Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 124

Search results for: propulsion

124 The LIP’s Electric Propulsion Development for Chinese Spacecraft

Authors: Zhang Tianping, Jia Yanhui, Li Juan, Yang Le, Yang Hao, Yang Wei, Sun Xiaojing, Shi Kai, Li Xingda, Sun Yunkui


Lanzhou Institute of Physics (LIP) is the major supplier of electric propulsion subsystems for Chinese satellite platforms. The development statuses of these electric propulsion subsystems were summarized including the LIPS-200 ion electric propulsion subsystem (IEPS) for DFH-3B platform, the LIPS-300 IEPS for DFH-5 and DFH-4SP platform, the LIPS-200+ IEPS for DFH-4E platform and near-earth asteroid exploration spacecraft, the LIPS-100 IEPS for small satellite platform, the LHT-100 hall electric propulsion subsystem (HEPS) for flight test on XY-2 satellite, the LHT-140 HEPS for large LEO spacecraft, the LIPS-400 IEPS for deep space exploration mission and other EPS for other Chinese spacecraft.

Keywords: ion electric propulsion, hall electric propulsion, satellite platform, LIP

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123 Rollet vs Rocket: A New in-Space Propulsion Concept

Authors: Arthur Baraov


Nearly all rocket and spacecraft propulsion concepts in existence today can be linked one way or the other to one of the two ancient warfare devices: the gun and the sling. Chemical, thermoelectric, ion, nuclear thermal and electromagnetic rocket engines – all fall into the first group which, for obvious reasons, can be categorized as “hot” space propulsion concepts. Space elevator, orbital tower, rolling satellite, orbital skyhook, tether propulsion and gravitational assist – are examples of the second category which lends itself for the title “cold” space propulsion concepts. The “hot” space propulsion concepts skyrocketed – literally and figuratively – from the naïve ideas of Jules Verne to the manned missions to the Moon. On the other hand, with the notable exception of gravitational assist, hardly any of the “cold” space propulsion concepts made any progress in terms of practical application. Why is that? This article aims to show that the right answer to this question has the potential comparable by its implications and practical consequences to that of transition from Jules Verne’s stillborn and impractical conceptions of space flight to cogent and highly fertile ideas of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Yuri Kondratyuk.

Keywords: propulsion, rocket, rollet, spacecraft

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122 Electric Propulsion Systems in Aerospace Applications - Energy Balance Analysis

Authors: T. Tulwin, M. Gęca, R. Sochaczewski


Recent improvements in electric propulsion systems and energy storage systems allow for the electrification of many sectors where it was previously not feasible. This analysis proves the feasibility of electric propulsion in aviation applications reviewing recent energy storage developments. It can be more quiet, energy efficient and more environmentally friendly. Numerical simulations were done to prove that energy efficiency can be improved for rotorcrafts especially in hover conditions. New types of aircraft configurations are reviewed and future trends are presented.

Keywords: aircraft, propulsion , efficiency, storage

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121 Development of Self-Reliant Satellite-Level Propulsion System by Using Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

Authors: H. J. Liu, Y. A. Chan, C. K. Pai, K. C. Tseng, Y. H. Chen, Y. L. Chan, T. C. Kuo


To satisfy the mission requirement of the FORMOSAT-7 project, NSPO has initialized a self-reliant development on satellite propulsion technology. A trade-off study on different types of on-board propulsion system has been done. A green propellant, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 hereafter), is chosen in this research because it is ITAR-free, nontoxic and easy to produce. As the components designed for either cold gas or hydrazine propulsion system are not suitable for H2O2 propulsion system, the primary objective of the research is to develop the components compatible with H2O2. By cooperating with domestic research institutes and manufacturing vendors, several prototype components, including a diaphragm-type tank, pressure transducer, ball latching valve, and one-Newton thruster with catalyst bed, were manufactured, and the functional tests were performed successfully according to the mission requirements. The requisite environmental tests, including hot firing test, thermal vaccum test, vibration test and compatibility test, are prepared and will be to completed in the near future. To demonstrate the subsystem function, an Air-Bearing Thrust Stand (ABTS) and a real-time Data Acquisition & Control System (DACS) were implemented to assess the performance of the proposed H2O2 propulsion system. By measuring the distance that the thrust stand has traveled in a given time, the thrust force can be derived from the kinematics equation. To validate the feasibility of the approach, it is scheduled to assess the performance of a cold gas (N2) propulsion system prior to the H2O2 propulsion system.

