Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Rong Guo

56 The Role of Mass Sport Guidance in the Health Service Industry of China

Authors: Qiu Jian-Rong, Li Qing-Hui, Zhan Dong, Zhang Lei


Facing the problem of the demand of economic restructuring and risk of social economy stagnation due to the ageing of population, the Health Service Industry will play a very important role in the structure of industry in the future. During the process, the orient of Chinese sports medicine as well as the joint with preventive medicine, and the integration with data bank and cloud computing will be involved.

Keywords: China, the health service industry, mass sport, data bank

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55 Integration of Magnetoresistance Sensor in Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic Particles Detection

Authors: Chao-Ming Su, Pei-Sheng Wu, Yu-Chi Kuo, Yin-Chou Huang, Tan-Yueh Chen, Jefunnie Matahum, Tzong-Rong Ger


Application of magnetic particles (MPs) has been applied in biomedical field for many years. There are lots of advantages through this mediator including high biocompatibility and multi-diversified bio-applications. However, current techniques for evaluating the quantity of the magnetic-labeled sample assays are rare. In this paper, a Wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor integrated with a homemade detecting system was fabricated and used to quantify the concentration of MPs. The homemade detecting system has shown high detecting sensitivity of 10 μg/μl of MPs with optimized parameter vertical magnetic field 100 G, horizontal magnetic field 2 G and flow rate 0.4 ml/min.

Keywords: magnetic particles, magnetoresistive sensors, microfluidics, biosensor

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54 The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Joel Hernandez, Mindy Engle-Friedman


This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.

Keywords: environmental psychology, future priming, climate change, global warming

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53 Using Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process with Compound Distribution to Price Catastrophe Options

Authors: Rong-Tsorng Wang


In this paper, we derive a pricing formula for catastrophe equity put options (or CatEPut) with non-homogeneous loss and approximated compound distributions. We assume that the loss claims arrival process is a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) representing the clustering occurrences of loss claims, the size of loss claims is a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, and the accumulated loss distribution forms a compound distribution and is approximated by a heavy-tailed distribution. A numerical example is given to calibrate parameters, and we discuss how the value of CatEPut is affected by the changes of parameters in the pricing model we provided.

Keywords: catastrophe equity put options, compound distributions, nonhomogeneous Poisson process, pricing model

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52 Analysis of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in a 3x3 Rod Bundle

Authors: Pei-Syuan Ruan, Ya-Chi Yu, Shao-Wen Chen, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih


This study investigated the void fraction characteristics under low superficial gas velocity (Jg) and low superficial fluid velocity (Jf) conditions in a 3x3 rod bundle geometry. Three arrangements of conductivity probes were set to measure the void fraction at various cross-sectional regions, including rod-gap, sub-channel and rod-wall regions. The experimental tests were performed under the flow conditions of Jg = 0-0.236 m/s and Jf = 0-0.142 m/s, and the time-averaged void fractions were recorded at each flow condition. It was observed that while the superficial gas velocity increases, the small bubbles started to cluster together and become big bubbles. As the superficial fluid velocity increases, the local void fractions of the three test regions will get closer and the bubble distribution will be more uniform across the cross section.

Keywords: conductivity probes, rod bundles, two-phase flow, void fraction

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51 Investigating the Role of Combined Length Scale Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Ni/Cu Multilayer Structures

Authors: Naresh Radaliyagoda, Nigel M. Jennett, Rong Lan, David Parfitt


A series of length scale engineered multilayer material with temperature robust mechanical properties has been suggested. A range of polycrystalline copper sub-layers with the thickness varying from 1 to 25μm and buried in between two nickel layers was produced using electrodeposition dual bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. The interface effect on the hardness and elastic modulus was tested using Nano-indentation. Results of the grain size and layer thickness measurements, and indentation hardness have been compared. It is found that there is a combined length scale effect that improves mechanical properties in Ni/Cu multilayer structures.

