The highest total phenolic content (TPC) was determined in dried apples at 75 °C with 5 minutes pre-treatment ultrasound and the lowest TPC was determined in dried apples at 50 °C with 15 minutes pre-treatment ultrasound which was subjected to the longest ultrasound pre-treatment and drying. The combination of 5 min of ultrasound pre-treatment and 75 °C of oven-drying showed to be the best combination for an energy efficient process. This combination exhibited good antioxidant properties as well. The present study clearly demonstrated that applying ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of apples is an effective process in terms of quality of dried products, time, and energy.

Keywords: golden delicious apples, red delicious apples, total phenolic content, Ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
355 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Shady S. Hassan, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: lignocellulose, ultrasound, pretreatment, spent coffee grounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
354 Protein and Lipid Extraction from Microalgae with Ultrasound Assisted Osmotic Shock Method

Authors: Nais Pinta Adetya, H. Hadiyanto

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Microalgae has a potential to be utilized as food and natural colorant. The microalgae components consists of three main parts, these are lipid, protein, and carbohydrate. Crucial step in producing lipid and protein from microalgae is extraction. Microalgae has high water level (70-90%), it causes drying process of biomass needs much more energy and also has potential to distract lipid and protein from microalgae. Extraction of lipid from wet biomass is able to take place efficiently with cell disruption of microalgae by osmotic shock method. In this study, osmotic shock method was going to be integrated with ultrasound to maximalize the extraction yield of lipid and protein from wet biomass Spirulina sp. with osmotic shock method assisted ultrasound. This study consisted of two steps, these were osmotic shock process toward wet biomass and ultrasound extraction assisted. NaCl solution was used as osmotic agent, with the variation of concentrations were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Extraction was conducted in 40°C for 20 minutes with frequency of ultrasound wave was 40kHz. The optimal yield of protein (2.7%) and (lipid 38%) were achieved at 20% osmotic agent concentration.

Keywords: extraction, lipid, osmotic shock, protein, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
353 Comparison of Classical and Ultrasound-Assisted Extractions of Hyphaene thebaica Fruit and Evaluation of Its Extract as Antibacterial Activity in Reducing Severity of Erwinia carotovora

Authors: Hanan Moawad, Naglaa M. Abd EL-Rahman

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Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora is the main cause of soft rot in potatoes. Hyphaene thebaica was studied for biocontrol of E. carotovora which inhibited growth of E. carotovora on solid medium, a comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extractions of Hyphaene thebaica fruit. The use of ultrasound decreased significant the total time of treatment and increase the total amount of crude extract. The crude extract was subjected to determine the in vitro, by a bioassay technique revealed that the treatment of paper disks with ultrasound extraction of Hyphaene thebaica reduced the growth of pathogen and produced inhibition zones up to 38mm in diameter. The antioxidant activity of ultrasound-ethanolic extract of Doum fruits (Hyphaene thebaica) was determined. Data obtained showed that the extract contains the secondary metabolites such as Tannins, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids, Terpenoids, Glycosides and Alkaloids.

Keywords: ultrasound, classical extract, biological control, Erwinia carotovora, Hyphaene thebaica

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
352 Gaussian Mixture Model Based Identification of Arterial Wall Movement for Computation of Distension Waveform

Authors: Ravindra B. Patil, P. Krishnamoorthy, Shriram Sethuraman

Abstract:

This work proposes a novel Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based approach for accurate tracking of the arterial wall and subsequent computation of the distension waveform using Radio Frequency (RF) ultrasound signal. The approach was evaluated on ultrasound RF data acquired using a prototype ultrasound system from an artery mimicking flow phantom. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by comparing with existing wall tracking algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides 20% reduction in the error margin compared to the existing approaches in tracking the arterial wall movement. This approach coupled with ultrasound system can be used to estimate the arterial compliance parameters required for screening of cardiovascular related disorders.