Keywords: FORMOSAT-7, green propellant, Hydrogen peroxide, thruster

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120 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

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119 Research of the Rotation Magnetic Field Current Driven Effect on Pulsed Plasmoid Acceleration of Electric Propulsion

Authors: X. F. Sun, X. D. Wen, L. J. Liu, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Jia


The field reversed closed magnetic field configuration plasmoid has a potential for large thrust and high power propulsion missions such as deep space exploration due to its high plasma density and larger azimuthal current, which will be a most competitive program for the next generation electric propulsion technology. Moreover, without the electrodes, it also has a long lifetime. Thus, the research on this electric propulsion technology is quite necessary. The plasmoid will be formatted and accelerated by applying a rotation magnetic field (RMF) method. And, the essence of this technology lies on the generation of the azimuthal electron currents driven by RMF. Therefore, the effect of RMF current on the plasmoid acceleration efficiency is a concerned problem. In the paper, the influences of the penetration process of RMF in plasma, the relations of frequency and amplitude of input RF power with current strength and the RMF antenna configuration on the plasmoid acceleration efficiency will be given by a two-fluid numerical simulation method. The results show that the radio-frequency and input power have remarkable influence on the formation and acceleration of plasmoid. These results will provide useful advice for the development, and optimized designing of field reversed configuration plasmoid thruster.

Keywords: rotation magnetic field, current driven, plasma penetration, electric propulsion

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118 Hybrid Lateral-Directional Robust Flight Control with Propulsive Systems

Authors: Alexandra Monteiro, K. Bousson, Fernando J. O. Moreira, Ricardo Reis


Fixed-wing flying vehicles are usually controlled by means of control surfaces such as elevators, ailerons, and rudders. The failure of these systems may lead to severe or even fatal crashes. These failures resulted in increased popularity for research activities on propulsion control in the last decades. The present work deals with a hybrid control architecture in which the propulsion-controlled vehicle maintains its traditional control surfaces, addressing the issue of robust lateral-directional dynamics control. The challenges stem from the parameter uncertainties in the stability and control derivatives and some unknown terms in the flight dynamics model. Two approaches are implemented and tested: linear quadratic regulation with robustness characteristics and H∞ control. The problem is centered on roll-yaw controller design with full state-feedback, which is able to deal with a standalone propulsion control mode as well as a hybrid mode combining both propulsion control and conventional control surface concepts while maintaining the original flight maneuverability characteristics. The results for both controllers emphasized very good control performances; however, the H∞ controller showed higher stabilization rates and robustness albeit with a slightly higher control magnitude than using the linear quadratic regulator.

Keywords: robust propulsion control, h-infinity control, lateral-directional flight dynamics, parameter uncertainties

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117 Propellant Less Propulsion System Using Microwave Thrusters

Authors: D. Pradeep Mitra, Prafulla


Looking to the word propellant-less system it makes us to believe that it is an impossible one, but this paper demonstrates the use of microwaves to create a system which makes impossible to be possible, it means a propellant-less propulsion system using microwaves. In these thrusters, microwaves are radiated into a sealed parabolic cavity through a waveguide, which act on the surface of the cavity and follow the axis of the thrusters to produce thrust. The advantages of these thrusters are: (1) Producing thrust without propellant; without erosion, wear, and thermal stress from the hot exhaust gas; and at the same time increasing quality. (2) If the microwave output power is stable, the performance of thrusters is not affected by its working environment. This paper is demonstrated from general maxwell equations. These equations are used to create the mathematical model of the thrusters. These mathematical model helps us to calculate the Q factor and calculate the approximate thrust which would be generated in the system.

Keywords: propellant less, microwaves, parabolic wave guide, propulsion system

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116 A Single Stage Rocket Using Solid Fuels in Conventional Propulsion Systems

Authors: John R Evans, Sook-Ying Ho, Rey Chin


This paper describes the research investigations orientated to the starting and propelling of a solid fuel rocket engine which operates as combined cycle propulsion system using three thrust pulses. The vehicle has been designed to minimise the cost of launching small number of Nano/Cube satellites into low earth orbits (LEO). A technology described in this paper is a ground-based launch propulsion system which starts the rocket vertical motion immediately causing air flow to enter the ramjet’s intake. Current technology has a ramjet operation predicted to be able to start high subsonic speed of 280 m/s using a liquid fuel ramjet (LFRJ). The combined cycle engine configuration is in many ways fundamentally different from the LFRJ. A much lower subsonic start speed is highly desirable since the use of a mortar to obtain the latter speed for rocket means a shorter launcher length can be utilized. This paper examines the means and has some performance calculations, including Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of air-intake at suitable operational conditions, 3-DOF point mass trajectory analysis of multi-pulse propulsion system (where pulse ignition time and thrust magnitude can be controlled), etc. of getting a combined cycle rocket engine use in a single stage vehicle.

