Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1245

Search results for: atmospheric transport

1245 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond

Abstract:

The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

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1244 The Energy Consumption by the Sector of Transport and His Impact on the Atmospheric Pollution

Authors: Mme Hamani Née Guessas Ghaniya

Abstract:

The transport is the base of the development of the exchanges and the business, being both a recognized determiner of the economic and social development. The development of the transport is in the center of the big challenges of development of countries, but it is also at the heart of big contradictions, since we integrate the environmental issues which are bound to him, in particular through the questions of energy. Indeed, the energy consumption by the sector of transport is one of bigger concerns, because it is increasing and it has a big impact on our environment. The main consequences are, the atmospheric pollution causing an increase of the greenhouse effect which causes a global warming. These global warming risks to engender a partial cast iron of polar caps so raising the level of seas, flooding the low coastal zones, certain islands and the deltas. Thus, the purpose of this communication is to present the impact of the energy consumption by the sector of transport on the air quality, showing its effect on the health and on the global warming.

Keywords: energy consumption, sector of transport, air quality, atmospheric pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1243 Effects of Climate Change and Land Use, Land Cover Change on Atmospheric Mercury

Authors: Shiliang Wu, Huanxin Zhang

Abstract:

Mercury has been well-known for its negative effects on wildlife, public health as well as the ecosystem. Once emitted into atmosphere, mercury can be transformed into different forms or enter the ecosystem through dry deposition or wet deposition. Some fraction of the mercury will be reemitted back into the atmosphere and be subject to the same cycle. In addition, the relatively long lifetime of elemental mercury in the atmosphere enables it to be transported long distances from source regions to receptor regions. Global change such as climate change and land use/land cover change impose significant challenges for mercury pollution control besides the efforts to regulate mercury anthropogenic emissions. In this study, we use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to examine the potential impacts from changes in climate and land use/land cover on the global budget of mercury as well as its atmospheric transport, chemical transformation, and deposition. We carry out a suite of sensitivity model simulations to separate the impacts on atmospheric mercury associated with changes in climate and land use/land cover. Both climate change and land use/land cover change are found to have significant impacts on global mercury budget but through different pathways. Land use/land cover change primarily increase mercury dry deposition in northern mid-latitudes over continental regions and central Africa. Climate change enhances the mobilization of mercury from soil and ocean reservoir to the atmosphere. Also, dry deposition is enhanced over most continental areas while a change in future precipitation dominates the change in mercury wet deposition. We find that 2000-2050 climate change could increase the global atmospheric burden of mercury by 5% and mercury deposition by up to 40% in some regions. Changes in land use and land cover also increase mercury deposition over some continental regions, by up to 40%. The change in the lifetime of atmospheric mercury has important implications for long-range transport of mercury. Our case study shows that changes in climate and land use and cover could significantly affect the source-receptor relationships for mercury.

Keywords: mercury, toxic pollutant, atmospheric transport, deposition, climate change

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1242 Atmospheric Transport Modeling of Radio-Xenon Detections Possibly Related to the Announced Nuclear Test in North Korea on February 12, 2013

Authors: Kobi Kutsher

Abstract:

On February 12th 2013, monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) detected a seismic event with explosion-like underground characteristics in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The location was found to be in the vicinity of the two previous announced nuclear tests in 2006 and 2009.The nuclear test was also announced by the government of the DPRK.After an underground nuclear explosion, radioactive fission products (mostly noble gases) can seep through layers of rock and sediment until they escape into the atmosphere. The fission products are dispersed in the atmosphere and may be detected thousands of kilometers downwind from the test site. Indeed, more than 7 weeks after the explosion, unusual detections of noble gases was reported at the radionuclide station in Takasaki, Japan. The radionuclide station is a part of the International Monitoring System, operated to verify the CTBT. This study provides an estimation of the possible source region and the total radioactivity of the release using Atmospheric Transport Modeling.