Keywords: nano-indentation, size effect, multilayers, electrodeposition

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50 The Research of Weights Identify of Harbin Ecological Security Evaluation Index Based on AHP

Authors: Rong Guo, Mengshi Huang, Yujing Bai


With the rapid development of urbanization, the urban population increases and urban sprawl appeared. And these issues led to a sharp deterioration of the ecological environment. So, the urban ecological security evaluation was imminent. The weights identify of index was a key step of the research of ecological security evaluation. The AHP was widely used in the extensive research of weights identify of ecological security index. The characteristics of authority and quantitative can fully reflect the views of relevant experts. On the basis of building the ecological security evaluation index of Harbin, the paper combed and used the basic principle of the AHP, and calculated the weights of Harbin ecological security evaluation index through the process of the expert opinions “summary-feedback-summary”. And lay a foundation of future study of Harbin ecological security index, and guide the quantitative evaluation of Harbin ecological security.

Keywords: AHP, ecological security, evaluation Index, weights identify, harbin

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49 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu


Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

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48 The Customization of 3D Last Form Design Based on Weighted Blending

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Chu-Hsuan Lee, Rong-Qi Chen


When it comes to last, it is regarded as the critical foundation of shoe design and development. Not only the last relates to the comfort of shoes wearing but also it aids the production of shoe styling and manufacturing. In order to enhance the efficiency and application of last development, a computer aided methodology for customized last form designs is proposed in this study. The reverse engineering is mainly applied to the process of scanning for the last form. Then the minimum energy is used for the revision of surface continuity, the surface of the last is reconstructed with the feature curves of the scanned last. When the surface of a last is reconstructed, based on the foundation of the proposed last form reconstruction module, the weighted arithmetic mean method is applied to the calculation on the shape morphing which differs from the grading for the control mesh of last, and the algorithm of subdivision is used to create the surface of last mesh, thus the feet-fitting 3D last form of different sizes is generated from its original form feature with functions remained. Finally, the practicability of the proposed methodology is verified through later case studies.

Keywords: 3D last design, customization, reverse engineering, weighted morphing, shape blending

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47 Spatial-Temporal Awareness Approach for Extensive Re-Identification

Authors: Tyng-Rong Roan, Fuji Foo, Wenwey Hseush


Recent development of AI and edge computing plays a critical role to capture meaningful events such as detection of an unattended bag. One of the core problems is re-identification across multiple CCTVs. Immediately following the detection of a meaningful event is to track and trace the objects related to the event. In an extensive environment, the challenge becomes severe when the number of CCTVs increases substantially, imposing difficulties in achieving high accuracy while maintaining real-time performance. The algorithm that re-identifies cross-boundary objects for extensive tracking is referred to Extensive Re-Identification, which emphasizes the issues related to the complexity behind a great number of CCTVs. The Spatial-Temporal Awareness approach challenges the conventional thinking and concept of operations which is labor intensive and time consuming. The ability to perform Extensive Re-Identification through a multi-sensory network provides the next-level insights – creating value beyond traditional risk management.

Keywords: long-short-term memory, re-identification, security critical application, spatial-temporal awareness

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46 Hybrid Model for Measuring the Hedge Strategy in Exchange Risk in Information Technology Industry

Authors: Yi-Hsien Wang, Fu-Ju Yang, Hwa-Rong Shen, Rui-Lin Tseng


The business is notably related to the market risk according to the increase of liberalization of financial markets. Hence, the company usually utilized high financial leverage of derivatives to hedge the risk. When the company choose different hedging instruments to face a variety of exchange rate risk, we employ the Multinomial Logistic-AHP to analyze the impact of various derivatives. Hence, the research summarized the literature on relevant factors affecting managers selected exchange rate hedging instruments, using Multinomial Logistic Model and and further integrate AHP. Using Experts’ Questionnaires can test multi-level selection and hedging effect of different hedging instruments in order to calculate the hedging instruments and the multi-level factors of weights to understand the gap between the empirical results and practical operation. Finally, the Multinomial Logistic-AHP Model will sort the weights to analyze. The research findings can be a basis reference for investors in decision-making.