Keywords: combine cycle propulsion system, low earth orbit launch vehicle, computational fluid dynamics analysis, 3dof trajectory analysis

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115 Numerical Study on the Flow around a Steadily Rotating Spring: Understanding the Propulsion of a Bacterial Flagellum

Authors: Won Yeol Choi, Sangmo Kang


The propulsion of a bacterial flagellum in a viscous fluid has attracted many interests in the field of biological hydrodynamics, but remains yet fully understood and thus still a challenging problem. In this study, therefore, we have numerically investigated the flow around a steadily rotating micro-sized spring to further understand such bacterial flagellum propulsion. Note that a bacterium gains thrust (propulsive force) by rotating the flagellum connected to the body through a bio motor to move forward. For the investigation, we convert the spring model from the micro scale to the macro scale using a similitude law (scale law) and perform simulations on the converted macro-scale model using a commercial software package, CFX v13 (ANSYS). To scrutinize the propulsion characteristics of the flagellum through the simulations, we make parameter studies by changing some flow parameters, such as the pitch, helical radius and rotational speed of the spring and the Reynolds number (or fluid viscosity), expected to affect the thrust force experienced by the rotating spring. Results show that the propulsion characteristics depend strongly on the parameters mentioned above. It is observed that the forward thrust increases in a linear fashion with either of the rotational speed or the fluid viscosity. In addition, the thrust is directly proportional to square of the helical radius and but the thrust force is increased and then decreased based on the peak value to the pitch. Finally, we also present the appropriate flow and pressure fields visualized to support the observations.

Keywords: fluid viscosity, hydrodynamics, similitude, propulsive force

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114 Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Efficiency on Different Slopes

Authors: A. Boonpratatong, J. Pantong, S. Kiattisaksophon, W. Senavongse


In this study, an integrated sensing and modeling system for manual wheelchair propulsion measurement and propulsion efficiency calculation was used to indicate the level of overuse. Seven subjects participated in the measurement. On the level surface, the propulsion efficiencies were not different significantly as the riding speed increased. By contrast, the propulsion efficiencies on the 15-degree incline were restricted to around 0.5. The results are supported by previously reported wheeling resistance and propulsion torque relationships implying margin of the overuse. Upper limb musculoskeletal injuries and syndromes in manual wheelchair riders are common, chronic, and may be caused at different levels by the overuse i.e. repetitive riding on steep incline. The qualitative analysis such as the mechanical effectiveness on manual wheeling to establish the relationship between the riding difficulties, mechanical efforts and propulsion outputs is scarce, possibly due to the challenge of simultaneous measurement of those factors in conventional manual wheelchairs and everyday environments. In this study, the integrated sensing and modeling system were used to measure manual wheelchair propulsion efficiency in conventional manual wheelchairs and everyday environments. The sensing unit is comprised of the contact pressure and inertia sensors which are portable and universal. Four healthy male and three healthy female subjects participated in the measurement on level and 15-degree incline surface. Subjects were asked to perform manual wheelchair ridings with three different self-selected speeds on level surface and only preferred speed on the 15-degree incline. Five trials were performed in each condition. The kinematic data of the subject’s dominant hand and a spoke and the trunk of the wheelchair were collected through the inertia sensors. The compression force applied from the thumb of the dominant hand to the push rim was collected through the contact pressure sensors. The signals from all sensors were recorded synchronously. The subject-selected speeds for slow, preferred and fast riding on level surface and subject-preferred speed on 15-degree incline were recorded. The propulsion efficiency as a ratio between the pushing force in tangential direction to the push rim and the net force as a result of the three-dimensional riding motion were derived by inverse dynamic problem solving in the modeling unit. The intra-subject variability of the riding speed was not different significantly as the self-selected speed increased on the level surface. Since the riding speed on the 15-degree incline was difficult to regulate, the intra-subject variability was not applied. On the level surface, the propulsion efficiencies were not different significantly as the riding speed increased. However, the propulsion efficiencies on the 15-degree incline were restricted to around 0.5 for all subjects on their preferred speed. The results are supported by the previously reported relationship between the wheeling resistance and propulsion torque in which the wheelchair axle torque increased but the muscle activities were not increased when the resistance is high. This implies the margin of dynamic efforts on the relatively high resistance being similar to the margin of the overuse indicated by the restricted propulsion efficiency on the 15-degree incline.

Keywords: contact pressure sensor, inertia sensor, integrating sensing and modeling system, manual wheelchair propulsion efficiency, manual wheelchair propulsion measurement, tangential force, resultant force, three-dimensional riding motion

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113 Propeller Performance Modeling through a Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method

Authors: Maxime Alex Junior Kuitche, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Jean-Chirstophe Maunand


The evolution of aircraft is closely linked to the study and improvement of propulsion systems. Determining the propulsion performance is a real challenge in aircraft modeling and design. In addition to theoretical methodologies, experimental procedures are used to obtain a good estimation of the propulsion performances. For piston-propeller propulsion, the propeller needs several experimental tests which could be extremely demanding in terms of time and money. This paper presents a new procedure to estimate the performance of a propeller from a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamic analysis. The propeller was initially scanned, and then, its 3D model was represented using CATIA. A structured meshing and Shear Stress Transition k-ω turbulence model were applied to describe accurately the flow pattern around the propeller. Thus, the Partial Differential Equations were solved using ANSYS FLUENT software. The method was applied on the UAS-S45’s propeller designed and manufactured by Hydra Technologies in Mexico. An extensive investigation was performed for several flight conditions in terms of altitudes and airspeeds with the aim to determine thrust coefficients, power coefficients and efficiency of the propeller. The Computational Fluid Dynamics results were compared with experimental data acquired from wind tunnel tests performed at the LARCASE Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel. The results of this comparison have demonstrated that our approach was highly accurate.