Keywords: atmospheric transport modeling, CTBTO, nuclear tests, radioactive fission products

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1241 Atmospheric Circulation Types Related to Dust Transport Episodes over Crete in the Eastern Mediterranean

Authors: K. Alafogiannis, E. E. Houssos, E. Anagnostou, G. Kouvarakis, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Fotiadi

Abstract:

The Mediterranean basin is an area where different aerosol types coexist, including urban/industrial, desert dust, biomass burning and marine particles. Particularly, mineral dust aerosols, mostly originated from North African deserts, significantly contribute to high aerosol loads above the Mediterranean. Dust transport, controlled by the variation of the atmospheric circulation throughout the year, results in a strong spatial and temporal variability of aerosol properties. In this study, the synoptic conditions which favor dust transport over the Eastern Mediterranean are thoroughly investigated. For this reason, three datasets are employed. Firstly, ground-based daily data of aerosol properties, namely Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent (α440-870) and fine fraction from the FORTH-AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) station along with measurements of PM10 concentrations from Finokalia station, for the period 2003-2011, are used to identify days with high coarse aerosol load (episodes) over Crete. Then, geopotential height at 1000, 850 and 700 hPa levels obtained from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project, are utilized to depict the atmospheric circulation during the identified episodes. Additionally, air-mass back trajectories, calculated by HYSPLIT, are used to verify the origin of aerosols from neighbouring deserts. For the 227 identified dust episodes, the statistical methods of Factor and Cluster Analysis are applied on the corresponding atmospheric circulation data to reveal the main types of the synoptic conditions favouring dust transport towards Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). The 227 cases are classified into 11 distinct types (clusters). Dust episodes in Eastern Mediterranean, are found to be more frequent (52%) in spring with a secondary maximum in autumn. The main characteristic of the atmospheric circulation associated with dust episodes, is the presence of a low-pressure system at surface, either in southwestern Europe or western/central Mediterranean, which induces a southerly air flow favouring dust transport from African deserts. The exact position and the intensity of the low-pressure system vary notably among clusters. More rarely dust may originate from deserts of Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: aerosols, atmospheric circulation, dust particles, Eastern Mediterranean

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1240 Influence of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns on Dust Pollution Transport during the Harmattan Period over West Africa

Authors: Ayodeji Oluleye

Abstract:

This study used Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) and reanalysis dataset of thirty years (1983-2012) to investigate the influence of the atmospheric circulation on dust transport during the Harmattan period over WestAfrica using TOMS data. The Harmattan dust mobilization and atmospheric circulation pattern were evaluated using a kernel density estimate which shows the areas where most points are concentrated between the variables. The evolution of the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD), Sea surface Temperature (SST) over the Gulf of Guinea, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during the Harmattan period (November-March) was also analyzed and graphs of the average ITD positions, SST and the NAO were observed on daily basis. The Pearson moment correlation analysis was also employed to assess the effect of atmospheric circulation on Harmattan dust transport. The results show that the departure (increased) of TOMS AI values from the long-term mean (1.64) occurred from around 21st of December, which signifies the rich dust days during winter period. Strong TOMS AI signal were observed from January to March with the maximum occurring in the latter months (February and March). The inter-annual variability of TOMSAI revealed that the rich dust years were found between 1984-1985, 1987-1988, 1997-1998, 1999-2000, and 2002-2004. Significantly, poor dust year was found between 2005 and 2006 in all the periods. The study has found strong north-easterly (NE) trade winds were over most of the Sahelianregion of West Africa during the winter months with the maximum wind speed reaching 8.61m/s inJanuary.The strength of NE winds determines the extent of dust transport to the coast of Gulf of Guinea during winter. This study has confirmed that the presence of the Harmattan is strongly dependent on theSST over Atlantic Ocean and ITD position. The locus of the average SST and ITD positions over West Africa could be described by polynomial functions. The study concludes that the evolution of near surface wind field at 925 hpa, and the variations of SST and ITD positions are the major large scale atmospheric circulation systems driving the emission, distribution, and transport of Harmattan dust aerosols over West Africa. However, the influence of NAO was shown to have fewer significance effects on the Harmattan dust transport over the region.

