Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: acoustics

63 Integration of Acoustic Solutions for Classrooms

Authors: Eyibo Ebengeobong Eddie, Halil Zafer Alibaba


The neglect of classroom acoustics is dominant in most educational facilities, meanwhile, hearing and listening is the learning process in this kind of facilities. A classroom should therefore be an environment that encourages listening, without an obstacles to understanding what is being taught. Although different studies have shown teachers to complain that noise is the everyday factor that causes stress in classroom, the capacity of individuals to understand speech is further affected by Echoes, Reverberation, and room modes. It is therefore necessary for classrooms to have an ideal acoustics to aid the intelligibility of students in the learning process. The influence of these acoustical parameters on learning and teaching in schools needs to be further researched upon to enhance the teaching and learning capacity of both teacher and student. For this reason, there is a strong need to provide and collect data to analyse and define the suitable quality of classrooms needed for a learning environment. Research has shown that acoustical problems are still experienced in both newer and older schools. However, recently, principle of acoustics has been analysed and room acoustics can now be measured with various technologies and sound systems to improve and solve the problem of acoustics in classrooms. These acoustic solutions, materials, construction methods and integration processes would be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: classroom, acoustics, materials, integration, speech intelligibility

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62 Analysis of Noise Environment and Acoustics Material in Residential Building

Authors: Heruanda Alviana Giska Barabah, Hilda Rasnia Hapsari


Acoustic phenomena create an acoustic interpretation condition that describes the characteristics of the environment. In urban areas, the tendency of heterogeneous and simultaneous human activity form a soundscape that is different from other regions, one of the characteristics of urban areas that developing the soundscape is the presence of vertical model houses or residential building. Activities both within the building and surrounding environment are able to make the soundscape with certain characteristics. The acoustics comfort of residential building becomes an important aspect, those demand lead the building features become more diverse. Initial steps in mapping acoustic conditions in a soundscape are important, this is the method to determine uncomfortable condition. Noise generated by road traffic, railway, and plane is an important consideration, especially for urban people, therefore the proper design of the building becomes very important as an effort to bring appropriate acoustics comfort. In this paper the authors developed noise mapping on the location of the residential building. Mapping done by taking some point referring to the noise source. The mapping result become the basis for modeling the acoustics wave interacted with the building model. Material selection is done based on literature study and modeling simulation using Insul by considering the absorption coefficient and Sound Transmission Class. The analysis of acoustics rays is ray tracing method using Comsol simulator software that can show the movement of acoustics rays and their interaction with a boundary. The result of this study can be used to consider boundary material in residential building as well as consideration for improving the acoustic quality in the acoustics zones that are formed.

Keywords: residential building, noise, absorption coefficient, sound transmission class, ray tracing

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61 Acoustics Barrier Design to Reduce Railway Noise by Using Maekawa's Method

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, Khoerul Anwar


Railway noise generated by pass-by train has been described as a form of environmental pollutants especially for the residential area near the railway. Many studies have shown, that environmental noise particularly transportation noise has negative effects on people which resulting in annoyance and specific health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and sleep disturbance. Therefore, various attempts are made to reduce the noise. One method of reducing such noise to acceptable noise levels is to build acoustically barrier walls. The objective of this study was to review the method of reducing railway noise and obtain the preliminary design of the acoustics barrier on the edge of railway tracks close to the residential area. The design of this barrier is using the Maekawa's method. Measurements have been performed in residential areas around the railroads in the Karawang - Indonesia with the absence of an acoustical barrier. From the observation, it was found that the railway was passed by five trains within thirty minutes. With the limited distance between the railway tracks and the location of the residential area as well as the street of residents, then it was obtained that a reduction in sound pressure level is 25 dBA. Maximum sound pressure level obtained is 86.9 dBA then by setting the barrier as high as 4 m at a distance, 2.5 m from the railway, the noise level received by residents in the settlement around the railway line becomes 61.9 dBA.

Keywords: acoustics barrier, Maekawa's method, noise attenuation, railway noise

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60 ReS, Resonant String Shell: Development of an Acoustic Shell for Outdoor Chamber Music Concerts

Authors: Serafino Di Rosario


ReS is a sustainable hand-built temporary acoustic shell, developed since 2011 and built during the architectural workshop at Villa Pennisi in Musica in Acireale, Sicily, each year since 2012. The design concept aims to provide a portable structure by reducing the on-site construction problems and the skills required by the builders together with maximizing the acoustic performance for the audience and the musicians. The shell is built using only wood, recycled for the most part, and can be built and dismantled by non-specialized workers in just three days. This paper describes the research process, which spans over four years and presents the final results in form of acoustic simulations performed by acoustic modeling software and real world measurements. ReS is developed by the ReS team who has been presented with the Peter Lord Award in 2015 by the Institute of Acoustics in the UK.