Keywords: CFD analysis, propeller performance, unmanned aerial system propeller, UAS-S45

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112 Analysis of Waterjet Propulsion System for an Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: Nafsi K. Ashraf, C. V. Vipin, V. Anantha Subramanian


This paper reports the design of a waterjet propulsion system for an amphibious vehicle based on circulation distribution over the camber line for the sections of the impeller and stator. In contrast with the conventional waterjet design, the inlet duct is straight for water entry parallel and in line with the nozzle exit. The extended nozzle after the stator bowl makes the flow more axial further improving thrust delivery. Waterjet works on the principle of volume flow rate through the system and unlike the propeller, it is an internal flow system. The major difference between the propeller and the waterjet occurs at the flow passing the actuator. Though a ducted propeller could constitute the equivalent of waterjet propulsion, in a realistic situation, the nozzle area for the Waterjet would be proportionately larger to the inlet area and propeller disc area. Moreover, the flow rate through impeller disk is controlled by nozzle area. For these reasons the waterjet design is based on pump systems rather than propellers and therefore it is important to bring out the characteristics of the flow from this point of view. The analysis is carried out using computational fluid dynamics. Design of waterjet propulsion is carried out adapting the axial flow pump design and performance analysis was done with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. With the varying environmental conditions as well as with the necessity of high discharge and low head along with the space confinement for the given amphibious vehicle, an axial pump design is suitable. The major problem of inlet velocity distribution is the large variation of velocity in the circumferential direction which gives rise to heavy blade loading that varies with time. The cavitation criteria have also been taken into account as per the hydrodynamic pump design. Generally, waterjet propulsion system can be parted into the inlet, the pump, the nozzle and the steering device. The pump further comprises an impeller and a stator. Analytical and numerical approaches such as RANSE solver has been undertaken to understand the performance of designed waterjet propulsion system. Unlike in case of propellers the analysis was based on head flow curve with efficiency and power curves. The modeling of the impeller is performed using rigid body motion approach. The realizable k-ϵ model has been used for turbulence modeling. The appropriate boundary conditions are applied for the domain, domain size and grid dependence studies are carried out.

Keywords: amphibious vehicle, CFD, impeller design, waterjet propulsion

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111 Hypersonic Propulsion Requirements for Sustained Hypersonic Flight for Air Transportation

Authors: James Rate, Apostolos Pesiridis


In this paper, the propulsion requirements required to achieve sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation are evaluated. In addition, a design methodology is developed and used to determine the propulsive capabilities of both ramjet and scramjet engines. Twelve configurations are proposed for hypersonic flight using varying combinations of turbojet, turbofan, ramjet and scramjet engines. The optimal configuration was determined based on how well each of the configurations met the projected requirements for hypersonic commercial transport. The configurations were separated into four sub-configurations each comprising of three unique derivations. The first sub-configuration comprised four afterburning turbojets and either one or two ramjets idealised for Mach 5 cruise. The number of ramjets required was dependent on the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle from a speed where the turbojets cut out to Mach 5 cruise. The second comprised four afterburning turbojets and either one or two scramjets, similar to the first configuration. The third used four turbojets, one scramjet and one ramjet to aid acceleration from Mach 3 to Mach 5. The fourth configuration was the same as the third, but instead of turbojets, it implemented turbofan engines for the preliminary acceleration of the vehicle. From calculations which determined the fuel consumption at incremental Mach numbers this paper found that the ideal solution would require four turbojet engines and two Scramjet engines. The ideal mission profile was determined as being an 8000km sortie based on an averaging of popular long haul flights with strong business ties, which included Los Angeles to Tokyo, London to New York and Dubai to Beijing. This paper deemed that these routes would benefit from hypersonic transport links based on the previously mentioned factors. This paper has found that this configuration would be sufficient for the 8000km flight to be completed in approximately two and a half hours and would consume less fuel than Concord in doing so. However, this propulsion configuration still result in a greater fuel cost than a conventional passenger. In this regard, this investigation contributes towards the specification of the engine requirements throughout a mission profile for a hypersonic passenger vehicle. A number of assumptions have had to be made for this theoretical approach but the authors believe that this investigation lays the groundwork for appropriate framing of the propulsion requirements for sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation. Despite this, it does serve as a crucial step in the development of the propulsion systems required for hypersonic commercial air transportation. This paper provides a methodology and a focus for the development of the propulsion systems that would be required for sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation.

