Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2483

Search results for: Optical Emission

2483 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah


Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, emission, optical, physical

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2482 Strong Down-Conversion Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A. Mardhiah


Studies on Samarium doped glasses possess lot of interest due to their potential applications for high-density optical memory, optical communication device, the design of laser and color display etc. Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results of physical properties are found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultra violet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm and 706 nm respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, down-conversion, emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
2481 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos


The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

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2480 A Spectroscopic Study by Photoluminescence of Erbium in Gallium Nitride

Authors: A. Melouah, M. Diaf


The III-N nitride semiconductors appear to be excellent host materials, in particular, GaN epilayers doped with Erbium ions have shown a highly reduced thermal quenching of the Er luminescence intensity from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. The remarkable stability may be due to the large energy band gap of the material. Two methods are used for doping the Gallium nitride films with Erbium ions; ion implantation in the wafers obtained by (CVDOM) and in-situ incorporation during epitaxial growth of the layers by (MBE). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been the main optical technique used to characterize the emission of Er-doped III-N semiconductor materials. This technique involves optical excitation of Er3+ ions and measurement of the spectrum of the light emission as a function of energy (wavelength). Excitation at above band gap energy leads to the creation of Electron-Hole pairs. Some of this pairs may transfer their energy to the Er3+ ions, exciting the 4f-electrons and resulting in optical emission. This corresponds to an indirect excitation of the Er3+ ions by electron-hole pairs. The direct excitation by the optical pumping of the radiation can be obtained.

Keywords: photoluminescence, Erbium, GaN, semiconductor materials

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2479 Effect of Cr and Fe Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Prakash Chand, Anurag Gaur, Ashavani Kumar


In the present study, we have synthesized Cr and Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures (Zn1-δCraFebO; where δ= a + b=20%, a = 5, 6, 8 & 10% and b=15, 14, 12 & 10%) via sol-gel method at different doping concentrations. The synthesized samples were characterized for structural properties by X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were carried out through photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. The particle size calculated through field emission scanning electron microscope varies from 41 to 96 nm for the samples synthesized at different doping concentrations. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 3.27 to 3.02 eV as the doping concentration of Cr increases and Fe decreases.

Keywords: nano-structures, optical properties, sol-gel method, zinc oxide

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2478 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,


In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
2477 Study of Nanocrystalline Scintillator for Alpha Particles Detection

Authors: Azadeh Farzaneh, Mohammad Reza Abdi, A. Quaranta, Matteo Dalla Palma, Seyedshahram Mortazavi


We report on the synthesis of cesium-iodide nanoparticles using sol-gel technique. The structural properties of CsI nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Also, optical properties were followed by optical absorption and UV–vis fluorescence. Intense photoluminescence is also observed, with some spectral tuning possible with ripening time getting a range of emission photon wavelength approximately from 366 to 350 nm. The size effect on CsI luminescence leads to an increase in scintillation light yield, a redshift of the emission bands of the on_center and off_center self_trapped excitons (STEs) and an increase in the contribution of the off_center STEs to the net intrinsic emission yield. The energy transfer from the matrix to CsI nanoparticles is a key characteristic for scintillation detectors. So the scintillation spectra to alpha particles of sample were monitored.

Keywords: nanoparticles, luminescence, sol gel, scintillator

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2476 Optical Characterization of Erbium-Mixed Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks


The structural characterization of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) have been carried out using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm. Erbium trichloride was added to silicon nano crystals using a simple chemical procedure. Erbium is useful in this context because it has a narrow emission band at ⋍1536 nm which corresponds to a standard optical telecommunication wavelength. The optical properties of SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples exhibit an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that arise from radiative recombination of Si. Erbium-mixed SiNCs also shows a weak PL emission peak at ⋍1536 nm that attributed to the intra-4f transition in erbium ions. The intensity of the PL peak of Si in erbium-mixed SiNCs is increased in the intensity up to ×3 as compared to pure SiNCs. It was observed that intensity of 1536 nm peak decreased dramatically in the presence of silicon nano crystals and the PL emission peak of silicon nano crystals is increased. Therefore, the resulted data present that the energy transfer from erbium ions to SiNCs due to the chemical mixing method which used in this work.