Keywords: distension waveform, Gaussian Mixture Model, RF ultrasound, arterial wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
351 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
350 Quantitative Assessment of Soft Tissues by Statistical Analysis of Ultrasound Backscattered Signals

Authors: Da-Ming Huang, Ya-Ting Tsai, Shyh-Hau Wang

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Ultrasound signals backscattered from the soft tissues are mainly depending on the size, density, distribution, and other elastic properties of scatterers in the interrogated sample volume. The quantitative analysis of ultrasonic backscattering is frequently implemented using the statistical approach due to that of backscattering signals tends to be with the nature of the random variable. Thus, the statistical analysis, such as Nakagami statistics, has been applied to characterize the density and distribution of scatterers of a sample. Yet, the accuracy of statistical analysis could be readily affected by the receiving signals associated with the nature of incident ultrasound wave and acoustical properties of samples. Thus, in the present study, efforts were made to explore such effects as the ultrasound operational modes and attenuation of biological tissue on the estimation of corresponding Nakagami statistical parameter (m parameter). In vitro measurements were performed from healthy and pathological fibrosis porcine livers using different single-element ultrasound transducers and duty cycles of incident tone burst ranging respectively from 3.5 to 7.5 MHz and 10 to 50%. Results demonstrated that the estimated m parameter tends to be sensitively affected by the use of ultrasound operational modes as well as the tissue attenuation. The healthy and pathological tissues may be characterized quantitatively by m parameter under fixed measurement conditions and proper calibration.

Keywords: ultrasound backscattering, statistical analysis, operational mode, attenuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
349 Ultrasound Markers in Evaluation of Hernias

Authors: Aniruddha Kulkarni

Abstract:

In very few cases of external hernias we require imaging modalities as on most occasions clinical examination tests are good enough. Ultrasound will help in chronic abdominal or groin pain, equivocal clinical results & complicated hernias. Ultrasound is useful in assessment of cause of raised intrabdominal pressure. In certain cases will comment about etiology, complications and chronicicty of lesion. Screening of rest of abdominal organs too is important advantage being real time modality. Cost effectiveness, no radiation allows modality be used repeatedly in indicated cases. Sonography is better accepted by patients too as it is cost effective. Best advanced tissue harmonic equipment and increasing expertise making it popular. Ultrasound can define surgical anatomy, rent size, contents, etiological /recurrence factors in great detail and with authority hence accidental findings in a planned surgical procedure can be easily avoided. Clinical dynamic valselva and reducibility test can better documented by real time ultrasound study. In case of recurrence, Sonography will help in assessing the hernia details better as being dynamic real time investigation. Ultrasound signs in case of internal hernias are well comparable with CT findings.

Keywords: laparoscopic repair, Hernia, CT findings, chronic pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
348 Influence of the Low Frequency Ultrasound on the Cadmium (II) Biosorption by an Ecofriendly Biocomposite (Extraction Solid Waste of Ammi visnaga / Calcium Alginate): Kinetic Modeling

Authors: L. Nouri Taiba, Y. Bouhamidi, F. Kaouah, Z. Bendjama, M. Trari

Abstract:

In the present study, an ecofriendly biocomposite namely calcium alginate immobilized Ammi Visnaga (Khella) extraction waste (SWAV/CA) was prepared by electrostatic extrusion method and used on the cadmium biosorption from aqueous phase with and without the assistance of ultrasound in batch conditions. The influence of low frequency ultrasound (37 and 80 KHz) on the cadmium biosorption kinetics was studied. The obtained results show that the ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhances and improves the efficiency of the cadmium removal. The Pseudo first order, Pseudo-second-order, Intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models were evaluated using the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that biosorption process is best described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich, in both the absence and presence of ultrasound.

Keywords: biocomposite, biosorption, cadmium, non-linear analysis, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
347 Feasibility Study for Removing Atherosclerotic Plaque Using the Thermal Effects of a Planar Rectangular High Intensity Ultrasound Transducer

Authors: Christakis Damianou, Christos Christofi, Nicos Mylonas

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to conduct a feasibility study using a flat rectangular (3x10 mm2) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for destroying atherosclerotic plaque using the thermal effects of ultrasound in in vitro models. A parametric study was performed where the time needed to ablate the plaque was studied as a function of Spatial Average Temporal Average (SATA) intensity, and pulse duration. The time needed to ablate plaque is directly related to intensity, and pulse duration. The temperature measured close to the artery is above safe limits and therefore thermal ultrasound does not have a place in removing plaques in arteries.