Keywords: hypersonic, ramjet, propulsion, Scramjet, Turbojet, turbofan

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110 Emissions and Total Cost of Ownership Assessment of Hybrid Propulsion Concepts for Bus Transport with Compressed Natural Gases or Diesel Engine

Authors: Volker Landersheim, Daria Manushyna, Thinh Pham, Dai-Duong Tran, Thomas Geury, Omar Hegazy, Steven Wilkins


Air pollution is one of the emerging problems in our society. Targets of reduction of CO₂ emissions address low-carbon and resource-efficient transport. (Plug-in) hybrid electric propulsion concepts offer the possibility to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and emissions for public transport vehicles (e.g., bus application). In this context, typically, diesel engines are used to form the hybrid propulsion system of the vehicle. Though the technological development of diesel engines experience major advantages, some challenges such as the high amount of particle emissions remain relevant. Gaseous fuels (i.e., compressed natural gases (CNGs) or liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) represent an attractive alternative to diesel because of their composition. In the framework of the research project 'Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture' (ORCA), which was funded by the EU, two different hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have been investigated: one using a diesel engine as internal combustion engine and one using CNG as fuel. The aim of the current study is to analyze specific benefits for the aforementioned hybrid propulsion systems for predefined driving scenarios with regard to emissions and total cost of ownership in bus application. Engine models based on experimental data for diesel and CNG were developed. For the purpose of designing optimal energy management strategies for each propulsion system, maps-driven or quasi-static models for specific engine types are used in the simulation framework. An analogous modelling approach has been chosen to represent emissions. This paper compares the two concepts regarding their CO₂ and NOx emissions. This comparison is performed for relevant bus missions (urban, suburban, with and without zero-emission zone) and with different energy management strategies. In addition to the emissions, also the downsizing potential of the combustion engine has been analysed to minimize the powertrain TCO (pTCO) for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The results of the performed analyses show that the hybrid vehicle concept using the CNG engine shows advantages both with respect to emissions as well as to pTCO. The pTCO is 10% lower, CO₂ emissions are 13% lower, and the NOx emissions are more than 50% lower than with the diesel combustion engine. These results are consistent across all usage profiles under investigation.

Keywords: bus transport, emissions, hybrid propulsion, pTCO, CNG

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109 Hydrodynamics of Undulating Ribbon-fin and Its Application in Bionic Underwater Robot

Authors: Zhang Jun, Zhai Shucheng, Bai Yaqiang, Zhang Guoping


The Gymnarchus Niioticus fish(GNF) cruises generally with high efficiency by undulating ribbon-fin propulsion while keeping its body for straight line. The swing amplitude of GNF fins is usually in 60° to 90°, and in normal state the amplitude is close to 90°, only in the control of hovering or swimming at very low speed, the amplitude is smaller (about 60°). It provides inspiration for underwater robot design. In the paper, the unsteady flow of undulating ribbon-fin propulsion is numerical simulated by the dynamic grid technique including spring-based smoothing model and local grid remeshing to adapt to the fin surface significantly deforming, and the swing amplitude of fin ray reaches 850. The numerical simulation method is validated by thrust experiments. The spatial vortex structure and its evolution with phase angle is analyzed. The propulsion mechanism is investigated by comprehensive analysis of the hydrodynamics, vortex structure, and pressure distribution on the fin surface. The numerical results indicates that there are mainly three kinds of vortexes, i.e. streamwise vortex, crescent vortex and toroidal vortex. The intensity of streamwise vortex is the strongest among all kinds of vortexes. Streamwise vortexes and crescent vortexes all alternately distribute on the two sides of mid-sagittal plane. Inside the crescent vortexes is high-speed flow, while outside is low-speed flow. The crescent vortexes mainly induce high-speed axial jet, which produces the primary thrust. This is hydrodynamic mechanism undulating ribbon-fin propulsion. The streamwise vortexes mainly induce the vertical jet, which generates the primary heave force. The effect on hydrodynamics of main geometry and movement parameters including wave length, amplitude and advanced coefficients is investigated. A bionic underwater robot with bilateral undulating ribbon-fins is designed, and its navigation performance and maneuverability are measured.

