Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

# Search results for: Kourosh Shahriar

##### 31 Prediction of the Tunnel Fire Flame Length by Hybrid Model of Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the applicability of Hybrid Neural Networks that combine with back propagation networks (BPN) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for predicting the flame length of tunnel fire A hybrid neural network model has been developed to predict the flame length of tunnel fire based parameters such as Fire Heat Release rate, air velocity, tunnel width, height and cross section area. The network has been trained with experimental data obtained from experimental work. The hybrid neural network model learned the relationship for predicting the flame length in just 3000 training epochs. After successful learning, the model predicted the flame length.

Keywords: tunnel fire, flame length, ANN, genetic algorithm

##### 30 Analytical Solution of Blassius Equation Using the Kourosh Method

Abstract:

Most of the engineering problems are in nonlinear forms. Nonlinear boundary layer problems defined in infinite intervals contain specific complexities, especially in boundary layer condition conformance. As an example of these nonlinear complex problems, the well-known Blasius equation can be mentioned, which itself is one of the classic boundary layer problems. No analytical solution has been proposed yet for the Blasius equation due to its complexity. In this paper, an analytical method, namely the Kourosh method, based on the singularity perturbation method and the Liao homotopy analysis is utilized to solve the Blasius problem. In this method, an inner solution is developed in the [0,1] interval to expedite the solution convergence. The magnitude of the f ˝(0), as an essential quantity for determining the physical parameters, is directly calculated from the solution of the boundary condition problem. The advantages of this solution are that it does not need any numerical solution, it has a closed form and that its validation is shown in the entire [0,∞] interval. Furthermore, all of the desirable parameters could be extracted through a series of simple analytical operations from the final solution. This solution also satisfies the continuity conditions, which is one of the main contributions of this paper in comparison with most of the other proposed analytical solutions available in the literature. Comparison with numerical solutions reveals that the proposed method is highly accurate and convenient for application. Downloads 268
##### 29 Structural Properties, Natural Bond Orbital, Theory Functional Calculations (DFT), and Energies for Fluorous Compounds: C13H12F7ClN2O

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Masomeh Shahsavary

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimized geometries and frequencies of the stationary point and the minimum energy paths of C13H12F7ClN2O are calculated by using the DFT (B3LYP) methods with LANL2DZ basis sets. B3LYP/ LANL2DZ calculation results indicated that some selected bond length and bond angles values for the C13H12F7ClN2O. Downloads 238
##### 28 Application of Regularized Low-Rank Matrix Factorization in Personalized Targeting

Authors: Kourosh Modarresi

Abstract:

The Netflix problem has brought the topic of “Recommendation Systems” into the mainstream of computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Though much progress has been made, the available algorithms do not obtain satisfactory results. The success of these algorithms is rarely above 5%. This work is based on the belief that the main challenge is to come up with “scalable personalization” models. This paper uses an adaptive regularization of inverse singular value decomposition (SVD) that applies adaptive penalization on the singular vectors. The results show far better matching for recommender systems when compared to the ones from the state of the art models in the industry. Downloads 344
##### 27 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

Abstract:

In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples. Downloads 361
##### 26 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor

Abstract:

Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved. Downloads 296
##### 25 Analysis of the Significance of Multimedia Channels Using Sparse PCA and Regularized SVD

Authors: Kourosh Modarresi

Abstract:

The abundance of media channels and devices has given users a variety of options to extract, discover, and explore information in the digital world. Since, often, there is a long and complicated path that a typical user may venture before taking any (significant) action (such as purchasing goods and services), it is critical to know how each node (media channel) in the path of user has contributed to the final action. In this work, the significance of each media channel is computed using statistical analysis and machine learning techniques. More specifically, “Regularized Singular Value Decomposition”, and “Sparse Principal Component” has been used to compute the significance of each channel toward the final action. The results of this work are a considerable improvement compared to the present approaches. Downloads 239
##### 24 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