Keywords: exchange rate risk, derivatives, hedge, multinomial logistic-AHP

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45 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, An-Shik Yang


Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite element method, molten pool dimensions, selective laser melting

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44 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger


Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

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43 A Global Fuel Combustion Data Product and Its Application

Authors: Shu Tao, Rong Wang, Huizhong Shen, Ye Huang


High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion is essential for reducing uncertainties in assessments of greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions. Such inventories provide valuable information for inferring carbon sinks, modeling pollutant transport, and developing control strategies. Previous inventories included only a few fuel types and were derived using national population proxies which may distort the geographical variation within countries. In this study, a global 0.1 degree by 0.1 degree geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL-2007) was developed for 64 fuel sub-types along with uncertainty analysis for the year 2007. Sub-national fuel consumption of large countries and major power-station locations were used. The disaggregation error can be reduced significantly by using the sub-nationally energy data, because the uneven distribution of per-capita fuel consumption within countries is taken into consideration. The PKU-FUEL was used to generate global emission inventories of CO2 (PKU-CO2-2007), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PKU-PAHs-2007), and black carbons (PKU-BC-2007). Atmospheric transport modeling and expsoure assessment were conducted for BC and PAHs based on the inventory.

Keywords: fuel, emission, BC, PAHs, atmospheric transport, exposure

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42 Accidents Involving Pedestrians Walking along with/against Traffic: An Evaluation of Crash Characteristics and Injuries

Authors: Chih-Wei Pai, Rong-Chang Jou


Using A1 A2 police-reported accident data for years 2003–2010 in Taiwan, the paper examines anatomic injuries and crash characteristics specific to pedestrians in “facing traffic” and “back to traffic” crashes. There were 2768 and 7558 accidents involving pedestrians walking along with/against traffic respectively. Injuries sustained by pedestrians and crash characteristics in these two crash types were compared with those in other crash types (nearside crash, nearside dart-out crash, offside crash, offside dart-out crash). Main findings include that “back to traffic” crashes resulted in more severe injuries, and pedestrians in “back to traffic” crashes had increased head, neck, and spine injuries than those in other crash types; and there was an elevated risk of head injuries in unlit darkness and NBU (non-built-up) roadways. Several crash features (e.g. unlit darkness, overtaking maneuvers, phone use by pedestrians and drivers, intoxicated drivers) appear to be over-involved in “back to traffic” crashes. The implications of the research findings regarding pedestrian/driver education, enforcement, and remedial engineering design are discussed.

Keywords: pedestrian accident, crash characteristics, injury, facing traffic, back to traffic

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41 Dose Evaluations with SNAP/RADTRAD for Loss of Coolant Accidents in a BWR6 Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: Kai Chun Yang, Shao-Wen Chen, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih, Jung-Hua Yang, Hsiung-Chih Chen, Wen-Sheng Hsu


In this study, we build RADionuclide Transport, Removal And Dose Estimation/Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package (SNAP/RADTRAD) model of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant which is based on the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSAR) and other data of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant. It is used to estimate the radiation dose of the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB), the Low Population Zone (LPZ), and the control room following ‘release from the containment’ case in Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The RADTRAD analysis result shows that the evaluation dose at EAB, LPZ, and the control room are close to the FSAR data, and all of the doses are lower than the regulatory limits. At last, we do a sensitivity analysis and observe that the evaluation doses increase as the intake rate of the control room increases.

Keywords: RADTRAD, radionuclide transport, removal and dose estimation, snap, symbolic nuclear analysis package, boiling water reactor, NPP, kuosheng

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40 Evaluation of the Synergistic Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 Infection by Interferon-α Coupled with Pleconaril in RD Cells