Keywords: ultrasound, atherosclerotic, plaque, pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
346 The Effect of Ultrasound on Permeation Flux and Changes in Blocking Mechanisms during Dead-End Microfiltration of Carrot Juice

Authors: A. Hemmati, H. Mirsaeedghazi, M. Aboonajmi

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Carrot juice is one of the most nutritious foods that are consumed around the world. Large particles in carrot juice causing turbid appearance make some problems in the concentration process such as off-flavor due to the large particles burnt on the walls of evaporators. Microfiltration (MF) is a pressure driven membrane separation method that can clarify fruit juices without enzymatic treatment. Fouling is the main problem in the membrane process causing reduction of permeate flux. Ultrasound as a cleaning technique was applied at 20 kHz to reduce fouling in membrane clarification of carrot juice using dead-end MF system with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Results showed that application of ultrasound waves reduce diphasic characteristic of carrot juice and permeate flux increased. Evaluation of different membrane fouling mechanisms showed that application of ultrasound waves changed creation time of each fouling mechanism. Also, its behavior was changed with varying transmembrane pressure.

Keywords: Carrot juice, Dead end, Microfiltration, Ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
345 Ultrasound-assisted Soil Washing Process for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Clays

Authors: Sophie Herr, Rachel Pflieger, Antoine Leybros, Yves Barre, Sergey Nikitenko

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The proportion of soil contaminated by a wide range of pollutants (heavy metals, PCBs, pesticides, etc.) of anthropogenic origin is constantly increasing, and it is becoming urgent to address this issue. Among remediation methods, soil washing is an effective, relatively fast, and widely used process. This study assesses its coupling with ultrasound: indeed, sonication induces the formation of cavitation bubbles in solution that enhance local mass transfer through agitation and particle erosion. The removal of target toxic elements Ni(II) and Zn(II) from vermiculite clay has been studied under 20 kHz ultrasound and silent conditions. Several acids were tested, and HCl was chosen as solvent. The effects of solid/liquid ratio and particle size were investigated. Metal repartition in the clay has been followed by Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that more metal elements bound to the challenging residual phase were desorbed with 20 kHz ultrasound than in silent conditions. This supports the promising application of ultrasound for heavy metal desorption in difficult conditions. Further experiments were performed at high frequency US (362 kHz), and it was shown that fragmentation of the vermiculite particles is then limited, while positive effects of US in the decontamination are kept.

Keywords: desorption, heavy metals, ultrasound, vermiculite

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
344 Detecting the Blood of Femoral and Carotid Artery of Swine Using Photoacoustic Tomography in-vivo

Authors: M. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, S. M. Yu, H. S. Jo, C. G. Song

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Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging with ultrasound. It also provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical and ultrasound imaging, respectively. For these reasons, many studies take experiment in order to apply this method for many diagnoses. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer. In this study, we conduct the experiment using swine and detect the blood of carotid artery and femoral artery. We measured the blood of femoral and carotid artery of swine and reconstructed the image using 950nm due to the HbO₂ absorption coefficient. The photoacoustic image is overlaid with ultrasound image in order to match the position. In blood of artery, major composition of blood is HbO₂. In this result, we can measure the blood of artery.

Keywords: photoacoustic tomography, swine artery, carotid artery, femoral artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
343 Ultrasound Enhanced Release of Active Targeting Liposomes Used for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Najla M. Salkho, Vinod Paul, Pierre Kawak, Rute F. Vitor, Ana M. Martin, Nahid Awad, Mohammad Al Sayah, Ghaleb A. Husseini

Abstract:

Liposomes are popular lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are highly efficient in encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic drugs. Liposomes promote a low risk controlled release of the drug avoiding the side effects of the conventional chemotherapy. One of the great potentials of liposomes is the ability to attach a wide range of ligands to their surface producing ligand-mediated active targeting of cancer tumour with limited adverse off-target effects. Ultrasound can also aid in the controlled and specified release of the drug from the liposomes by breaking it apart and releasing the drug in the specific location where the ultrasound is applied. Our research focuses on the synthesis of PEGylated liposomes (contain poly-ethylene glycol) encapsulated with the model drug calcein and studying the effect of low frequency ultrasound applied at different power densities on calcein release. In addition, moieties are attached to the surface of the liposomes for specific targeting of the cancerous cells which over-express the receptors of these moieties, ultrasound is then applied and the release results are compared with the moiety free liposomes. The results showed that attaching these moieties to the surface of the PEGylated liposomes not only enhance their active targeting but also stimulate calcein release from these liposomes.