Keywords: acoustic shell, outdoor natural amplification, computational design, room acoustics

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59 Experimental Verification of Similarity Criteria for Sound Absorption of Perforated Panels

Authors: Aleksandra Majchrzak, Katarzyna Baruch, Monika Sobolewska, Bartlomiej Chojnacki, Adam Pilch


Scaled modeling is very common in the areas of science such as aerodynamics or fluid mechanics, since defining characteristic numbers enables to determine relations between objects under test and their models. In acoustics, scaled modeling is aimed mainly at investigation of room acoustics, sound insulation and sound absorption phenomena. Despite such a range of application, there is no method developed that would enable scaling acoustical perforated panels freely, maintaining their sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range. However, conducted theoretical and numerical analyses have proven that it is not physically possible to obtain given sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range by directly scaling only all of the physical dimensions of a perforated panel, according to a defined characteristic number. This paper is a continuation of the research mentioned above and presents practical evaluation of theoretical and numerical analyses. The measurements of sound absorption coefficient of perforated panels were performed in order to verify previous analyses and as a result find the relations between full-scale perforated panels and their models which will enable to scale them properly. The measurements were conducted in a one-to-eight model of a reverberation chamber of Technical Acoustics Laboratory, AGH. Obtained results verify theses proposed after theoretical and numerical analyses. Finding the relations between full-scale and modeled perforated panels will allow to produce measurement samples equivalent to the original ones. As a consequence, it will make the process of designing acoustical perforated panels easier and will also lower the costs of prototypes production. Having this knowledge, it will be possible to emulate in a constructed model panels used, or to be used, in a full-scale room more precisely and as a result imitate or predict the acoustics of a modeled space more accurately.

Keywords: characteristic numbers, dimensional analysis, model study, scaled modeling, sound absorption coefficient

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58 The Effect of Different Configurations of Square Panels on the Acoustic of Airport

Authors: Maryam Nikpour, Soude Valipour, Omid Rahaei


Noise disturbance at airports negatively affects people's health. In this study, Ahwaz International Airport in Iran was selected as the case study due to the very long resonance measured in the middle frequencies of 5-10 seconds on this site. To overcome this acoustics problem, we examined eight different square sound-absorbing panels installed on the walls and the ceiling of the airport lounge and were simulated using EASE 4.4 software. In our research, four variables, including acoustic time index (RT, or main index), auditory error coefficient (〖AL〗_CONSE), speech transmission index (STI), and total sound pressure level (SPL) were evaluated according to the international standards of ISO3382 and ISO 3382-1. After the simulation, it was concluded that our Model A compared to other sound-absorbing panels, showed the lowest sound pressure at different frequencies using the above indices.

Keywords: acoustics, flight lounge, noise, sound absorbing panels

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57 The Role of Acoustical Design within Architectural Design in the Early Design Phase

Authors: O. Wright, N. Perkins, M. Donn, M. Halstead


This research responded to anecdotal evidence that suggested inefficiencies within the Architect and Acoustician relationship may lead to ineffective acoustic design decisions.  The acoustician spoken to believed that he was approached too late in the design phase. The approached architect valued acoustical qualities, yet, struggled to interpret common measurement parameters. The preliminary investigation of these opinions indicated a gap in the current New Zealand Architectural discourse and currently informs the creation of a 2016 Master of Architecture (Prof) thesis research. Little meaningful information about acoustic intervention in the early design phase could be found from past literature. In the information that was sourced, authors focus on software as an incorporation tool without investigating why the flaws in the relationship originally exist. To further explore this relationship, a survey was designed. It underwent three phases to ensure its consistency, and was delivered to a group of 51 acousticians from one international Acoustics company. The results were then separated between New Zealand and off-shore to identify trends. The survey results suggest that 75% of acousticians meet the architect less than 5 times per project. Instead of regular contact, a mediated method is adopted though a mix of telecommunication and written reports. Acousticians tend to be introduced later into New Zealand building project than the corresponding off-shore building. This delay corresponds to an increase in remedial action for each of the building types in the survey except Auditoria and Office Buildings. 31 participants have had their specifications challenged by an architect. Furthermore, 71% of the acousticians believe that architects do not have the knowledge to understand why the acoustic specifications are in place. The issues raised in this investigation align to the colloquial evidence expressed by the two consultants. It identifies a larger gap in the industry were acoustics is remedially treated rather than identified as a possible design driver. Further research through design is suggested to understand the role of acoustics within architectural design and potential tools for its inclusion during, not after, the design process.