Keywords: atmospheric circulation, dust aerosols, Harmattan, West Africa

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1239 Optimizing the Efficiency of Measuring Instruments in Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso

Authors: Moses Emetere, Marvel Akinyemi, S. E. Sanni

Abstract:

At the moment, AERONET or AMMA database shows a large volume of data loss. With only about 47% data set available to the scientist, it is evident that accurate nowcast or forecast cannot be guaranteed. The calibration constants of most radiosonde or weather stations are not compatible with the atmospheric conditions of the West African climate. A dispersion model was developed to incorporate salient mathematical representations like a Unified number. The Unified number was derived to describe the turbulence of the aerosols transport in the frictional layer of the lower atmosphere. Fourteen years data set from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was tested using the dispersion model. A yearly estimation of the atmospheric constants over Ouagadougou using the model was obtained with about 87.5% accuracy. It further revealed that the average atmospheric constant for Ouagadougou-Niger is a_1 = 0.626, a_2 = 0.7999 and the tuning constants is n_1 = 0.09835 and n_2 = 0.266. Also, the yearly atmospheric constants affirmed the lower atmosphere of Ouagadougou is very dynamic. Hence, it is recommended that radiosonde and weather station manufacturers should constantly review the atmospheric constant over a geographical location to enable about eighty percent data retrieval.

Keywords: aerosols retention, aerosols loading, statistics, analytical technique

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1238 A Global Fuel Combustion Data Product and Its Application

Authors: Shu Tao, Rong Wang, Huizhong Shen, Ye Huang

Abstract:

High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion is essential for reducing uncertainties in assessments of greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions. Such inventories provide valuable information for inferring carbon sinks, modeling pollutant transport, and developing control strategies. Previous inventories included only a few fuel types and were derived using national population proxies which may distort the geographical variation within countries. In this study, a global 0.1 degree by 0.1 degree geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL-2007) was developed for 64 fuel sub-types along with uncertainty analysis for the year 2007. Sub-national fuel consumption of large countries and major power-station locations were used. The disaggregation error can be reduced significantly by using the sub-nationally energy data, because the uneven distribution of per-capita fuel consumption within countries is taken into consideration. The PKU-FUEL was used to generate global emission inventories of CO2 (PKU-CO2-2007), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PKU-PAHs-2007), and black carbons (PKU-BC-2007). Atmospheric transport modeling and expsoure assessment were conducted for BC and PAHs based on the inventory.

Keywords: fuel, emission, BC, PAHs, atmospheric transport, exposure

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1237 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

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1236 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1235 Impacts on Atmospheric Mercury from Changes in Climate, Land Use, Land Cover, and Wildfires

Authors: Shiliang Wu, Huanxin Zhang, Aditya Kumar

Abstract:

There have been increasing concerns on atmospheric mercury as a toxic and bioaccumulative pollutant in the global environment. Global change, including changes in climate change, land use, land cover and wildfires activities can all have significant impacts on atmospheric mercury. In this study, we use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to examine the potential impacts from global change on atmospheric mercury. All of these factors in the context of global change are found to have significant impacts on the long-term evolution of atmospheric mercury and can substantially alter the global source-receptor relationships for mercury. We also estimate the global Hg emissions from wildfires for present-day and the potential impacts from the 2000-2050 changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions by combining statistical analysis with global data on vegetation type and coverage as well as fire activities. Present global Hg wildfire emissions are estimated to be 612 Mg year-1. Africa is the dominant source region (43.8% of global emissions), followed by Eurasia (31%) and South America (16.6%). We find significant perturbations to wildfire emissions of Hg in the context of global change, driven by the projected changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions. 2000-2050 climate change could increase Hg emissions by 14% globally. Projected changes in land use by 2050 could decrease the global Hg emissions from wildfires by 13% mainly driven by a decline in African emissions due to significant agricultural land expansion. Future land cover changes could lead to significant increases in Hg emissions over some regions (+32% North America, +14% Africa, +13% Eurasia). Potential enrichment of terrestrial ecosystems in 2050 in response to changes in Hg anthropogenic emissions could increase Hg wildfire emissions both globally (+28%) and regionally. Our results indicate that the future evolution of climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions are all important factors affecting Hg wildfire emissions in the coming decades.

Keywords: climate change, land use, land cover, wildfires

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1234 The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n- AlGaAs/ p-GaAs Solar Cells

Authors: A. Guechi, M. Chegaar

Abstract:

This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is 63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%.The efficiency decrease with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.

Keywords: AlGaAs/GaAs, solar cells, environmental parameters, spectral variation, SMARTS

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1233 Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin

Abstract:

A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.