Keywords: bionic propulsion, mobile robot, underwater robot, undulating ribbon-fins

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108 Solar Electric Propulsion: The Future of Deep Space Exploration

Authors: Abhishek Sharma, Arnab Banerjee


The research is intended to study the solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology for planetary missions. The main benefits of using solar electric propulsion for such missions are shorter flight times, more frequent target accessibility and the use of a smaller launch vehicle than that required by a comparable chemical propulsion mission. Energized by electric power from on-board solar arrays, the electrically propelled system uses 10 times less propellant than conventional chemical propulsion system, yet the reduced fuel mass can provide vigorous power which is capable of propelling robotic and crewed missions beyond the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO). The various thrusters used in the SEP are gridded ion thrusters and the Hall Effect thrusters. The research is solely aimed to study the ion thrusters and investigate the complications related to it and what can be done to overcome the glitches. The ion thrusters are used because they are found to have a total lower propellant requirement and have substantially longer time. In the ion thrusters, the anode pushes or directs the incoming electrons from the cathode. But the anode is not maintained at a very high potential which leads to divergence. Divergence leads to the charges interacting against the surface of the thruster. Just as the charges ionize the xenon gases, they are capable of ionizing the surfaces and over time destroy the surface and hence contaminate it. Hence the lifetime of thruster gets limited. So a solution to this problem is using substances which are not easy to ionize as the surface material. Another approach can be to increase the potential of anode so that the electrons don’t deviate much or reduce the length of thruster such that the positive anode is more effective. The aim is to work on these aspects as to how constriction of the deviation of charges can be done by keeping the input power constant and hence increase the lifetime of the thruster. Predominantly ring cusp magnets are used in the ion thrusters. However, the study is also intended to observe the effect of using solenoid for producing micro-solenoidal magnetic field apart from using the ring cusp magnetic field which are used in the discharge chamber for prevention of interaction of electrons with the ionization walls. Another foremost area of interest is what are the ways by which power can be provided to the Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle for lowering and boosting the orbit of the spacecraft and also provide substantial amount of power to the solenoid for producing stronger magnetic fields. This can be successfully achieved by using the concept of Electro-dynamic tether which will serve as a power source for powering both the vehicle and the solenoids in the ion thruster and hence eliminating the need for carrying extra propellant on the spacecraft which will reduce the weight and hence reduce the cost of space propulsion.

Keywords: electro-dynamic tether, ion thruster, lifetime of thruster, solar electric propulsion vehicle

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107 Field Oriented Control of Electrical Motor for Efficiency Improvement of Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Francois Defay


Uses of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are increasing for many applicative cases. Long endurance UAVs are required for inspection or transportation in some deserted places. The global optimization of the efficiency is the aim of the works in ISAE-SUPAERO. From the propulsive part until the motor control, the global optimization can increase significantly the global efficiency. This paper deals with the global improvement of the efficiency of the electrical propulsion for the aerial vehicle. The application case of study is a small airplane of 2kg. A global modelization is presented in order to validate the electrical engine in a complete simulation from aerodynamics to battery. The classical control of the synchronous permanent drive is compared to the field-oriented control which is not yet applied for UAVs. The experimental results presented show an increase of more than 10 percent of the efficiency. A complete modelization and simulation based on Matlab/ Simulink are presented in this paper and compared to the experimental study. Finally this paper presents solutions to increase the endurance of the electrical aerial vehicle and provide models to optimize the global consumption for a specific mission. The next step is to use this model and the control to work with distributed propulsion which is the future for small distance plane.

Keywords: electrical propulsion, endurance, field-oriented control, UAV

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106 Performance and Voyage Analysis of Marine Gas Turbine Engine, Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship from Lagos to Jeddah

Authors: Mathias U. Bonet, Pericles Pilidis, Georgios Doulgeris


An aero-derivative marine Gas Turbine engine model is simulated to be installed as the main propulsion prime mover to power a cruise ship which is designed and routed to transport intending Muslim pilgrims for the annual hajj pilgrimage from Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. A performance assessment of the Gas Turbine engine has been conducted by examining the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions encountered at various geographical locations along the scheduled transit route during the voyage. The investigation focuses on the overall behavior of the Gas Turbine engine employed to power and propel the ship as it operates under ideal and adverse conditions to be encountered during calm and rough weather according to the different seasons of the year under which the voyage may be undertaken. The variation of engine performance under varying operating conditions has been considered as a very important economic issue by determining the time the speed by which the journey is completed as well as the quantity of fuel required for undertaking the voyage. The assessment also focuses on the increased resistance caused by the fouling of the submerged portion of the ship hull surface with its resultant effect on the power output of the engine as well as the overall performance of the propulsion system. Daily ambient temperature levels were obtained by accessing data from the UK Meteorological Office while the varying degree of turbulence along the transit route and according to the Beaufort scale were also obtained as major input variables of the investigation. By assuming the ship to be navigating the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea during winter, spring and summer seasons, the performance modeling and simulation was accomplished through the use of an integrated Gas Turbine performance simulation code known as ‘Turbomach’ along with a Matlab generated code named ‘Poseidon’, all of which have been developed at the Power and Propulsion Department of Cranfield University. As a case study, the results of the various assumptions have further revealed that the marine Gas Turbine is a reliable and available alternative to the conventional marine propulsion prime movers that have dominated the maritime industry before now. The techno-economic and environmental assessment of this type of propulsion prime mover has enabled the determination of the effect of changes in weather and sea conditions on the ship speed as well as trip time and the quantity of fuel required to be burned throughout the voyage.