Keywords: architectural acoustics, early-design, interdisciplinary communication, remedial response

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56 Entropy Analysis of a Thermo-Acoustic Stack

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi


The inherent irreversibility of thermo-acoustics primarily in the stack region causes poor efficiency of thermo-acoustic engines which is the major weakness of these devices. In view of the above, this study examines entropy generation in the stack of a thermo-acoustic system. For this purpose two parallel plates representative of the stack is considered. A general equation for entropy generation is derived based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. Assumptions such as Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation, boundary layer type flow, etc. are made to simplify the governing continuity, momentum and energy equations to achieve analytical solutions for velocity and temperature. The entropy generation equation is also simplified based on the same assumptions and then is converted to dimensionless form by using characteristic entropy generation. A time averaged entropy generation rate followed by a global entropy generation rate are calculated and graphically represented for further analysis and inspecting the effect of different parameters on the entropy generation.

Keywords: thermo-acoustics, entropy, second law of thermodynamics, Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation

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55 Exploring the History of Chinese Music Acoustic Technology through Data Fluctuations

Authors: Yang Yang, Lu Xin


The study of extant musical sites can provide a side-by-side picture of historical ethnomusicological information. In their data collection on Chinese opera houses, researchers found that one Ming Dynasty opera house reached a width of nearly 18 meters, while all opera houses of the same period and after it was far from such a width, being significantly smaller than 18 meters. The historical transient fluctuations in the data dimension of width that caused Chinese theatres to fluctuate in the absence of construction scale constraints have piqued the interest of researchers as to why there is data variation in width. What factors have contributed to the lack of further expansion in the width of theatres? To address this question, this study used a comparative approach to conduct a venue experiment between this theater stage and another theater stage for non-heritage opera performances, collecting the subjective perceptions of performers and audiences at different theater stages, as well as combining BK Connect platform software to measure data such as echo and delay. From the subjective and objective results, it is inferred that the Chinese ancients discovered and understood the acoustical phenomenon of the Haas effect by exploring the effect of stage width on musical performance and appreciation of listening states during the Ming Dynasty and utilized this discovery to serve music in subsequent stage construction. This discovery marked a node of evolution in Chinese architectural acoustics technology driven by musical demands. It is also instructive to note that, in contrast to many of the world's "unsuccessful civilizations," China can use a combination of heritage and intangible cultural research to chart a clear, demand-driven course for the evolution of human music technology, and that the findings of such research will complete the course of human exploration of music acoustics. The findings of such research will complete the journey of human exploration of music acoustics, and this practical experience can be applied to the exploration and understanding of other musical heritage base data.

Keywords: Haas effect, musical acoustics, history of acoustical technology, Chinese opera stage, structure

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54 Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields

Authors: Lei Zhang, Wen-jun Ruan, Hao Wang, Peng-Xin Wang


The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.

Keywords: supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings(FW-H) equations, nozzle size

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53 A Computational Analysis of Flow and Acoustics around a Car Wing Mirror

Authors: Aidan J. Bowes, Reaz Hasan


The automotive industry is continually aiming to develop the aerodynamics of car body design. This may be for a variety of beneficial reasons such as to increase speed or fuel efficiency by reducing drag. However recently there has been a greater amount of focus on wind noise produced while driving. Designers in this industry seek a combination of both simplicity of approach and overall effectiveness. This combined with the growing availability of commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) packages is likely to lead to an increase in the use of RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) based CFD methods. This is due to these methods often being simpler than other CFD methods, having a lower demand on time and computing power. In this investigation the effectiveness of turbulent flow and acoustic noise prediction using RANS based methods has been assessed for different wing mirror geometries. Three different RANS based models were used, standard k-ε, realizable k-ε and k-ω SST. The merits and limitations of these methods are then discussed, by comparing with both experimental and numerical results found in literature. In general, flow prediction is fairly comparable to more complex LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based methods; in particular for the k-ω SST model. However acoustic noise prediction still leaves opportunities for more improvement using RANS based methods.