Authors: Wen-Yu Lin, Yi-Ching Chung, Tzyy-Rong Jinn


It is well known that enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes recurring outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and encephalitis leading to complications or death in young children. And, several HFMD of EV71 with high mortalities occurred in Asia countries, such as Malaysia (1997), Taiwan (1998) and China (2008). Thus, more effective antiviral drugs are needed to prevent or reduce EV71-related complications. As reported, interferon-α protects mice from lethal EV71 challenge by the modulation of innate immunity and then degrade enterovirus protease 3Cᵖʳᵒ. On the other side, pleconaril by targeting enterovirus VP1 protein and then block virus entry and attachment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic antiviral activity of interferon-α and pleconaril against enterovirus 71 infection. In a preliminary study showed that pleconaril at concentrations of 50, 100 and 300 µg/mL reduced EV71-induced CPE to 52.0 ± 2.5%, 40.2 ± 3.5% and 26.5 ± 1.5%, respectively, of that of the EV71-infected RD control cells (taken as 100%). Notably, 1000 IU/mL of interferon-α in combination with pleconaril at concentrations of 50, 100 and 300µg/mL suppressed EV71-induced CPE by 30.2 ± 3.8%, 16.5 ± 1.3% and 2.8 ± 2.0%, respectively, of that of the pleconaril alone treated with the infected RD cells. These results indicated that interferon-α 1000 IU/mL combination with pleconaril (50, 100 and 300µg/mL) inhibited EV71-induced CPE more effectively than treated with pleconaril alone in the infected RD cells.

Keywords: enterovirus 71, interferon-α, pleconaril, RD cells

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39 Transient Analysis of Central Region Void Fraction in a 3x3 Rod Bundle under Bubbly and Cap/Slug Flows

Authors: Ya-Chi Yu, Pei-Syuan Ruan, Shao-Wen Chen, Yu-Hsien Chang, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih


This study analyzed the transient signals of central region void fraction of air-water two-phase flow in a 3x3 rod bundle. Experimental tests were carried out utilizing a vertical rod bundle test section along with a set of air-water supply/flow control system, and the transient signals of the central region void fraction were collected through the electrical conductivity sensors as well as visualized via high speed photography. By converting the electric signals, transient void fraction can be obtained through the voltage ratios. With a fixed superficial water velocity (Jf=0.094 m/s), two different superficial air velocities (Jg=0.094 m/s and 0.236 m/s) were tested and presented, which were corresponding to the flow conditions of bubbly flows and cap/slug flows, respectively. The time averaged central region void fraction was obtained as 0.109-0.122 with 0.028 standard deviation for the selected bubbly flow and 0.188-0.221with 0.101 standard deviation for the selected cap/slug flow, respectively. Through Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, no clear frequency peak was found in bubbly flow, while two dominant frequencies were identified around 1.6 Hz and 2.5 Hz in the present cap/slug flow.

Keywords: central region, rod bundles, transient void fraction, two-phase flow

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38 Simulation Studies of Solid-Particle and Liquid-Drop Erosion of NiAl Alloy

Authors: Rong Liu, Kuiying Chen, Ju Chen, Jingrong Zhao, Ming Liang


This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.

Keywords: liquid-drop erosion, NiAl alloy, oxide scale thickness, solid-particle erosion

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37 Determination of Poisson’s Ratio and Elastic Modulus of Compression Textile Materials

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu


Compression textiles such as compression stockings (CSs) have been extensively applied for the prevention and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The involvement of multiple mechanical factors such as interface pressure, frictional force, and elastic materials make the interactions between lower limb and CSs to be complex. Determination of Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli of CS materials are critical for constructing finite element (FE) modeling to numerically simulate a complex interactive system of CS and lower limb. In this study, a mixed approach, including an analytic model based on the orthotropic Hooke’s Law and experimental study (uniaxial tension testing and pure shear testing), has been proposed to determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and shear modulus of CS fabrics. The results indicated a linear relationship existing between the stress and strain properties of the studied CS samples under controlled stretch ratios (< 100%). The newly proposed method and the determined key mechanical properties of elastic orthotropic CS fabrics facilitate FE modeling for analyzing in-depth the effects of compression material design on their resultant biomechanical function in compression therapy.