Keywords: Silicon Nanocrystals (SiNCs), Erbium Ion, photoluminescence, energy transfer

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2475 InP/ZnS Core-Shell and InP/ZnS/ZnS Core-Multishell Quantum Dots for Improved luminescence Efficiency

Authors: Imen Harabi, Hanae Toura, Safa Jemai, Bernabe Mari Soucase


A promising alternative to traditional Quantum Dots QD materials, which contain toxic heavy elements such as lead and cadmium, sheds light on indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) Owing to improve the quantum yields of photoluminescence and other properties. InP, InP/ZnS core/shell and InP/ZnS/ZnS core/shell/shell Quantum Dots (QDs) were synthetized by the hot injection method. The optical and structural properties of the core InP QDs, InP/ZnS QDs, and InP/ZnS/ZnS QDs have being considered by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The average diameter of InP, InP/ZnS, and InP/ZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) was varying between 10 nm, 5.4 nm, and 4.10 nm. This experience revealed that the surface morphology of the Quantum Dots has a more regular spherical form with color variation of the QDs in solution. The emission peak of colloidal InP Quantum Dots was around 530 nm, while in InP/ZnS, the emission peak is displayed and located at 598 nm. whilst for InP/ZnS/ZnS is placed at 610 nm. Furthermore, an enhanced PL emission due to a passivation effect in the ZnS-covered InP QDs was obtained. Add the XRD information FWHM of the principal peak of InP QDs was 63 nm, while for InP/ZnS was 41 nm and InP/ZnS/ZnS was 33 nm. The effect of the Zinc stearate precursor concentration on the optical, structural, surface chemical of InP and InP/ZnS and InP/ZnS/ZnS QDs will be discussed.

Keywords: indium phosphide, quantum dot, nanoparticle, core-shell, multishell, luminescence

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2474 Composition Dependent Spectroscopic Studies of Sm3+-Doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: K. Swapna, Sk. Mahamuda, Ch, Annapurna, A. Srinivasa Rao, G. Vijaya Prakash


Samarium ions doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite (AFTT) Glasses have been prepared by using the melt quenching technique and characterized through various spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay spectral studies. From the measured absorption spectra of Sm3+ ions in AFTT glasses, the optical band gap and Urbach energies have been evaluated. The spectroscopic parameters such as oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ωλ), spontaneous emission probability (AR), branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) of various excited levels have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using J-O analysis. A strong luminescence in the reddish-orange spectral region has been observed for all the Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses. It consisting four emission transitions occurring from the 4G5/2metastable state to the lower lying states 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 upon exciting the sample with a 478 nm line of an argon ion laser. The stimulated emission cross-sections (σe) and branching ratios (βmeas) were estimated from the emission spectra for all emission transitions. Correlation of the radiative lifetime with the experimental lifetime measured from the day curves allows us to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared glasses. In order to know the colour emission of the prepared glasses under near UV excitation, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 colour chromaticity diagram. The aforementioned spectral studies carried out on Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses allowed us to conclude that, these glasses are best suited for orange-red visible lasers.