Keywords: acoustics, aerodynamics, RANS models, turbulent flow

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52 Experimental Investigation on the Role of Thermoacoustics on Soot Formation

Authors: Sambit Supriya Dash, Rahul Ravi R, Vikram Ramanan, Vinayak Malhotra


Combustion in itself is a complex phenomenon that involves the interaction and interplay of multiple phenomena, the combined effect of which gives rise to the common flame that we see and use in our daily life applications from cooking to propelling our vehicles to space. The most important thing that goes unnoticed about these flames is the effect of the various phenomena from its surrounding environment that affects its behavior and properties. These phenomena cause a variety of energy interactions that lead to various types of energy transformations which in turn affect the flame behavior. This paper focuses on experimentally investigating the effect of one such phenomenon, which is the acoustics or sound energy on diffusion flames. The subject in itself is extensively studied upon as thermo-acoustics globally, whereas the current work focuses on studying its effect on soot formation on diffusion flames. The said effect is studied in this research work by the use of a butane as fuel, fitted with a nozzle that houses 3 arrays consisting of 4 holes each that are placed equidistant to each other and the resulting flame impinged with sound from two independent and similar sound sources that are placed equidistant from the centre of the flame. The entire process is systematically video graphed using a 60 fps regular CCD and analysed for variation in flame heights and flickering frequencies where the fuel mass flow rate is maintained constant and the configuration of entrainment holes and frequency of sound are varied, whilst maintaining constant ambient atmospheric conditions. The current work establishes significant outcomes on the effect of acoustics on soot formation; it is noteworthy that soot formation is the main cause of pollution and a major cause of inefficiency of current propulsion systems. This work is one of its kinds, and its outcomes are widely applicable to commercial and domestic appliances that utilize combustion for energy generation or propulsion and help us understand them better, so that we can increase their efficiency and decrease pollution.

Keywords: thermoacoustics, entrainment, propulsion system, efficiency, pollution

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51 Evaluating the Benefits of Intelligent Acoustic Technology in Classrooms: A Case Study

Authors: Megan Burfoot, Ali GhaffarianHoseini, Nicola Naismith, Amirhosein GhaffarianHoseini


Intelligent Acoustic Technology (IAT) is a novel architectural device used in buildings to automatically vary the acoustic conditions of space. IAT is realized by integrating two components: Variable Acoustic Technology (VAT) and an intelligent system. The VAT passively alters the RT by changing the total sound absorption in a room. In doing so, the Reverberation Time (RT) is changed and thus, the sound strength and clarity are altered. The intelligent system detects sound waves in real-time to identify the aural situation, and the RT is adjusted accordingly based on pre-programmed algorithms. IAT - the synthesis of these two components - can dramatically improve acoustic comfort, as the acoustic condition is automatically optimized for any detected aural situation. This paper presents an evaluation of the improvements of acoustic comfort in an existing tertiary classroom located at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. This is a pilot case study, the first of its’ kind attempting to quantify the benefits of IAT. Naturally, the potential acoustic improvements from IAT can be actualized by only installing the VAT component of IAT and by manually adjusting it rather than utilizing an intelligent system. Such a simplified methodology is adopted for this case study to understand the potential significance of IAT without adopting a time and cost-intensive strategy. For this study, the VAT is built by overlaying reflective, rotating louvers over sound absorption panels. RT's are measured according to international standards before and after installing VAT in the classroom. The louvers are manually rotated in increments by the experimenter and further RT measurements are recorded. The results are compared with recommended guidelines and reference values from national standards for spaces intended for speech and communication. The results obtained from the measurements are used to quantify the potential improvements in classroom acoustic comfort, where IAT to be used. This evaluation reveals the current existence of poor acoustic conditions in the classroom caused by high RT's. The poor acoustics are also largely attributed to the classrooms’ inability to vary acoustic parameters for changing aural situations. The classroom experiences one static acoustic state, neglecting to recognize the nature of classrooms as flexible, dynamic spaces. Evidently, when using VAT the classroom is prescribed with a wide range of RTs it can achieve. Namely, acoustic requirements for varying teaching approaches are satisfied, and acoustic comfort is improved. By quantifying the benefits of using VAT, it can confidently suggest these same benefits are achieved with IAT. Nevertheless, it is encouraged that future studies continue this line of research toward the eventual development of IAT and its’ acceptance into mainstream architecture.