Keywords: salt, iodine, stability, ambient, atmospheric temperature

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1232 Determination of Direct Solar Radiation Using Atmospheric Physics Models

Authors: Pattra Pukdeekiat, Siriluk Ruangrungrote

Abstract:

This work was originated to precisely determine direct solar radiation by using atmospheric physics models since the accurate prediction of solar radiation is necessary and useful for solar energy applications including atmospheric research. The possible models and techniques for a calculation of regional direct solar radiation were challenging and compulsory for the case of unavailable instrumental measurement. The investigation was mathematically governed by six astronomical parameters i.e. declination (δ), hour angle (ω), solar time, solar zenith angle (θz), extraterrestrial radiation (Iso) and eccentricity (E0) along with two atmospheric parameters i.e. air mass (mr) and dew point temperature at Bangna meteorological station (13.67° N, 100.61° E) in Bangkok, Thailand. Analyses of five models of solar radiation determination with the assumption of clear sky were applied accompanied by three statistical tests: Mean Bias Difference (MBD), Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Coefficient of determination (R2) in order to validate the accuracy of obtainable results. The calculated direct solar radiation was in a range of 491-505 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 8.41% for winter and 532-540 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 4.89% for summer 2014. Additionally, dataset of seven continuous days, representing both seasons were considered with the MBD, RMSD and R2 of -0.08, 0.25, 0.86 and -0.14, 0.35, 3.29, respectively, which belong to Kumar model for winter and CSR model for summer. In summary, the determination of direct solar radiation based on atmospheric models and empirical equations could advantageously provide immediate and reliable values of the solar components for any site in the region without a constraint of actual measurement.

Keywords: atmospheric physics models, astronomical parameters, atmospheric parameters, clear sky condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1231 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani

Abstract:

MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized.

Keywords: transport systems, multimodal transport, competition, transport logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1230 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Application in Wrinkle-Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabric

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Cotton fibre is a commonly-used natural fibre because of its good fibre strength, high moisture absorption behaviour and minimal static problems. However, one of the main drawbacks of cotton fibre is wrinkling after washing, which is recently overcome by wrinkle-resistant treatment. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) could improve the wrinkle-resistant properties of cotton fibre. Although the BTCA process is an effective method for wrinkle resistant application of cotton fabrics, reduced fabric strength was observed after treatment. Therefore, this paper would explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment under different discharge powers as a pretreatment process to enhance the application of BTCA process on cotton fabric without generating adverse effect. The aim of this study is to provide learning information to the users to know how the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be incorporated in textile finishing process with positive impact.

Keywords: learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, cotton, wrinkle-resistant, BTCA

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1229 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran

Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel

Abstract:

Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).

Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variations

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1228 Impact of the Transport on the Urban Heat Island

Authors: L. Haddad, Z. Aouachria

Abstract:

The development of transport systems has negative impacts on the environment although it has beneficial effects on society.. The car policy caused many problems such as: - the spectacular growth of fuel consumption hence the very vast increase in urban pollution, traffic congestion in certain places and at certain times, the increase in the number of accidents. The exhaust emissions from cars and weather conditions are the main factors that determine the level of pollution in urban atmosphere. These conditions lead to the phenomenon of heat transfer and radiation occurring between the air and the soil surface of any town. These exchanges give rise, in urban areas, to the effects of heat islands that correspond to the appearance of excess air temperature between the city and its surrounding space. In this object, we perform a numerical simulation of the plume generated by the cars exhaust gases and show that these gases form a screening effect above the urban city which cause the heat island in the presence of wind flow. This study allows us: i. To understand the different mechanisms of interactions between these phenomena. ii. To consider appropriate technical solutions to mitigate the effects of the heat island.

Keywords: atmospheric pollution, impact on the health, urban transport, heat island

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1227 Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range

Authors: Olga V. Kharchenko

Abstract:

Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 µm is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.

Keywords: atmosphere, lidar sounding, DIAL, DOAS, trace gases, nonlinear crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1226 Competitor Analysis to Quantify the Benefits and for Different Use of Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

Different transportation modes have key operational advantages and disadvantages, providing a variety of different transport options to users and passengers. This paper reviews key variables for the competition between air transport and other transport modes. The aim of this paper is to review the competition between air transport and other transport modes, providing results in terms of perceived cost for the users, for destinations high competitiveness for all transport modes. The competitor analysis variables include the cost and time outputs for each transport option, highlighting the level of competitiveness on high demanded Origin-Destination corridors. The case study presents the output of a such analysis for the OD corridor in Greece that connects the Capital city (Athens) with the second largest city (Thessaloniki) and the different transport modes have been considered (air, train, road). Conventional wisdom is to present an easy to handle tool for planners, managers and decision makers towards pricing policy effectiveness and demand attractiveness, appropriate to use for other similar cases.