##### 23 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

##### 22 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability. Downloads 515
##### 21 Importance of Hardware Systems and Circuits in Secure Software Development Life Cycle

Authors: Mir Shahriar Emami

Abstract:

Although it is fully impossible to ensure that a software system is quite secure, developing an acceptable secure software system in a convenient platform is not unreachable. In this paper, we attempt to analyze software development life cycle (SDLC) models from the hardware systems and circuits point of view. To date, the SDLC models pay merely attention to the software security from the software perspectives. In this paper, we present new features for SDLC stages to emphasize the role of systems and circuits in developing secure software system through the software development stages, the point that has not been considered previously in the SDLC models. Downloads 169
##### 20 Manufacturing of Nano Zeolite by Planetary Ball Mill and Investigation of the Effects on Concrete

Authors: Kourosh Kosari

Abstract:

This study is engineering the properties of concrete containing natural nano zeolite as supplementary cementitious material in the blended Portland-cement based binder in amounts of 5,7 and 10% by mass. Crashing of clinoptilolite zeolite is performed by means of planetary ball mill. Two types of concrete along with water to cementitious material ratio (W/(C + P)) in 0.45 and 0.4 at the ages of 7, 28 and 90 days and were compared with each other. The effect of these additives on mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength) and durability has been investigated by Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) at the ages 28 and 90 days. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that nanoparticles of natural clinoptilolite could improve quality of concrete. As a result of the tests, decrease in penetration of chloride ion and increase electrical resistivity significantly that are appropriate option for controlling of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures but increase of mechanical characteristics is not considerable. Downloads 234
##### 19 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: crack, FRP, shear, strengthening

##### 18 Analysis and Modeling of Stresses and Creeps Resulting from Soil Mechanics in Southern Plains of Kerman Province

Authors: Kourosh Nazarian

Abstract:

Many of the engineering materials, such as behavioral metals, have at least a certain level of linear behavior. It means that if the stresses are doubled, the deformations would be also doubled. In fact, these materials have linear elastic properties. Soils do not follow this law, for example, when compressed, soils become gradually tighter. On the surface of the ground, the sand can be easily deformed with a finger, but in high compressive stresses, they gain considerable hardness and strength. This is mainly due to the increase in the forces among the separate particles. Creeps also deform the soils under a constant load over time. Clay and peat soils have creep behavior. As a result of this phenomenon, structures constructed on such soils will continue their collapse over time. In this paper, the researchers analyzed and modeled the stresses and creeps in the southern plains of Kerman province in Iran through library-documentary, quantitative and software techniques, and field survey. The results of the modeling showed that these plains experienced severe stresses and had a collapse of about 26 cm in the last 15 years and also creep evidence was discovered in an area with a gradient of 3-6 degrees.

Keywords: Stress, creep, faryab, surface runoff

##### 17 Discrete Crack Modeling of Side Face FRP-Strengthened Concrete Beam

Abstract:

Shear strengthening can be carried out in concrete structures by external fibre reinforced polymer (FRP). In the present investigation, a new fracture mechanics model is developed to model side face of strengthened concrete beam by external FRP. Discrete crack is simulated by a spring element with softening behavior ahead of the crack tip to model the cohesive zone in concrete. A truss element is used, parallel to the spring element, to simulate the energy dissipation rate by the FRP. The strain energy release rate is calculated directly by using a virtual crack closure technique and then, the crack propagation criterion is presented. The results are found acceptable when compared to previous experimental results and ABAQUS software data. It is observed that the length of the fracture process zone (FPZ) increases with the application of FRP in side face at the same load in comparison with that of the control beam.