Keywords: acoustic comfort, classroom acoustics, intelligent acoustics, variable acoustics

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50 Psychological Perspectives on Modern Restaurant Interior Design Based on Traditional Elements (Case Study: Interior Design of the Mesineh Restaurant, Tehran, Iran)

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan


After the post-industrial era, when a wide variety of foods and drinks are readily available everywhere, the motive has shifted from meeting basic nutritional needs to enjoy the eating experience. Today, behavioral environmental studies are an essential branch of science when it comes to understanding, analyzing, and evaluating how humans react to the environment. Similarly, these studies explore customer-influencing factors and the effectiveness of restaurant designs. To facilitate a pleasant dining experience, the authors focused on acoustics, flexibility, and lighting. In this study, 2700 square feet of surface area was used to plan a restaurant (called Mesineh) based on behavioral science, considering many factors related to the interaction between the building and the users, such as flexibility and privacy, acoustics, and light. Environment psychology considerations in architectural design have been lacking for several decades. To fill this gap, the author evaluated environmental psychology standards and applied them to Mesineh's design. A sense of nostalgia will be felt by customers of the Mesineh restaurant thanks to its interior design, which combines historical elements with contemporary elements. Additionally, vernacular Persian architectural elements were incorporated into a modern context to fulfill the behavioral science component of interior design.

Keywords: Mesineh restaurant, interior design, behavioral sciences, environment psychology, traditional persian architecture

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49 Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption

Authors: P. Sam Vimal Rajkumar, K. Priyanga


Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.

Keywords: acoustics, fibre, non-woven, noise, sound absorption properties, sound absorption coefficient

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48 Origamic Forms: A New Realm in Improving Acoustical Environment

Authors: Mostafa Refat Ismail, Hazem Eldaly


The adaptation of architecture design to building function is getting highly needed in contemporary designs, especially with the great progression in design methods and tools. This, in turn, requires great flexibility in design strategies, as well as a wider spectrum of space settings to achieve the required environment that special activities imply. Acoustics is an essential factor influencing cognitive acts and behavior as well as, on the extreme end, the physical well-being inside a space. The complexity of this constrain is fueled up by the extended geometric dimensions of multipurpose halls, making acoustic adequateness a great concern that could not easily be achieved for each purpose. To achieve a performance oriented acoustic environment, various parametric shaped false ceilings based on origami folded notion are simulated. These parametric origami shapes are able to fold and unfold forming an interactive structure that changes the mutual acoustic environment according to the geometric shapes' position and its changing exposed surface areas. The mobility of the facets in the origami surface can stretch up the range from a complete plain surface to an unfolded element where a considerable amount of absorption is added to the space. The behavior of the parametric origami shapes are being modeled employing a ray tracing computer simulation package for various shapes topology. The conclusion shows a great variation in the acoustical performance due to the variation in folding faces of the origami surfaces, which cause different reflections and consequently large variations in decay curves.

Keywords: parametric, origami, acoustics, architecture

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47 The Impact of Acoustic Performance on Neurodiverse Students in K-12 Learning Spaces

Authors: Michael Lekan-Kehinde, Abimbola Asojo, Bonnie Sanborn


Good acoustic performance has been identified as one of the critical Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) factors for student learning and development by the National Research Council. Childhood presents the opportunity for children to develop lifelong skills that will support them throughout their adult lives. Acoustic performance of a space has been identified as a factor that can impact language acquisition, concentration, information retention, and general comfort within the environment. Increasingly, students learn by communication between both teachers and fellow students, making speaking and listening crucial. Neurodiversity - while initially coined to describe individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - widely describes anyone with a different brain process. As the understanding from cognitive and neurosciences increases, the number of people identified as neurodiversity is nearly 30% of the population. This research looks at guidelines and standard for spaces with good acoustical quality and relates it with the experiences of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their parents, teachers, and educators through a mixed methods approach, including selected case studies interviews, and mixed surveys. The information obtained from these sources is used to determine if selected materials, especially properties relating to sound absorption and reverberation reduction, are equally useful in small, medium sized, and large learning spaces and methodologically approaching. The results describe the potential impact of acoustics on Neurodiverse students, considering factors that determine the complexity of sound in relation to the auditory processing capabilities of ASD students. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of how materials selection influences the better development of acoustical environments for autism students.