Keywords: competitor analysis, transport economics, transport generalized cost, quantitative modelling

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1225 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: transport, infrastructure, economic growth, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1224 Direct Synthesis of Composite Materials Type MCM-41/ZSM-5 by Hydrothermal at Atmospheric Pressure in Sealed Pyrex Tubes

Authors: Zoubida Lounis, Naouel Boumesla, Abd El Kader Bengueddach

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to synthesize a composite materials by direct synthesis at atmospheric pression having the MFI structure and MCM-41 by using double structuring. In the first part of this work we are interested in the study of the synthesis parameters, in addition to temperature, the crystallization time and pH. The second part of this work is to vary the ratio of the concentrations of both structuring C9 [C9H19(CH3)3NBr] and C16 [C16H33(CH3)3NBr] and determining the area of formation of the two materials (microporous and mesoporous at same time), for this reason we performed a battery of experiments ranging from 0 to 100% for both structural. To enhance the economic purposes of this study, the experiments were carried out by using very cheap and simple process, the pyrex tubes were used instead of the reactors, and the synthesis were done at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperature. The final products (composite materials) were obtained at high and pure quality.

Keywords: composite materials, syntheisis, catalysts, mesoporous materials, microporous materials

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1223 Effect of UV Radiation to Change the Properties of the Composite PA+GF

Authors: Lenka Markovičová, Viera Zatkalíková, Tomasz Garbacz

Abstract:

The development of composite materials and the related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Some composites also exhibit great resistance to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and wear. Polymers are widely used indoors and outdoors, therefore they are exposed to a chemical environment which may include atmospheric oxygen, acidic fumes, acidic rain, moisture heat and thermal shock, ultra-violet light, high energy radiation, etc. Different polymers are affected differently by these factors even though the amorphous polymers are more sensitive. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, micro-organisms and other atmospheric factors.

Keywords: composites with glass fibers, mechanical properties, polyamides, UV degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1222 Urban Boundary Layer and Its Effects on Haze Episode in Thailand

Authors: S. Bualert, K. Duangmal

Abstract:

Atmospheric boundary layer shows effects of land cover on atmospheric characteristic in term of temperature gradient and wind profile. They are key factors to control atmospheric process such as atmospheric dilution and mixing via thermal and mechanical turbulent. Bangkok, ChiangMai, and Hatyai are major cities of central, southern and northern of Thailand, respectively. The different of them are location, geography and size of the city, Bangkok is the most urbanized city and classified as mega city compared to ChiangMai and HatYai, respectively. They have been suffering from air pollution episode such as transboundary haze. The worst period of the northern part of Thailand was occurred at the end of February through April of each year. The particulate matter less than 10 micrometer (PM10) concentrations were higher than Thai’s ambient air quality standard (120 micrograms per cubic meter) more than two times. Radiosonde technique and air pollutant (CO, PM10, TSP, O3, NOx) measurements were used to identify characteristics of urban boundary layer and air pollutions problems in the cities. Furthermore, air pollutant profiles showed good relationship to characteristic’s urban boundary layer especially on daytime temperature inversion on 29 February 2009 caused two times higher than normal concentrations of CO and particulate matter.

Keywords: haze episode, micrometeorology, temperature inversion, urban boundary layer

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1221 Evaluation of Neighbourhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice

Authors: Tayebeh Saghapour, Sara Moridpour, Russell George Thompson

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One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study introduces an index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), and a walkability index along with socioeconomic variables to investigate mode choice behaviour. Using travel behaviour data, an ordered logit regression model is applied to examine the impacts of explanatory variables on walking trips. The findings indicated that high rates of active travel are consistently associated with higher levels of walking and public transport accessibility.