Keywords: FPZ, fracture, FRP, shear

##### 16 Investigating the Epidemiological Prevalence of Diabetes in Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in adults. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan between 2015 and 2019. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using the information of diabetics registered in the system related to the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019. Eventually, people's information, including age, gender, and place of residence, was entered into STATA software version 12 and analyzed using descriptive statistics tests. Results: The study, which was performed on 49,339 people with diabetes in 34 provinces and 8 regions of Afghanistan, found that most of the women studied were 55.2% (272,311) women and had the highest and lowest prevalence in the region. The order is related to South East and South. The average prevalence of diabetes per 10,000 people is about 62.13. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan over a five-year period in men and women is on the rise, requiring more attention from relevant authorities to improve public health and prevent, control and treat chronic diseases such as diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes, Prevalence, Afghanistan, Epidemiology

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, Afghanistan, epidemiology

##### 15 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Abstract:

As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan. Downloads 122
##### 14 Improving the Performance of DBE Structure in Pressure Flushing Using Submerged Vanes

Abstract:

Reservoir sedimentation is one of the main challenges by which the reservoir behind the dam is filled with sediments transferred through the river flow. Pressure flushing method is an effective way to drain the deposited sediments of the reservoirs through the bottom outlet. So far, several structural methods have been proposed to increase the efficiency of pressure flushing. The aim of this study is to increase the performance of Dendritic Bottomless Extended (DBE) structure on the efficiency of pressurized sediment flushing using submerged vanes. For this purpose, the physical model of the dam reservoir with dimensions of 7.5 m in length, 3.5 m in width, and 1.8 m in height in the hydraulic and water structures research laboratory of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman was used. In order to investigate the influence of submerged vanes on the performance of DBE structure in pressure flushing, the best arrangement and geometric parameters of the vanes were selected and combined with the DBE structure. The results showed that the submerged vanes significantly increased the performance of the DBE structure so that the volume of the sediment flushing cone with the combination of two structures increased by 3.7 times compared to the DBE structure test. Downloads 101
##### 13 Environmental Study on Urban Disinfection Using an On-site Generation System

Abstract:

In this experimental study, the behaviors of Mixed Oxidant solution components (MOS) and sodium hypochlorite (HYPO) as the most commonly applied surface disinfectant were compared through the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection as a function of the contact time and residual chlorine. In this regard, the variation of pH, free available chlorine (FAC) concentration, and electric conductivity (EC) of disinfection solutions in different concentrations were monitored over 48 h contact time. In parallel, the plant stress activated by chlorine-based disinfectants was assessed by comparing MOS and HYPO. The elements of pH and EC in the plant-soil and their environmental impacts, spread by disinfection solutions were analyzed through several concentrations of FAC including 500 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, and 5000 mg/L in irrigated water. All the experiments were carried out at the service station of Sant Cugat, Spain. The outcomes indicated lower pH and higher durability of MOS than HYPO at the same concentration of FAC which resulted in promising stability of FAC within MOS. Furthermore, the pH and EC value of plant-soil irrigated by NaOCl solution were higher than that of MOS solution at the same FAC concentration. On-site generation of MOS as a safe chlorination option might be considered an imaginary future of smart cities. Downloads 45
##### 12 Simulation-Based Optimization of a Non-Uniform Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Stack Boundary

Authors: Alireza Keshmiri, Shahriar Bagheri, Nan Wu

Abstract:

This research presents an analytical model for the development of an energy harvester with piezoelectric rings stacked at the boundary of the structure based on the Adomian decomposition method. The model is applied to geometrically non-uniform beams to derive the steady-state dynamic response of the structure subjected to base motion excitation and efficiently harvest the subsequent vibrational energy. The in-plane polarization of the piezoelectric rings is employed to enhance the electrical power output. A parametric study for the proposed energy harvester with various design parameters is done to prepare the dataset required for optimization. Finally, simulation-based optimization technique helps to find the optimum structural design with maximum efficiency. To solve the optimization problem, an artificial neural network is first trained to replace the simulation model, and then, a genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimized design variables. Higher geometrical non-uniformity and length of the beam lowers the structure natural frequency and generates a larger power output. Downloads 52
##### 11 An Image Enhancement Method Based on Curvelet Transform for CBCT-Images

Authors: Shahriar Farzam, Maryam Rastgarpour

Abstract:

Image denoising plays extremely important role in digital image processing. Enhancement of clinical image research based on Curvelet has been developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we present a method for image contrast enhancement for cone beam CT (CBCT) images based on fast discrete curvelet transforms (FDCT) that work through Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT). These transforms return a table of Curvelet transform coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation and a spatial location. Accordingly, the coefficients obtained from FDCT-USFFT can be modified in order to enhance contrast in an image. Our proposed method first uses a two-dimensional mathematical transform, namely the FDCT through unequal-space fast Fourier transform on input image and then applies thresholding on coefficients of Curvelet to enhance the CBCT images. Consequently, applying unequal-space fast Fourier Transform leads to an accurate reconstruction of the image with high resolution. The experimental results indicate the performance of the proposed method is superior to the existing ones in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Effective Measure of Enhancement (EME). Downloads 207
##### 10 Language Development and Growing Spanning Trees in Children Semantic Network

Abstract:

In this study, we target to exploit Maximum Spanning Trees (MST) of children's semantic networks to investigate their language development. To do so, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of word-embedding networks. The networks are made of words children learn prior to the age of 30 months as the nodes and the links which are built from the cosine vector similarity of words normatively acquired by children prior to two and a half years of age. These networks are weighted graphs and the strength of each link is determined by the numerical similarities of the two words (nodes) on the sides of the link. To avoid changing the weighted networks to the binaries by setting a threshold, constructing MSTs might present a solution. MST is a unique sub-graph that connects all the nodes in such a way that the sum of all the link weights is maximized without forming cycles. MSTs as the backbone of the semantic networks are suitable to examine developmental changes in semantic network topology in children. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize the developmental change in network organization. We showed that MSTs provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in semantic network organization. Downloads 58
##### 9 An Improved Data Aided Channel Estimation Technique Using Genetic Algorithm for Massive Multi-Input Multiple-Output

Abstract:

With the increasing rate of wireless devices and high bandwidth operations, wireless networking and communications are becoming over crowded. To cope with such crowdy and messy situation, massive MIMO is designed to work with hundreds of low costs serving antennas at a time as well as improve the spectral efficiency at the same time. TDD has been used for gaining beamforming which is a major part of massive MIMO, to gain its best improvement to transmit and receive pilot sequences. All the benefits are only possible if the channel state information or channel estimation is gained properly. The common methods to estimate channel matrix used so far is LS, MMSE and a linear version of MMSE also proposed in many research works. We have optimized these methods using genetic algorithm to minimize the mean squared error and finding the best channel matrix from existing algorithms with less computational complexity. Our simulation result has shown that the use of GA worked beautifully on existing algorithms in a Rayleigh slow fading channel and existence of Additive White Gaussian Noise. We found that the GA optimized LS is better than existing algorithms as GA provides optimal result in some few iterations in terms of MSE with respect to SNR and computational complexity.

Keywords: channel estimation, LMMSE, LS, MIMO, MMSE

##### 8 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles. Downloads 202
##### 7 Fabrication of Textile-Based Radio Frequency Metasurfaces

Abstract:

Radio Frequency (RF) metasurfaces are arrangements of subwavelength elements interacting with electromagnetic radiation. These arrangements affect polarization state, amplitude, and phase of impinged radio waves; for example, metasurface designs are used to produce functional passband and stopband filters. Recent advances in additive manufacturing techniques have enabled the low-cost, rapid fabrication of ultra-thin metasurface elements on flexible substrates such as plastic films, paper, and textiles. Furthermore, scalable manufacturing processes promote the integration of fabric-based RF metasurfaces into the market of sensors and devices within the Internet of Things (IoT). The design and fabrication of metasurfaces on textiles require a multidisciplinary team with expertise in i) textile and materials science, ii) metasurface design and simulation, and iii) metasurface fabrication and testing. In this presentation, we will discuss RF metasurfaces on fabric with an emphasis on how the materials, including fabric and inks, along with fabrication techniques, affect the RF performance. We printed metasurfaces using a direct-write approach onto various woven and non-woven fabrics, as well as on fabrics coated with either thermoplastic or thermoset coatings. Our team also performed a range of tests on the printed structures, including different inks and their curing parameters, wash durability, abrasion resistance, and RF performance over time. Downloads 89
##### 6 Evaluating Probable Bending of Frames for Near-Field and Far-Field Records