Keywords: acoustics, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), children, education, learning, learning spaces, materials, neurodiversity, sound

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46 Intermittent Effect of Coupled Thermal and Acoustic Sources on Combustion: A Spatial Perspective

Authors: Pallavi Gajjar, Vinayak Malhotra


Rockets have been known to have played a predominant role in spacecraft propulsion. The quintessential aspect of combustion-related requirements of a rocket engine is the minimization of the surrounding risks/hazards. Over time, it has become imperative to understand the combustion rate variation in presence of external energy source(s). Rocket propulsion represents a special domain of chemical propulsion assisted by high speed flows in presence of acoustics and thermal source(s). Jet noise leads to a significant loss of resources and every year a huge amount of financial aid is spent to prevent it. External heat source(s) induce high possibility of fire risk/hazards which can sufficiently endanger the operation of a space vehicle. Appreciable work had been done with justifiable simplification and emphasis on the linear variation of external energy source(s), which yields good physical insight but does not cater to accurate predictions. Present work experimentally attempts to understand the correlation between inter-energy conversions with the non-linear placement of external energy source(s). The work is motivated by the need to have better fire safety and enhanced combustion. The specific objectives of the work are a) To interpret the related energy transfer for combustion in presence of alternate external energy source(s) viz., thermal and acoustic, b) To fundamentally understand the role of key controlling parameters viz., separation distance, the number of the source(s), selected configurations and their non-linear variation to resemble real-life cases. An experimental setup was prepared using incense sticks as potential fuel and paraffin wax candles as the external energy source(s). The acoustics was generated using frequency generator, and source(s) were placed at selected locations. Non-equidistant parametric experimentation was carried out, and the effects were noted on regression rate changes. The results are expected to be very helpful in offering a new perspective into futuristic rocket designs and safety.

Keywords: combustion, acoustic energy, external energy sources, regression rate

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45 The Healing 'Touch' of Music: A Neuro-Acoustics Approach to Understand Its Therapeutic Effect

Authors: Jagmeet S. Kanwal, Julia F. Langley


Music can heal the body, but a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. This study explores the effects of music presentation on neurologic and physiologic responses leading to metabolic changes in the human body. The mind and body co-exist in a corporeal entity and within this framework, sickness ensues when the mind-body balance goes awry. It is further hypothesized that music has the capacity to directly reset this balance. Two lines of inquiry taken together can provide a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon 1) Empirical evidence for a sound-sensitive pressure sensor system in the body, and 2) The notion of a “healing center” within the brain that is activated by specific patterns of sounds. From an acoustics perspective, music is spatially distributed as pressure waves ranging from a few cm to several meters in wavelength. These waves interact and propagate in three-dimensions in unique ways, depending on the wavelength. Furthermore, music creates dynamically changing wave-fronts. Frequencies between 200 Hz and 1 kHz generate wavelengths that range from 5'6" to 1 foot. These dimensions are in the range of the body size of most people making it plausible that these pressure waves can geometrically interact with the body surface and create distinct patterns of pressure stimulation across the skin surface. For humans, short wavelength, high frequency (> 200 Hz) sounds are best received via cochlear receptors. For low frequency (< 200 Hz), long wavelength sound vibrations, however, the whole body may act as an ideal receiver. A vast array of highly sensitive pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles) is present just beneath the skin surface, as well as in the tendons, bones, several organs in the abdomen, and the sexual organs. Per the available empirical evidence, these receptors contribute to music perception by allowing the whole body to function as a sound receiver, and knowledge of how they function is essential to fully understanding the therapeutic effect of music. Neuroscientific studies have established that music stimulates the limbic system that can trigger states of anxiety, arousal, fear, and other emotions. These emotional states of brain activity play a crucial role in filtering top-down feedback from thoughts and bottom-up sensory inputs to the autonomic system, which automatically regulates bodily functions. Music likely exerts its pleasurable and healing effects by enhancing functional and effective connectivity and feedback mechanisms between brain regions that mediate reward, autonomic, and cognitive processing. Stimulation of pressure receptors under the skin by low-frequency music-induced sensations can activate multiple centers in the brain, including the amygdala, the cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Melodies in music in the low (< 600 Hz) frequency range may augment auditory inputs after convergence of the pressure-sensitive inputs from the vagus nerve onto emotive processing regions within the limbic system. The integration of music-generated auditory and somato-visceral inputs may lead to a synergistic input to the brain that promotes healing. Thus, music can literally heal humans through “touch” as it energizes the brain’s autonomic system for restoring homeostasis.