Keywords: active transport, public transport accessibility, walkability, ordered logit model

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1220 Strategic Thinking to Enhance Critical Transport Infrastructure and Build Resilience

Authors: Jayantha Withanaarachchi, Sujeeva Setunge, Sara Moridpour

Abstract:

Gaps in strategic thinking and planning lead to critical transport infrastructure resilience. These gaps in strategic transport and land use development planning have an impact on communities and cities. Natural and man-induced disasters can be catastrophic to communities. After a disaster, many types of critical infrastructure, including transport infrastructure gets un-usable or gets damaged. This paper examines strategic thinking behind the resilience and protection of Critical Transport Infrastructure (CI) within transport networks by investigating the impact of disasters such as bushfires, hurricanes and earthquakes. A detailed analysis of three case studies have been conducted to identify the gaps in strategic transport planning and strategic decision making processes required to mitigate the impacts of disasters. Case studies will be analysed to identify existing gaps in road design, transport planning and decision making. This paper examines the effect of road designing, transport corridors and decision making during transport planning stages and how it impacts transport infrastructure as well as community resilience. A set of recommendations to overcome the shortcomings of existing strategic planning and designing process are presented. This research paper reviews transport infrastructure planning issues and presents the common approach suitable for future strategic thinking and planning which could be adopted in practices.

Keywords: community resilience, decision making , infrastructure resilience, strategic transport planning, transport infrastructure

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1219 Innovative Methods of Improving Train Formation in Freight Transport

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the operational model for transport the single wagon consignments on railway network by using two different models of train formation. The paper gives an overview of possibilities of improving the quality of transport services. Paper deals with two models used in problematic of train formatting - time continuously and time discrete. By applying these models in practice, the transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and expect increasing of transport performance. The models are also applicable into others transport networks. The models supplement a theoretical problem of train formation by new ways of looking to affecting the organization of wagon flows.

Keywords: train formation, wagon flows, marshalling yard, railway technology

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1218 On Demand Transport: Feasibility Study - Local Needs and Capabilities within the Oran Wilaya

Authors: Nadjet Brahmia

Abstract:

The evolution of urban forms, the new aspects of mobility, the ways of life and economic models make public transport conventional collective low-performing on the majority of largest Algerian cities, particularly in the west of Algeria. On the other side, the information and communication technologies (ICT) open new eventualities to develop a new mode of transport which brings together both the tenders offered by the public service collective and those of the particular vehicle, suitable for urban requirements, social and environmental. Like the concrete examples made in the international countries in terms of on-demand transport systems (ODT) more particularly in the developed countries, this article has for objective the opportunity analysis to establish a service of ODT at the level of a few towns of Oran Wilaya, such a service will be subsequently spread on the totality of the Wilaya if not on the whole of Algeria. In this context, we show the different existing means of transport in the current network whose aim to illustrate the points of insufficiency accented in the present transport system, then we discuss the solutions that may exhibit a service of ODT to the problem studied all around the transport sector, to carry at the end to highlight the capabilities of ODT replying to the transformation of mobilities, this in the light of well-defined cases.

Keywords: mobility, on-demand transport, public transport collective, transport system

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1217 Improving the Quality of Transport Management Services with Fuzzy Signatures

Authors: Csaba I. Hencz, István Á. Harmati

Abstract:

Nowadays the significance of road transport is gradually increasing. All transport companies are working in the same external environment where the speed of transport is defined by traffic rules. The main objective is to accelerate the speed of service and it is only dependent on the individual abilities of the managing members. These operational control units make decisions quickly (in a typically experiential and/or intuitive way). For this reason, support for these decisions is an important task. Our goal is to create a decision support model based on fuzzy signatures that can assist the work of operational management automatically. If the model sets parameters properly, the management of transport could be more economical and efficient.

Keywords: freight transport, decision support, information handling, fuzzy methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1216 Improved Ohmic Contact by Li Doping in Electron Transport Layers

Authors: G. Sivakumar, T. Pratyusha, D. Gupta, W. Shen

Abstract:

To get ohmic contact between the cathode and organic semiconductor, transport layers are introduced between the active layer and the electrodes. Generally zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are used as electron transport layer. When electron transport layer is doped with lithium, the resultant film exhibited superior electronic properties, which enables faster electron transport. Doping is accomplished by heat treatment of films with Lithium salts. Li-doped films. We fabricated organic solar cell using PTB7(poly(3-hexylthiopene-2,5- diyl):PCBM(phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) and found that the solar cells prepared using Li doped films had better performance in terms of efficiency when compared to the undoped transport layers.

Keywords: electron transport layer, higher efficiency, lithium doping, ohmic contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 329