Abstract:

Most reinforced concrete structures are designed only under heavy loads with large transverse reinforcement spacing and therefore suffer severe failure after intense ground movements. The main goal of this article is to compare the shear and axial failure of concrete bending frames available in Tehran using incremental dynamic analysis under near- and far-field records. For this purpose, IDA analyses were carried out on seven far-fault records and five records of near-faults on 5, 10, and 15-story concrete frames and IDA analyses. The results show that in two-dimensional models of short-rise, mid-rise and high-rise reinforced concrete frames located on Type-3 soil, increasing the distance of the transverse reinforcement can increase the maximum gap between floors up to 37%. According to the existing results on 5, 10, and 15-storey reinforced concrete models on Type-3 soil, records with characteristics such as permanent displacement create maximum drift values between floors more than far-fault earthquakes. In all short-rise, mid-rise, and high-rise models, in far-fault seismic excitation records, changes of probable failure or increase of failure are much higher than in the near-fault record. However, in near-fault frame records, the probable failures at very low seismic intensities are obtained compared to far-fault records. Downloads 19
##### 5 Accuracy/Precision Evaluation of Excalibur I: A Neurosurgery-Specific Haptic Hand Controller

Abstract:

This study reports on a proposed method to evaluate the accuracy and precision of Excalibur I, a neurosurgery-specific haptic hand controller, designed and developed at Project neuroArm. Having an efficient and successful robot-assisted telesurgery is considerably contingent on how accurate and precise a haptic hand controller (master/local robot) would be able to interpret the kinematic indices of motion, i.e., position and orientation, from the surgeon’s upper limp to the slave/remote robot. A proposed test rig is designed and manufactured according to standard ASTM F2554-10 to determine the accuracy and precision range of Excalibur I at four different locations within its workspace: central workspace, extreme forward, far left and far right. The test rig is metrologically characterized by a coordinate measuring machine (accuracy and repeatability < ± 5 µm). Only the serial linkage of the haptic device is examined due to the use of the Structural Length Index (SLI). The results indicate that accuracy decreases by moving from the workspace central area towards the borders of the workspace. In a comparative study, Excalibur I performs on par with the PHANToM PremiumTM 3.0 and more accurate/precise than the PHANToM PremiumTM 1.5. The error in Cartesian coordinate system shows a dominant component in one direction (δx, δy or δz) for the movements on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces. The average error magnitude of three attempts is recorded, considering all three error components. This research is the first promising step to quantify the kinematic performance of Excalibur I. Downloads 269
##### 4 Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Success Factors (Csfs) in Retaining and Developing Knowledge Workers in Oil and Gas Project–Based Companies

Abstract:

Background/Objectives: Voluntary turnover and early retirement request by specialists and experienced people in project-based organizations (PBO) has caused many problems in finding suitable experts to execute the projects. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is a descriptive and applied research. Research population consists of KWs in oil and gas PBO. The engineers in these organizations were considered as research sample. Interviews and questionnaire were used to gather information. Interviews with experts were used to identify factors and questionnaires were utilized to identify the importance and prioritization. 72 factors were identified and categorized into 9 groups within organizational and HR initiative levels. Results: Results of the research indicate the priority of each group of factors according to the proposed model in the view of KWs in oil, gas and petrochemical industries. On this basis, the following factors have the highest effect ratio based on the respondents’ point of view: 1. knowledge management 2. Performance appraisal system 3. Communication 4.Training and development 5.Job design and analysis 6. Employment policies 7. Career planning 8. Project/organizational factors 9. Salary and rewards. Additionally, in each group the priority of effective sub-factors has been identified as the result of the research .The results support the definitions of KWs and influence of factors examined and specified by similar studies in retention and development of KWs. The high importance of knowledge management and low rank for salary and rewards can be mentioned as example in this regard. Despite the priority of each group of factors the uniqueness of the result is due to identification of effective factors in the specific industry (oil and gas) and type of organization (PBO). Conclusion/Application: The findings of present study can be used to devise plans for retaining and developing KWs in PBO especially in oil and gas industry. Downloads 219
##### 3 Discursive (Re/De)Construction of Objectivity-Subjectivity: Critiquing Rape/Flesh Trade-Documentaries