Keywords: acoustics, brain, music healing, pressure receptors

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44 Design and Evaluation on Sierpinski-Triangle Acoustic Diffusers Based on Fractal Theory

Authors: Lingge Tan, Hongpeng Xu, Jieun Yang, Maarten Hornikx


Acoustic diffusers are important components in enhancing the quality of room acoustics. This paper provides a type of modular diffuser based on the Sierpinski Triangle of the plane and combines it with fractal theory to expand the effective frequency range. In numerical calculations and full-scale model experiments, the effect of fractal design elements on normal-incidence diffusion coefficients is examined. It is demonstrated the reasonable times of iteration of modules is three, and the coverage density is 58.4% in the design frequency from 125Hz to 4kHz.

Keywords: acoustic diffuser, fractal, Sierpinski-triangle, diffusion coefficient

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43 Optimization of Transmission Loss on a Series-Coupled Muffler by Taguchi Method

Authors: Jing-Fung Lin, Jer-Jia Sheu


In this study, an approach has been developed for the noise reduction of a muffler. The transmission loss (TL) in the muffler is maximized by the use of a double-chamber muffler, and a baffle with a hole is inserted between chambers. Taguchi method is used to optimize the design for the acoustical performance of the muffler. The TL performance is evaluated by COMSOL software. The excellent parameter combination for the maximum TL is attained as high as 35.30 dB in a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 1400 Hz. The influence sequence of four parameters on TL is determined by the range analysis. The effects of length and expansion ratio of the first chamber on TL performance for the excellent program were discussed. Comparisons of the TL results from different designs are made.

Keywords: acoustics, baffle, chamber, muffler, Taguchi method, transmission loss

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42 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi


High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: automobile, acoustics, porous material, transfer matrix method

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41 Impinging Acoustics Induced Combustion: An Alternative Technique to Prevent Thermoacoustic Instabilities

Authors: Sayantan Saha, Sambit Supriya Dash, Vinayak Malhotra


Efficient propulsive systems development is an area of major interest and concern in aerospace industry. Combustion forms the most reliable and basic form of propulsion for ground and space applications. The generation of large amount of energy from a small volume relates mostly to the flaming combustion. This study deals with instabilities associated with flaming combustion. Combustion is always accompanied by acoustics be it external or internal. Chemical propulsion oriented rockets and space systems are well known to encounter acoustic instabilities. Acoustic brings in changes in inter-energy conversion and alter the reaction rates. The modified heat fluxes, owing to wall temperature, reaction rates, and non-linear heat transfer are observed. The thermoacoustic instabilities significantly result in reduced combustion efficiency leading to uncontrolled liquid rocket engine performance, serious hazards to systems, assisted testing facilities, enormous loss of resources and every year a substantial amount of money is spent to prevent them. Present work attempts to fundamentally understand the mechanisms governing the thermoacoustic combustion in liquid rocket engine using a simplified experimental setup comprising a butane cylinder and an impinging acoustic source. Rocket engine produces sound pressure level in excess of 153 Db. The RL-10 engine generates noise of 180 Db at its base. Systematic studies are carried out for varying fuel flow rates, acoustic levels and observations are made on the flames. The work is expected to yield a good physical insight into the development of acoustic devices that when coupled with the present propulsive devices could effectively enhance combustion efficiency leading to better and safer missions. The results would be utilized to develop impinging acoustic devices that impinge sound on the combustion chambers leading to stable combustion thus, improving specific fuel consumption, specific impulse, reducing emissions, enhanced performance and fire safety. The results can be effectively applied to terrestrial and space application.

Keywords: combustion instability, fire safety, improved performance, liquid rocket engines, thermoacoustics

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40 Assessment of the Occupancy’s Effect on Speech Intelligibility in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

Authors: Wasim Orfali, Hesham Tolba


This research investigates the acoustical characteristics of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque. Extensive field measurements were conducted in different locations of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque to characterize its acoustic characteristics. The acoustical characteristics are usually evaluated by the use of objective parameters in unoccupied rooms due to practical considerations. However, under normal conditions, the room occupancy can vary such characteristics due to the effect of the additional sound absorption present in the room or by the change in signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the acoustic measurements carried out in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque with and without occupancy, and the analysis of such measurements, the existence of acoustical deficiencies has been confirmed.