Keywords: fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses, judd-ofelt intensity parameters, lifetime, stimulated emission cross-section

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2473 Method Validation for Determining Platinum and Palladium in Catalysts Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

Authors: Marin Senila, Oana Cadar, Thorsten Janisch, Patrick Lacroix-Desmazes


The study presents the analytical capability and validation of a method based on microwave-assisted acid digestion for quantitative determination of platinum and palladium in catalysts using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In order to validate the method, the main figures of merit such as limit of detection and limit of quantification, precision and accuracy were considered and the measurement uncertainty was estimated based on the bottom-up approach according to the international guidelines of ISO/IEC 17025. Limit of detections, estimated from blank signal using 3 s criterion, were 3.0 mg/kg for Pt and respectively 3.6 mg/kg for Pd, while limits of quantification were 9.0 mg/kg for Pt and respectively 10.8 mg/kg for Pd. Precisions, evaluated as standard deviations of repeatability (n=5 parallel samples), were less than 10% for both precious metals. Accuracies of the method, verified by recovery estimation certified reference material NIST SRM 2557 - pulverized recycled monolith, were 99.4 % for Pt and 101% for Pd. The obtained limit of quantifications and accuracy were satisfactory for the intended purpose. The paper offers all the steps necessary to validate the determination method for Pt and Pd in catalysts using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

Keywords: catalyst analysis, ICP-OES, method validation, platinum, palladium

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2472 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak


A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

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2471 Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: Muhammad Hanif, Muhammad Salik


In the present research work we present the optical emission studies of the Indium (In)-Tin (Sn) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (InI) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te) using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface.

Keywords: indium-tin plasma, laser ablation, optical emission spectroscopy, electron temperature, electron number density

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2470 Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Studies of Tm3+ Ions Doped Lead Tungsten Tellurite Glasses for Visible Red and Near-Ir Laser Applications

Authors: M. Venkateswarlu, Srinivasa Rao Allam, S. K. Mahamuda, K. Swapna, G. Vijaya Prakash


Lead Tungsten Tellurite (LTT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Tm3+ ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral studies to know the feasibility of using these glasses as luminescent devices in visible Red and NIR regions. By using optical absorption spectral data, the energy band gaps for all the glasses were evaluated and were found to be in the range of 2.34-2.59 eV; which is very useful for the construction of optical devices. Judd-Ofelt (J-O)theory has been applied to the optical absorption spectral profiles to calculate the J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and consecutively used to evaluate various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τ_R) and branching ratios (β_R) for the prominent luminescent levels. The luminescence spectra for all the LTT glass samples have shown two intense peaks in bright red and Near Infrared regions at 650 nm (1G4→3F4) and 800 nm (3H4→3H6) respectively for which effective bandwidths (〖Δλ〗_P), experimental branching ratios (β_exp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ_se) are evaluated. The decay profiles for all the glasses were also recorded to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared LTT glasses by coupling the radiative and experimental lifetimes. From the measured emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 0.5 mol% of Tm3+ ions doped LTT glass is most suitable for generating bright visible red and NIR lasers to operate at 650 and 800 nm respectively.

Keywords: glasses, JO parameters, optical materials, thullium

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2469 Spectroscopic and 1.08mm Laser Properties of Nd3+ Doped Oxy-Fluoro Borate Glasses

Authors: Swapna Koneru, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash Gaddem


The different concentrations of neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) oxy fluoroborate (OFB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded and have been analyzed using Judd–Ofelt theory. The dipole strengths are parameterized in terms of three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) to elucidate the glassy matrix around Nd3+ ion as well as to determine the 4F3/2 metastable state radiative properties such as the transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-section (σa) have been measured for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses exhibit two peaks at 1085 and 1328 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions have been obtained for all the glasses upon 808 nm diode laser excitation in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2.0 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses due to the concentration quenching. The decay curves of all these glasses show single exponential behavior. The spectroscopy of Nd3+ in these glasses is well understood and laser properties can be accurately determined from measured spectroscopic properties. The results obtained are compared with reports on similar glasses. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.08 µm laser applications.