Keywords: ambient temperature, hull fouling, marine gas turbine, performance, propulsion, voyage

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105 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari


The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

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104 Modular Robotics and Terrain Detection Using Inertial Measurement Unit Sensor

Authors: Shubhakar Gupta, Dhruv Prakash, Apoorv Mehta


In this project, we design a modular robot capable of using and switching between multiple methods of propulsion and classifying terrain, based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) input. We wanted to make a robot that is not only intelligent in its functioning but also versatile in its physical design. The advantage of a modular robot is that it can be designed to hold several movement-apparatuses, such as wheels, legs for a hexapod or a quadpod setup, propellers for underwater locomotion, and any other solution that may be needed. The robot takes roughness input from a gyroscope and an accelerometer in the IMU, and based on the terrain classification from an artificial neural network; it decides which method of propulsion would best optimize its movement. This provides the bot with adaptability over a set of terrains, which means it can optimize its locomotion on a terrain based on its roughness. A feature like this would be a great asset to have in autonomous exploration or research drones.

Keywords: modular robotics, terrain detection, terrain classification, neural network

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103 Spectroscopic Relation between Open Cluster and Globular Cluster

Authors: Robin Singh, Mayank Nautiyal, Priyank Jain, Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma


The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.

Keywords: color magnitude diagram, globular clusters, open clusters, Einstein model

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102 Numerical Study on Self-Confined Plasmoid Transport Phenomena in an Electrodeless Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

Authors: Xiaodong Wen, Lijuan Liu, Xinfeng Sun


A high power electrodeless plasma thruster is being developed at Lanzhou Institute of Physics. In this thruster, a rotating magnetic field (RMF) driven by two radio-frequency coils which dephased by 90 degrees are applied both for propellant ionization and plasma acceleration. In the ionization stage, a very high azimuthal current can be driven by RMF and then makes plasma forms a field reversed configuration, namely self-confined plasmoid. Profoundly understanding the transport characteristics of the plasmoid in the following acceleration stage is the key to improve the thruster performances. In this paper, a 3D MHD model is established and the influences of the RMF and an applied magnetic field on the self-confined plasmoid acceleration are investigated. The simulation results show that, by applying a RMF with strength and frequency of 250 G and 370 kHz, the plasmoid can be accelerated to an average velocity of 17 km/s at the exit of the thruster.

Keywords: electric space propulsion, field reversed configuration, rotating magnetic field, transport phenomena

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101 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Vivek Paul, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan


The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: airfoil, CFD, MAV, flight performance, endurance, climb, lift, drag

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100 Experimental Analysis for the Inlet of the Brazilian Aerospace Vehicle 14-X B

Authors: João F. A. Martos, Felipe J. Costa, Sergio N. P. Laiton, Bruno C. Lima, Israel S. Rêgo, Paulo P. G. Toro


Nowadays, the scramjet is a topic that has attracted the attention of several scientific communities (USA, Australia, Germany, France, Japan, India, China, Russia), that are investing in this in this type of propulsion system due its interest to facilitate access to space and reach hypersonic speed, who have invested in this type of propulsion due to the interest in facilitating access to space. The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet) intended to be tested in flight into the Earth's atmosphere at 30 km altitude and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) in Brazil. The IEAv Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, named T3, is a ground-test facility able to reproduce the flight conditions as the Mach number as well as pressure and temperature in the test section close to those encountered during the test flight of the vehicle 14-X B into design conditions. A 1-m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach number 7. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B model, along with high-speed schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data that were compared to the analytical-theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show a good qualitative agreement, and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: 14-X, CFD, hypersonic, hypersonic shock tunnel, scramjet

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99 Construction of a Desktop Arduino Controlled Propeller Test Stand

Authors: Brian Kozak, Ryan Ferguson, Evan Hockeridge


Aerospace engineering and aeronautical engineering students studying propulsion often learn about propellers and their importance in aviation propulsion. In order to reinforce concepts introduced in the classroom, laboratory projects are used. However, to test a full scale propeller, an engine mounted on a test stand must be used. This engine needs to be enclosed in a test cell for appropriated safety requirements, is expensive to operate, and requires a significant amount of time to change propellers. In order to decrease costs and time requirements, the authors designed and built an electric motor powered desktop Arduino controlled test stand. This test stand is used to enhance student understanding of propeller size and pitch on thrust. The test stand can accommodate propellers up to 25 centimeters in diameter. The code computer allowed for the motor speed to be increased or decreased by 1% per second. Outputs that are measured are thrust, motor rpm, amperes, voltage, and motor temperature. These data are exported as a .CVS file and can be imported into a graphing program for data analysis.