Keywords: active targeting, liposomes, moieties, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
342 Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Fiber

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin, Mohammad Dalour Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

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Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were produced by using the ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp with different hydrolysis time then were analyzed by using FESEM and TGA as in comparison with EFB fiber and EFB pulp. Based on the FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a rod like shaped under the acid hydrolysis with an assistant of ultrasound. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained show remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to EFB fiber and EFB pulp. However, as the hydrolysis time increase, the thermal stability of NCC was deceased. As in conclusion, the NCC can be prepared by using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The NCC obtained have good thermal stability and have a great potential as the reinforcement in composite materials.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline cellulose, ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis, thermal stability, morphology, empty fruit bunch (EFB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
341 Recovery of Essential Oil from Zingiber Officinale Var. Bentong Using Ultrasound Assisted-Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

Authors: Norhidayah Suleiman, Afza Zulfaka

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Zingiber officinale var. Bentong has been identified as the source of high added value compound specifically gingerol-related compounds. The extraction of the high-value compound using conventional method resulted in low yield and time consumption. Hence, the motivation for this work is to investigate the effect of the extraction technique on the essential oil from Zingiber officinale var. Bentong rhizome for commercialization purpose in many industries namely, functional food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical. The investigation begins with a pre-treatment using ultrasound assisted in order to enhance the recovery of essential oil. It was conducted at a fixed frequency (20 kHz) of ultrasound with various time (10, 20, 40 min). The extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were carried out afterward at a specific condition of temperature (50 °C) and pressure (30 MPa). scCO2 extraction seems to be a promising sustainable green method for the extraction of essential oil due to the benefits that CO2 possesses. The expected results demonstrated the ultrasound-assisted-scCO2 produces a higher yield of essential oil compared to solely scCO2 extraction. This research will provide important features for its application in food supplements or phytochemical preparations.

Keywords: essential oil, scCO2, ultrasound assisted, Zingiber officinale Var. Bentong

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
340 Rheological Properties of Red Beet Root Juice Squeezed from Ultrasounicated Red Beet Root Slices

Authors: M. Çevik, S. Sabancı, D. Tezcan, C. Çelebi, F. İçier

Abstract:

Ultrasound technology is the one of the non-thermal food processing method in recent years which has been used widely in the food industry. Ultrasound application in the food industry is divided into two groups: low and high intensity ultrasound application. While low intensity ultrasound is used to obtain information about physicochemical properties of foods, high intensity ultrasound is used to extract bioactive components and to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, the ultrasound pre-treatment at a constant power (1500 W) and fixed frequency (20 kHz) was applied to the red beetroot slices having the dimension of 25×25×50 mm at the constant temperature (25°C) for different application times (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). The red beet root slices pretreated with ultrasonication was squeezed immediately. The changes on rheological properties of red beet root juice depending on ultrasonication duration applied to slices were investigated. Rheological measurements were conducted by using Brookfield viscometer (LVDV-II Pro, USA). Shear stress-shear rate data was obtained from experimental measurements for 0-200 rpm range by using spindle 18. Rheological properties of juice were determined by fitting this data to some rheological models (Newtonian, Bingham, Power Law, Herschel Bulkley). It was investigated that the best model was Power Law model for both untreated red beet root juice (R2=0.991, χ2=0.0007, RMSE=0.0247) and red beetroot juice produced from ultrasonicated slices (R2=0.993, χ2=0.0006, RMSE=0.0216 for 20 min pre-treatment). k (consistency coefficient) and n (flow behavior index) values of red beetroot juices were not affected from the duration of ultrasonication applied to the slices. Ultrasound treatment does not result in any changes on the rheological properties of red beetroot juice. This can be explained by lack of ability to homogenize of the intensity of applied ultrasound.