Keywords: glasses, luminescence, optical properties, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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2468 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma


Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: jatropha curcus, computational analysis, emissions, NOx biofuels

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2467 White Light Emitting Carbon Dots- Surface Modification of Carbon Dots Using Auxochromes

Authors: Manasa Perikala, Asha Bhardwaj


Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs), a young member of Carbon nanomaterial family, has gained a lot of research attention across the globe due to its highly luminescent emission properties, non-toxic behavior, stable emission properties, and zero re-absorption lose. These dots have the potential to replace the use of traditional semiconductor quantum dots in light-emitting devices (LED’s, fiber lasers) and other photonic devices (temperature sensor, UV detector). However, One major drawback of Carbon dots is that, till date, the actual mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) in carbon dots is still an open topic of discussion among various researchers across the globe. PL mechanism of CDs based on wide particle size distribution, the effect of surface groups, hybridization in carbon, and charge transfer mechanisms have been proposed. Although these mechanisms explain PL of CDs to an extent, no universally accepted mechanism to explain complete PL behavior of these dots is put forth. In our work, we report parameters affecting the size and surface of CDs, such as time of the reaction, synthesis temperature and concentration of precursors and their effects on the optical properties of the carbon dots. The effect of auxochromes on the emission properties and re-modification of carbon surface using an external surface functionalizing agent is discussed in detail. All the explanations have been supported by UV-Visible absorption, emission spectroscopies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. Once the origin of PL in CDs is understood, parameters affecting PL centers can be modified to tailor the optical properties of these dots, which can enhance their applications in the fabrication of LED’s and other photonic devices out of these carbon dots.

Keywords: carbon dots, photoluminescence, size effects on emission in CDs, surface modification of carbon dots

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2466 Combined Optical Coherence Microscopy and Spectrally Resolved Multiphoton Microscopy

Authors: Bjorn-Ole Meyer, Dominik Marti, Peter E. Andersen


A multimodal imaging system, combining spectrally resolved multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is demonstrated. MPM and OCM are commonly integrated into multimodal imaging platforms to combine functional and morphological information. The MPM signals, such as two-photon fluorescence emission (TPFE) and signals created by second harmonic generation (SHG) are biomarkers which exhibit information on functional biological features such as the ratio of pyridine nucleotide (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the classification of cancerous tissue. While the spectrally resolved imaging allows for the study of biomarkers, using a spectrometer as a detector limits the imaging speed of the system significantly. To overcome those limitations, an OCM setup was added to the system, which allows for fast acquisition of structural information. Thus, after rapid imaging of larger specimens, navigation within the sample is possible. Subsequently, distinct features can be selected for further investigation using MPM. Additionally, by probing a different contrast, complementary information is obtained, and different biomarkers can be investigated. OCM images of tissue and cell samples are obtained, and distinctive features are evaluated using MPM to illustrate the benefits of the system.

Keywords: optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy, multimodal imaging, two-photon fluorescence emission

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2465 Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Surface Roughness in Ultra High Precision Grinding of Borosilicate-Crown Glass

Authors: Goodness Onwuka, Khaled Abou-El-Hossein


The increase in the demand for precision optics, coupled with the absence of much research output in the ultra high precision grinding of precision optics as compared to the ultrahigh precision diamond turning of optical metals has fostered the need for more research in the ultra high precision grinding of an optical lens. Furthermore, the increase in the stringent demands for nanometric surface finishes through lapping, polishing and grinding processes necessary for the use of borosilicate-crown glass in the automotive and optics industries has created the demand to effectively monitor the surface roughness during the production process. Acoustic emission phenomenon has been proven as useful monitoring technique in several manufacturing processes ranging from monitoring of bearing production to tool wear estimation. This paper introduces a rare and unique approach with the application of acoustic emission technique to monitor the surface roughness of borosilicate-crown glass during an ultra high precision grinding process. This research was carried out on a 4-axes Nanoform 250 ultrahigh precision lathe machine using an ultra high precision grinding spindle to machine the flat surface of the borosilicate-crown glass with the tip of the grinding wheel. A careful selection of parameters and design of experiment was implemented using Box-Behnken method to vary the wheel speed, feed rate and depth of cut at three levels with a 3-center point design. Furthermore, the average surface roughness was measured using Taylor Hobson PGI Dimension XL optical profilometer, and an acoustic emission data acquisition device from National Instruments was utilized to acquire the signals while the data acquisition codes were designed with National Instrument LabVIEW software for acquisition at a sampling rate of 2 million samples per second. The results show that the raw and root mean square amplitude values of the acoustic signals increased with a corresponding increase in the measured average surface roughness values for the different parameter combinations. Therefore, this research concludes that acoustic emission monitoring technique is a potential technique for monitoring the surface roughness in the ultra high precision grinding of borosilicate-crown glass.