Keywords: elastic compression stockings, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, mechanical analysis

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36 Data Recording for Remote Monitoring of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Rong-Terng Juang


Autonomous vehicles offer the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare. However, fully automated cars might not be going to happen in the near further. To speed the adoption of the self-driving technologies, many governments worldwide are passing laws requiring data recorders for the testing of autonomous vehicles. Currently, the self-driving vehicle, (e.g., shuttle bus) has to be monitored from a remote control center. When an autonomous vehicle encounters an unexpected driving environment, such as road construction or an obstruction, it should request assistance from a remote operator. Nevertheless, large amounts of data, including images, radar and lidar data, etc., have to be transmitted from the vehicle to the remote center. Therefore, this paper proposes a data compression method of in-vehicle networks for remote monitoring of autonomous vehicles. Firstly, the time-series data are rearranged into a multi-dimensional signal space. Upon the arrival, for controller area networks (CAN), the new data are mapped onto a time-data two-dimensional space associated with the specific CAN identity. Secondly, the data are sampled based on differential sampling. Finally, the whole set of data are encoded using existing algorithms such as Huffman, arithmetic and codebook encoding methods. To evaluate system performance, the proposed method was deployed on an in-house built autonomous vehicle. The testing results show that the amount of data can be reduced as much as 1/7 compared to the raw data.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, data compression, remote monitoring, controller area networks (CAN), Lidar

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35 Fano-Resonance-Based Wideband Acoustic Metamaterials with Highly Efficient Ventilation

Authors: Xi-Wen Xiao, Tzy-Rong Lin, Chien-Hao Liu


Ventilated acoustic metamaterials have attracted considerable research attention due to their low-frequency absorptions and efficient fluid ventilations. In this research, a wideband acoustic metamaterial with auditory filtering ability and efficient ventilation capacity were proposed. In contrast to a conventional Fano-like resonator, a Fano-like resonator composed of a resonant unit and two nonresonant units with a large opening area of 68% for fluid passages was developed. In addition, the coupling mechanism to improve the narrow bandwidths of conventional Fano-resonance-based meta-materials was included. With a suitable design, the output sound waves of the resonant and nonresonant states were out of phase to achieve sound absorptions in the far fields. Therefore, three-element and five-element coupled Fano-like metamaterials were designed and simulated with the help of the finite element software to obtain the filtering fractional bandwidths of 42.5% and 61.8%, respectively. The proposed approach can be extended to multiple coupled resonators for obtaining ultra-wide bandwidths and can be implemented with 3D printing for practical applications. The research results are expected to be beneficial for sound filtering or noise reductions in duct applications and limited-volume spaces.

Keywords: fano resonance, noise reduction, resonant coupling, sound filtering, ventilated acoustic metamaterial

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34 Surface Flattening Assisted with 3D Mannequin Based on Minimum Energy

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Rong-Qi Chen, Chien-Yu Lin


The topic of surface flattening plays a vital role in the field of computer aided design and manufacture. Surface flattening enables the production of 2D patterns and it can be used in design and manufacturing for developing a 3D surface to a 2D platform, especially in fashion design. This study describes surface flattening based on minimum energy methods according to the property of different fabrics. Firstly, through the geometric feature of a 3D surface, the less transformed area can be flattened on a 2D platform by geodesic. Then, strain energy that has accumulated in mesh can be stably released by an approximate implicit method and revised error function. In some cases, cutting mesh to further release the energy is a common way to fix the situation and enhance the accuracy of the surface flattening, and this makes the obtained 2D pattern naturally generate significant cracks. When this methodology is applied to a 3D mannequin constructed with feature lines, it enhances the level of computer-aided fashion design. Besides, when different fabrics are applied to fashion design, it is necessary to revise the shape of a 2D pattern according to the properties of the fabric. With this model, the outline of 2D patterns can be revised by distributing the strain energy with different results according to different fabric properties. Finally, this research uses some common design cases to illustrate and verify the feasibility of this methodology.

Keywords: surface flattening, strain energy, minimum energy, approximate implicit method, fashion design

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33 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng


This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

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32 The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Liu De-jun, Fu Jing, Zhang Rong, Luo Tian, Ma Ning


Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.