Keywords: ultrasonication, rheology, red beet root slice, juice

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
339 Changes on Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Red Beetroot Juice during Ultrasound Pretreatment

Authors: Serdal Sabanci, Mutlu Çevik, Derya Tezcan, Cansu Çelebi, Filiz Içier

Abstract:

Ultrasound is defined as sound waves having frequencies higher than 20 kHz, which is greater than the limits of the human hearing range. In recent years, ultrasonic treatment is an emerging technology being used increasingly in the food industry. It is applied as an alternative technique for different purposes such as microbial and enzyme inactivation, extraction, drying, filtration, crystallization, degas, cutting etc. Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a root vegetable which is rich in mineral components, folic acid, dietary fiber, anthocyanin pigments. In this study, the application of low frequency high intensity ultrasound to the red beetroot slices and red beetroot juice for different treatment times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 min) was investigated. Ultrasonicated red beetroot slices were also squeezed immediately. Changes on colour, betanin, pH and titratable acidity properties of red beetroot juices (the ultrasonicated juice (UJ) and the juice from ultrasonicated slices (JUS)) were determined. Although there was no significant difference statistically in the changes of color value of JUS samples due to ultrasound application (p>0.05), the color properties of UJ samples ultrasonicated for low durations were statistically different from raw material (p<0.05). The difference between color values of UJ and raw material disappeared (p>0.05) as the ultrasonication duration increased. The application of ultrasound to red beet root slices adversely affected and decreased the betanin content of JUS samples. On the other hand, the betanin content of UJ samples increased as the ultrasonication duration increased. Ultrasound treatment did not affect pH and titratable acidity of red beetroot juices statistically (p>0.05). The results suggest that ultrasound technology is the simple and economical technique which may successfully be employed for the processing of red beetroot juice with improved color and betanin quality. However, further investigation is still needed to confirm this.

Keywords: red beetroot, ultrasound, color, betanin

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338 Evaluation of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography, MRI, and Ultrasound in the Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Byung Joo Song, Chan Heun Park

Abstract:

Purpose: 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify nodal metastases in women with primary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of FDG-PET with MRI and sonography scanning to determine axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Patients and Methods: Between January and December 2012, ninety-nine patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes were evaluated. All patients underwent FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Using axillary lymph node assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 51.4% (95% CI, 41.3% to 65.6%) and 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI and ultrasound were 57.1% (95% CI, 39.4% to 73.7%), 67.2% (95% CI, 54.3% to 78.4%) and 42.86% (95% CI, 26.3% to 60.7%), 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%). Stratification according to hormone receptor status showed an increase in specificity when negative (FDG-PET: 42.3% to 77.8%, MRI 50% to 77.8%, ultrasound 34.6% to 66.7%). Also, positive HER2 status was associated with an increase in specificity (FDG-PET: 42.9% to 85.7%, MRI 50% to 85.7%, ultrasound 35.7% to 71.4%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET compared with MRI and ultrasound was high. However, FDG-PET is not sufficiently accurate to appropriately identify lymph node metastases. This study suggests that FDG-PET scanning cannot replace histologic staging in early-stage breast cancer, but might have a role in evaluating axillary lymph node status in hormone receptor negative or HER-2 overexpressing subtypes.

Keywords: axillary lymph node metastasis, FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound

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337 Classifier for Liver Ultrasound Images

Authors: Soumya Sajjan

Abstract:

Liver cancer is the most common cancer disease worldwide in men and women, and is one of the few cancers still on the rise. Liver disease is the 4th leading cause of death. According to new NHS (National Health Service) figures, deaths from liver diseases have reached record levels, rising by 25% in less than a decade; heavy drinking, obesity, and hepatitis are believed to be behind the rise. In this study, we focus on Development of Diagnostic Classifier for Ultrasound liver lesion. Ultrasound (US) Sonography is an easy-to-use and widely popular imaging modality because of its ability to visualize many human soft tissues/organs without any harmful effect. This paper will provide an overview of underlying concepts, along with algorithms for processing of liver ultrasound images Naturaly, Ultrasound liver lesion images are having more spackle noise. Developing classifier for ultrasound liver lesion image is a challenging task. We approach fully automatic machine learning system for developing this classifier. First, we segment the liver image by calculating the textural features from co-occurrence matrix and run length method. For classification, Support Vector Machine is used based on the risk bounds of statistical learning theory. The textural features for different features methods are given as input to the SVM individually. Performance analysis train and test datasets carried out separately using SVM Model. Whenever an ultrasonic liver lesion image is given to the SVM classifier system, the features are calculated, classified, as normal and diseased liver lesion. We hope the result will be helpful to the physician to identify the liver cancer in non-invasive method.

Keywords: segmentation, Support Vector Machine, ultrasound liver lesion, co-occurance Matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 330