Keywords: Arduino, Laboratory Project, Test stand, Propeller

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98 Conceptional Design of a Hyperloop Capsule with Linear Induction Propulsion System

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Samar F. Abdel Fattah


High-speed transportation is a growing concern. To develop high-speed rails and to increase high-speed efficiencies, the idea of Hyperloop was introduced. The challenge is to overcome the difficulties of managing friction and air-resistance which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds. In this paper, we are presenting the methodologies of the capsule design which got a design concept innovation award at SpaceX competition in January, 2016. MATLAB scripts are written for the levitation and propulsion calculations and iterations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the air flow around the capsule considering the effect of the axial-flow air compressor and the levitation cushion on the air flow. The design procedures of a single-sided linear induction motor are analyzed in detail and its geometric and magnetic parameters are determined. A structural design is introduced and Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to analyze the stresses in different parts. The configuration and the arrangement of the components are illustrated. Moreover, comments on manufacturing are made.

Keywords: high-speed transportation, hyperloop, railways transportation, single-sided linear induction Motor (SLIM)

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97 Experimental Investigation on the Role of Thermoacoustics on Soot Formation

Authors: Sambit Supriya Dash, Rahul Ravi R, Vikram Ramanan, Vinayak Malhotra


Combustion in itself is a complex phenomenon that involves the interaction and interplay of multiple phenomena, the combined effect of which gives rise to the common flame that we see and use in our daily life applications from cooking to propelling our vehicles to space. The most important thing that goes unnoticed about these flames is the effect of the various phenomena from its surrounding environment that affects its behavior and properties. These phenomena cause a variety of energy interactions that lead to various types of energy transformations which in turn affect the flame behavior. This paper focuses on experimentally investigating the effect of one such phenomenon, which is the acoustics or sound energy on diffusion flames. The subject in itself is extensively studied upon as thermo-acoustics globally, whereas the current work focuses on studying its effect on soot formation on diffusion flames. The said effect is studied in this research work by the use of a butane as fuel, fitted with a nozzle that houses 3 arrays consisting of 4 holes each that are placed equidistant to each other and the resulting flame impinged with sound from two independent and similar sound sources that are placed equidistant from the centre of the flame. The entire process is systematically video graphed using a 60 fps regular CCD and analysed for variation in flame heights and flickering frequencies where the fuel mass flow rate is maintained constant and the configuration of entrainment holes and frequency of sound are varied, whilst maintaining constant ambient atmospheric conditions. The current work establishes significant outcomes on the effect of acoustics on soot formation; it is noteworthy that soot formation is the main cause of pollution and a major cause of inefficiency of current propulsion systems. This work is one of its kinds, and its outcomes are widely applicable to commercial and domestic appliances that utilize combustion for energy generation or propulsion and help us understand them better, so that we can increase their efficiency and decrease pollution.

Keywords: thermoacoustics, entrainment, propulsion system, efficiency, pollution

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96 Intermittent Effect of Coupled Thermal and Acoustic Sources on Combustion: A Spatial Perspective

Authors: Pallavi Gajjar, Vinayak Malhotra


Rockets have been known to have played a predominant role in spacecraft propulsion. The quintessential aspect of combustion-related requirements of a rocket engine is the minimization of the surrounding risks/hazards. Over time, it has become imperative to understand the combustion rate variation in presence of external energy source(s). Rocket propulsion represents a special domain of chemical propulsion assisted by high speed flows in presence of acoustics and thermal source(s). Jet noise leads to a significant loss of resources and every year a huge amount of financial aid is spent to prevent it. External heat source(s) induce high possibility of fire risk/hazards which can sufficiently endanger the operation of a space vehicle. Appreciable work had been done with justifiable simplification and emphasis on the linear variation of external energy source(s), which yields good physical insight but does not cater to accurate predictions. Present work experimentally attempts to understand the correlation between inter-energy conversions with the non-linear placement of external energy source(s). The work is motivated by the need to have better fire safety and enhanced combustion. The specific objectives of the work are a) To interpret the related energy transfer for combustion in presence of alternate external energy source(s) viz., thermal and acoustic, b) To fundamentally understand the role of key controlling parameters viz., separation distance, the number of the source(s), selected configurations and their non-linear variation to resemble real-life cases. An experimental setup was prepared using incense sticks as potential fuel and paraffin wax candles as the external energy source(s). The acoustics was generated using frequency generator, and source(s) were placed at selected locations. Non-equidistant parametric experimentation was carried out, and the effects were noted on regression rate changes. The results are expected to be very helpful in offering a new perspective into futuristic rocket designs and safety.

Keywords: combustion, acoustic energy, external energy sources, regression rate

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95 A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters

Authors: A. Soria-Salinas, M.-P. Zorzano, J. Martín-Torres, J. Sánchez-García-Casarrubios, J.-L. Pérez-Díaz, A. Vakkada-Ramachandran


The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Keywords: electric propulsion, mass gauging, propellant, PVT, xenon

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