Keywords: preparation, titanate, cs-137, removal, nuclear

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31 In vitro Evaluation of the Synergistic Antiviral Activity of Amantadine Coupled with Magnesium Lithospermate B against Enterovirus 71 Infection

Authors: Wen-Yu Lin, Yi-Ching Chung, Jhao-Ren Lin, Tzyy-Rong Jinn


It is well known that enterovirus 71(EV71) causes recurring outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease and encephalitis leading to complications or death in young children. And, several enterovirus 71 (EV71) of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with high mortalities occurred in Asia country, such as Hong Kung (1985), Malaysia (1997), Taiwan (1998) and China (2008) that EV71 results in severe neurological complications and sudden death in infants and young children. However, there are still no effective drugs and vaccines to reduce and inhibit EV71 infection. Therefore, the development of specific and effective antiviral strategies against EV71 has become an urgent issue for the protection of children from the hazards of the HFMD. As reported, amantadine is effective in prophylaxis and treatment of the EV71 infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to further evaluate the synergistic antiviral activity of amantadine coupled with magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) against enterovirus 71 infection. In a preliminary test, it is shown that the infected RD cells were treated with amantadine after virus absorption, at concentrations of 3 and 5µM of amantadine suppressed EV71-induced CPE to 13% and 23%, respectively at MOI of 3. Alternatively, at concentrations of 5µg/ml of MLB combined with 3 and 5 µM of amantadine apparently suppressed EV71-induced CPE to 45% and 63%, respectively at MOI of 3. Thus, amantadine coupled with MLB may have the potential for further study to development as the chemopreventive reagents against EV71 infection.

Keywords: amantadine, Enterovirus 71, magnesium lithospermate B, RD cells, synergistic effects

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30 MOOCs (E-Learning) Project Personnel Competency Analysis

Authors: Shang-Hua Wu, Rong-Chi Chang, Horng–Twu Liaw


Nowadays, competencies of e-learning project personnel are very important in assisting them in offering courses, serving students in an effective way, leveraging advantages, strengthen their relationships with potential students, etc. among e-learning platforms, MOOCs has recently attracted increasing focuses in distance education since it can be conducted for a large numbers of virtual learners. Nonetheless, since MOOCs is a relatively new e-learning platform, top concerns have been paid to what competencies are important for e-learning personnel to consider. Taking this need, this research aimed to carry out an in-depth exploration of competency requirements of MOOCs (e-learning) project personnel in Taiwan vocational schools. Data were collected through thorough literature reviews and discussions and competency analysis was carried out using Delphi technique questionnaires. The results show that that MOOCs (e-learning) project personnel’ professional competency lie in three main dimensions, among which ‘demand analysis competency’ (i.e., containing 10 major competences and 48 subordinate capabilities) is the most important competency, followed by ‘project management competency’ (i.e., comprising 6 major competences and 31 secondary capabilities), and finally ‘digital content production competency’ (i.e., including 12 major competences and 79 secondary capabilities). As such, in Taiwan context with different organizational scales and market sizes, the e-learning competency items and unique experience/ achievements throughout the promotion process obtained in this research will provide useful references for academic institutions in promoting e-learning.

Keywords: competency analysis, Delphi technique questionnaire, e-learning, massive open online courses

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29 Thermal Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Cryopump

Authors: Yue Shuai Zhao, Rong Ping Shao, Wei Sun, Guo Hua Ren, Yong Wang, Li Chen Sun


A large-scale cryopump (DN1250) used in large vacuum leak detecting system was designed and its performance experimentally investigated by Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering. The cryopump was cooled by four closed cycle helium refrigerators (two dual stage refrigerators and two single stage refrigerators). Detailed numerical analysis of the heat transfer in the first stage array and the second stage array were performed by using computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). Several design parameters were considered to find the effect on the temperature distribution and the cooldown time. The variation of thermal conductivity and heat capacity with temperature was taken into account. The thermal analysis method based on numerical techniques was introduced in this study, the heat transfer in the first stage array and the second stage cryopanel was carefully analyzed to determine important considerations in the thermal design of the cryopump. A performance test system according to the RNEUROP standards was built to test main performance of the cryopump. The experimental results showed that the structure of first stage array which was optimized by the method could meet the requirement of the cryopump well. The temperature of the cryopanel was down to 10K within 300 min, and the result of the experiment was accordant with theoretical analysis' conclusion. The test also showed that the pumping speed for N2 of the pump was up to 57,000 L/s, and the crossover was over than 300,000 Pa•L.