Keywords: acoustic emission, borosilicate-crown glass, surface roughness, ultra high precision grinding

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2464 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaInAsSb/GaSb Laser Structure: Impact of Annealing Time

Authors: Soufiene Ilahi, Noureddine Yacoubi


GaInAsSb grown on GaSb substrate is an interesting material employed as an active layer in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared emission. This material presents some advantages like highs optical absorption coefficient and good thermal conductivity, which is very desirable for VCSEL application. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb. The studies are carried out by means of the photo thermal deflection spectroscopy technique (PDS). In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by a comparison between the experimental and theoretical phases of the PDS signal. We have found that thermal conductivity increased significantly to 13 W/m.K for GaInAsSb annealed during 60 min. In addition, we have found that bandgap energy is blue-shifted around 30 meV. The amplitudes signal of PDS reveals multiple reflections as a function of annealing time, which reflect the high crystalline quality of the layer.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, bandgap energy of GaInAsSb, GaInAsSb active layer, optical absorption

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2463 Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction Effect on Multiphoton Optical Transitions in a Quantum Dot for Bioimaging

Authors: Pradip Kumar Jha, Manoj Kumar


We demonstrate in this work the effect of Rashba spin orbit interaction on multiphoton optical transitions of a quantum dot in the presence of THz laser field and external static magnetic field. This combination is solved by accurate non-perturbative Floquet theory. Investigations are made for the optical response of intraband transition between the various states of the conduction band with spin flipping. Enhancement and power broadening observed for excited states probabilities with increase of external fields are directly linked to the emission spectra of QD and will be useful for making future bioimaging devices.

Keywords: bioimaging, multiphoton processes, spin orbit interaction, quantum dot

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2462 Monitoring the Railways by Means of C-OTDR Technology

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev


This paper presents development results of the method of seismoacoustic activity monitoring based on usage vibrosensitive properties of optical fibers. Analysis of Rayleigh backscattering radiation parameters changes, which take place due to microscopic seismoacoustic impacts on the optical fiber, allows to determine seismoacoustic emission sources positions and to identify their types. Results of using this approach are successful for complex monitoring of railways.

Keywords: C-OTDR systems, monitoring of railways, Rayleigh backscattering, eismoacoustic activity

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2461 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi


Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: all-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk

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2460 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based on Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam


Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15 min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390 nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector, atomic force microscopy

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2459 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based on Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga


In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory

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2458 Polydimethylsiloxane Applications in Interferometric Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: Zeenat Parveen, Ashiq Hussain


This review paper consists of applications of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) materials for enhanced performance, optical fiber sensors in acousto-ultrasonic, mechanical measurements, current applications, sensing, measurements and interferometric optical fiber sensors. We will discuss the basic working principle of fiber optic sensing technology, various types of fiber optic and the PDMS as a coating material to increase the performance. Optical fiber sensing methods for detecting dynamic strain signals, including general sound and acoustic signals, high frequency signals i.e. ultrasonic/ultrasound, and other signals such as acoustic emission and impact induced dynamic strain. Optical fiber sensors have Industrial and civil engineering applications in mechanical measurements. Sometimes it requires different configurations and parameters of sensors. Optical fiber current sensors are based on Faraday Effect due to which we obtain better performance as compared to the conventional current transformer. Recent advancement and cost reduction has simulated interest in optical fiber sensing. Optical techniques are also implemented in material measurement. Fiber optic interferometers are used to sense various physical parameters including temperature, pressure and refractive index. There are four types of interferometers i.e. Fabry–perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. This paper also describes the future work of fiber optic sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic sensing, PDMS materials, acoustic, ultrasound, current sensor, mechanical measurements