Keywords: Al-Madinah Holy Mosque, mosque acoustics, speech intelligibility, worship sound

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39 Investigation on the Acoustical Transmission Path of Additive Printed Metals

Authors: Raphael Rehmet, Armin Lohrengel, Prof Dr-Ing


In terms of making machines more silent and convenient, it is necessary to analyze the transmission path of mechanical vibrations and structure-bone noise. A typical solution for the elimination of structure-bone noise would be to simply add stiffeners or additional masses to change the transmission behavior and, thereby, avoid the propagation of vibrations. Another solution could be to use materials with a different damping behavior, such as elastomers, to isolate the machine dynamically. This research approach investigates the damping behavior of additive printed components made from structural steel or titanium, which have been manufactured in the “Laser Powder Bed Fusion“-process. By using the design flexibility which this process comes with, it will be investigated how a local impedance difference will affect the transmission behavior of the specimens.

Keywords: 3D-printed, acoustics, dynamics, impedance

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38 Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft

Authors: Yan Rongxin, Sun Wei, Li Weidan


Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.

Keywords: leak testing, manned spacecraft, sound transmitting, ultrasonic

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37 High Frequency Sonochemistry: A New Field of Cavitation‐Free Acoustic Materials Synthesis and Manipulation

Authors: Amgad Rezk, Heba Ahmed, Leslie Yeo


Ultrasound presents a powerful means for material synthesis. In this talk, we showcase a new field demonstrating the possibility for harnessing sound energy sources at considerably higher frequencies (10 MHz to 1 GHz) compared to conventional ultrasound (kHz and up to ~2 MHz) for crystalising and manipulating a variety of nanoscale materials. At these frequencies, cavitation—which underpins most sonochemical processes—is largely absent, suggesting that altogether fundamentally different mechanisms are at dominant. Examples include the crystallization of highly oriented structures, quasi-2D metal-organic frameworks and nanocomposites. These fascinating examples reveal how the highly nonlinear electromechanical coupling associated with high-frequency surface vibration gives rise to molecular ordering and assembly on the nano and microscale.

Keywords: high-frequency acoustics, microfluidics, crystallisation, composite nanomaterials

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36 Design Optimization and Thermoacoustic Analysis of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Components

Authors: K. Aravinth, C. T. Vignesh


The usage of pulse tube cryocoolers is significantly increased mainly due to the advantage of the absence of moving parts. The underlying idea of this project is to optimize the design of pulse tube, regenerator, a resonator in cryocooler and analyzing the thermo-acoustic oscillations with respect to the design parameters. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model with time-dependent validation is done to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations are solved for various porous media regions. The effect of changing the geometries and orientation will be validated and investigated in performance. The pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube are evaluated. This optimized design performance results will be compared with the existing pulse tube cryocooler design. The sinusoidal behavior of cryocooler in acoustic streaming patterns in pulse tube cryocooler will also be evaluated.

Keywords: acoustics, cryogenics, design, optimization

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35 Thermal and Acoustic Design of Mobile Hydraulic Vehicle Engine Room

Authors: Homin Kim, Hyungjo Byun, Jinyoung Do, Yongil Lee, Hyunho Shin, Seungbae Lee


Engine room of mobile hydraulic vehicle is densely packed with an engine and many hydraulic components mostly generating heat and sound. Though hydraulic oil cooler, ATF cooler, and axle oil cooler etc. are added to vehicle cooling system of mobile vehicle, the overheating may cause downgraded performance and frequent failures. In order to improve thermal and acoustic environment of engine room, the computational approaches by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) are used together with necessary modal analysis of belt-driven system. The engine room design layout and process, which satisfies the design objectives of sound power level and temperature levels of radiator water, charged air cooler, transmission and hydraulic oil coolers, is discussed.

Keywords: acoustics, CFD, engine room design, mobile hydraulics

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34 Frequency Modulation in Vibro-Acoustic Modulation Method

Authors: D. Liu, D. M. Donskoy


The vibroacoustic modulation method is based on the modulation effect of high-frequency ultrasonic wave (carrier) by low-frequency vibration in the presence of various defects, primarily contact-type such as cracks, delamination, etc. The presence and severity of the defect are measured by the ratio of the spectral sidebands and the carrier in the spectrum of the modulated signal. This approach, however, does not differentiate between amplitude and frequency modulations, AM and FM, respectfully. It was experimentally shown that both modulations could be present in the spectrum, yet each modulation may be associated with different physical mechanisms. AM mechanisms are quite well understood and widely covered in the literature. This paper is a first attempt to explain the generation mechanisms of FM and its correlation with the flaw properties. Here we proposed two possible mechanisms leading to FM modulation based on nonlinear local defect resonance and dynamic acousto-elastic models.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, nonlinear acoustics, structural health monitoring, acousto-elasticity, local defect resonance

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