Keywords: cryopump, temperature distribution, thermal analysis, CFD Simulation

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28 Estimation of Normalized Glandular Doses Using a Three-Layer Mammographic Phantom

Authors: Kuan-Jen Lai, Fang-Yi Lin, Shang-Rong Huang, Yun-Zheng Zeng, Po-Chieh Hsu, Jay Wu


The normalized glandular dose (DgN) estimates the energy deposition of mammography in clinical practice. The Monte Carlo simulations frequently use uniformly mixed phantom for calculating the conversion factor. However, breast tissues are not uniformly distributed, leading to errors of conversion factor estimation. This study constructed a three-layer phantom to estimated more accurate of normalized glandular dose. In this study, MCNP code (Monte Carlo N-Particles code) was used to create the geometric structure. We simulated three types of target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), six voltages (25 ~ 35 kVp), six HVL parameters and nine breast phantom thicknesses (2 ~ 10 cm) for the three-layer mammographic phantom. The conversion factor for 25%, 50% and 75% glandularity was calculated. The error of conversion factors compared with the results of the American College of Radiology (ACR) was within 6%. For Rh/Rh, the difference was within 9%. The difference between the 50% average glandularity and the uniform phantom was 7.1% ~ -6.7% for the Mo/Mo combination, voltage of 27 kVp, half value layer of 0.34 mmAl, and breast thickness of 4 cm. According to the simulation results, the regression analysis found that the three-layer mammographic phantom at 0% ~ 100% glandularity can be used to accurately calculate the conversion factors. The difference in glandular tissue distribution leads to errors of conversion factor calculation. The three-layer mammographic phantom can provide accurate estimates of glandular dose in clinical practice.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, mammography, normalized glandular dose, glandularity

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27 Mackerel (Scomber Australasicus) Reproduction in Northeastern Taiwan

Authors: Sunarti Sinaga, Hsueh-Jung Lu, Jia-Rong Lin


Blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) is a crucial target species for Taiwan coastal fisheries and has maintained its status as the highest-produced species. Timely measurement of spawning status is crucial for determining the correct management strategy for this species. The objective of this study was to determine size at maturity, fecundity, batch fecundity, and spawning frequency on the basis of samples collected from Nan-Fang-Ao fishing port in Yilan during the spawning season from 2017 to 2019. Histological sections indicated that the blue mackerel are multiple spawners. A higher percentage of female fish spawned at the peak of the gonadosomatic index. The 50% sizes at maturity were 32.02, 32.13, and 29.64 cm. Mean total fecundity (batch fecundity) was 165 (103), 229 (96), and 210 (68) oocytes per ovary-free weight (g) for 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively; fecundity was determined through observation of postovulatory follicles (POFs). The spawning frequencies (spawning fraction) in 2017, 2018, and 2019 were 3–10 days (0.13), 4–14 days (0.08), and 4–12 days (0.08), respectively. The spawning frequencies determined through the 3 estimated methods, namely the sums of (a) hydrated and Day 0 POFs; (b) Day 1+ POFs, and (c) all data combined, were 1 spawning event per 8, 10, and 9 days, respectively. The reproduction of the blue mackerel was greater in 2017 than it was in 2018 or 2019, as indicated by the higher batch fecundity and shorter spawning seasons. Environmental factors should also be considered as a major factor influencing successful reproduction and the spawning season.

Keywords: scomber australasicus, spawning frequency, batch fecundity, fecundity

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