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2457 Long Wavelength GaInNAs Based Hot Electron Light Emission VCSOAs

Authors: Faten Adel Ismael Chaqmaqchee


Optical, electrical and optical-electrical characterisations of surface light emitting VCSOAs devices are reported. The hot electron light emitting and lasing in semiconductor hetero-structure vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (HELLISH VCSOA) device is a surface emitter based on longitudinal injection of electron and hole pairs in their respective channels. Ga0.35In0.65N0.02As0.08/GaAs was used as an active material for operation in the 1.3 μm window of the optical communications. The device has undoped Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and the current is injected longitudinally, directly into the active layers and does not involve DBRs. Therefore, problems associated with refractive index contrast and current injection through the DBR layers, which are common with the doped DBRs in conventional VCSOAs, are avoided. The highest gain of around 4 dB is obtained for the 1300 nm wavelength operation.

Keywords: HELLISH, VCSOA, GaInNAs, luminescence, gain

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2456 Deciphering Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Folic Acid for the Applications of Tissue Engineering and Biofuel Cell

Authors: Sharda Nara, Bansi Dhar Malhotra


Investigation of the vitamins as an electron transfer mediator could significantly assist in merging the area of tissue engineering and electronics required for the implantable therapeutic devices. The present study report that the molecules of folic acid released by Providencia rettgeri via fermentation route under the anoxic condition of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) exhibit characteristic electrochemical and optical properties, as indicated by absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and cyclic voltammetry studies. The absorption spectroscopy has depicted an absorption peak at 263 nm with a small bulge around 293 nm on day two of bacterial culture, whereas an additional peak was observed at 365 nm on the twentieth day. Furthermore, the PL spectra has indicated that the maximum emission occurred at various wavelengths 420, 425, 440, and 445 nm when excited by 310, 325, 350, and 365 nm. The change of emission spectra with varying excitation wavelength might be indicating the presence of tunable optical bands in the folic acid molecules co-related with the redox activity of the molecules. The results of cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation and reduction occurred at 0.25V and 0.12V, respectively, indicating the electrochemical behavior of the folic acid. This could be inferred that the released folic acid molecules in a MFC might undergo inter as well as intra molecular electron transfer forming different intermediate states while transferring electrons to the electrode surface. Synchronization of electrochemical and optical properties of folic acid molecules could be potentially promising for the designing of electroactive scaffold and biocompatible conductive surface for the applications of tissue engineering and biofuel cells, respectively.

Keywords: biofuel cell, electroactivity, folic acid, tissue engineering

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2455 Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor

Authors: S. Manjunatha, M. S. Dharmaprakash


Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.

Keywords: nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, photoluminescence

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2454 Enhanced Constraint-Based Optical Network (ECON) for Enhancing OSNR

Authors: G. R. Kavitha, T. S. Indumathi


With the constantly rising demands of the multimedia services, the requirements of long haul transport network are constantly changing in the area of optical network. Maximum data transmission using optimization of the communication channel poses the biggest challenge. Although there has been a constant focus on this area from the past decade, there was no evidence of a significant result that has been accomplished. Hence, after reviewing some potential design of optical network from literatures, it was understood that optical signal to noise ratio was one of the elementary attributes that can define the performance of the optical network. In this paper, we propose a framework termed as ECON (Enhanced Constraint-based Optical Network) that primarily optimize the optical signal to noise ratio using ROADM. The simulation is performed in Matlab and optical signal to noise ratio is extracted considering the system matrix. The outcome of the proposed study shows that optimized OSNR as compared to the existing studies.

Keywords: component, optical network, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer, optical signal-to-noise ratio

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