Authors: Muhammed Shahriar Haque

Abstract:

As an offshoot of journalistic discourse, the documentary should be objective in nature without harbouring any preconceived notion to foster ulterior motifs. When it comes to a social issue like rape in South Asian countries, as media in recent times is inundated with this violent act in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, how does one document it in terms of objectivity and subjectivity? The objective of this study is twofold: to document the history of documentaries, and to critically analyze South Asian rape/flesh trade-documentaries. The overall goal is to trace the (re/de)construction of objectivity-subjectivity in documentaries. This paper adopts a qualitative approach to documentarist discourse through the lens of critical discourse analysis (CDA). Data was gathered for 10 documentaries on the theme of rape and/or flesh trade from eight South Asian countries, predominantly the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region. The documentaries were primarily categorised by using three frameworks based on six modes, six subgenres, and four basic approaches of documentary. Subsequently, the findings were critiqued from CDA perspective. The outcome suggests that there a two schools of thoughts regarding documentaries. According to journalistic ethics, news and/or documentaries should be objective in orientation and focus on informing the audience and/common people. The empirical findings tend to challenge ethical parameters of objectivity. At times, it seems that journalistic discourse is discursively (re)constructed to give an augmented simulation of objectivity. Based on the findings it may be recommended that if documentaries steer away from empirical facts and indulge in poetic naivety, their credibility could be questioned. A research of this nature is significant as it raises questions with regard to ethical and moral conscience of documentary filmmakers. Furthermore, it looks at whether they uphold journalistic integrity or succumb to their bias, and thereby depict subjective views, which could be tainted with political and/or propagandist ulterior motifs. Downloads 81
##### 2 Operating Characteristics of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Identifying Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses in the Emergency Department

Abstract:

Background: Emergency physicians frequently evaluate skin and soft tissue infections in order to differentiate abscess from cellulitis. This helps determine which patients will benefit from incision and drainage. Our objective was to determine the operating characteristics of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) compared to clinical examination in identifying abscesses in emergency department (ED) patients with features of skin and soft tissue infections. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in the following databases: Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Trials were included if they compared the operating characteristics of POCUS with clinical examination in identifying skin and soft tissue abscesses. Trials that included patients with oropharyngeal abscesses or that requiring abscess drainage in the operating room were excluded. The presence of an abscess was determined by pus drainage. No pus seen on incision or resolution of symptoms without pus drainage at follow up, determined the absence of an abscess. Quality of included trials was assessed using GRADE criteria. Operating characteristics of POCUS are reported as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood (LR+) and negative likelihood (LR-) ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). Summary measures were calculated by generating a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model (HSROC). Results: Out of 3203 references identified, 5 observational studies with 615 patients in aggregate were included (2 adults and 3 pediatrics). We rated the quality of 3 trials as low and 2 as very low. The operating characteristics of POCUS and clinical examination in identifying soft tissue abscesses are presented in the table. The HSROC for POCUS revealed a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI = 89-98%), specificity of 79% (95% CI = 71-86), LR+ of 4.6 (95% CI = 3.2-6.8), and LR- of 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.2). Conclusion: Existing evidence indicates that POCUS is useful in identifying abscesses in ED patients with skin or soft tissue infections. Downloads 291