Search results for: turbulent flow
4375 Numerical Analysis of Passive Controlled Turbulent Flow around a Circular Cylinder
Authors: Mustafa Soyler, Mustafa M. Yavuz, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp
Abstract:In this study, unsteady two-dimensional turbulent flow around a circular cylinder and passive control of the flow with groove on the cylinder was examined. In the CFD analysis, solutions were made using turbulent flow conditions. Steady and unsteady solutions were used in turbulent flow analysis. Numerical analysis of the flow around the circular cylinder is difficult since flow is not in a stable regime when Reynold number is between 1000 and 10000. The analyses in this study were performed at a subcritical Re number of 5000 and the results were compared with available experimental results of the drag coefficient (Cd) and Strouhal (St) number values in the literature. The effect of different groove types and depths on the Cd coefficient has been analyzed and grooves increase the Cd coefficient compared to the smooth cylinder.
Keywords: CFD, drag coefficient, flow over cylinder, passive flow controlProcedia PDF Downloads 91
4374 Performance of Slot-Entry Hybrid Worn Journal Bearing under Turbulent Lubrication
Authors: Nathi Ram, Saurabh K. Yadav
Abstract:In turbomachinery, the turbulent flow occurs due to the use of high velocity of low kinematic viscosity lubricants and used in many industrial applications. In the present work, the performance of symmetric slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under laminar and turbulent lubrication has been investigated. For turbulent lubrication, the Reynolds equation has been modified using Constantinescu turbulent model. This modified equation has been solved using the finite element method. The effect of turbulent lubrication on bearing’s performance has been presented for symmetric hybrid journal bearing. The slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under turbulent/laminar regimes have been investigated. It has been observed that the stiffness and damping coefficients are more for the bearing having slot width ratio (SWR) of 0.25 than the bearing with SWR of 0.5 and 0.75 under the turbulent regime. Further, it is also observed that for constant wear depth parameter, stability threshold speed gets increased for bearing operates at slot width ratio 0.25 under turbulent lubrication.
Keywords: hydrostatic bearings, journal bearings, restrictors, turbulent flow models, finite element techniqueProcedia PDF Downloads 93
4373 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct
Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez
Abstract:Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.
Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profileProcedia PDF Downloads 252
4372 Numerical Analysis of the Flow Characteristics Around a Deformable Vortex Generator
Authors: Aimad Koulali
Abstract:Flow structure evolution around a single pair of Delta vortex generators (VGs) is studied numerically. For laminar, transient, and turbulent flow regimes, numerical simulations have been performed in a duct with a pair of Delta vortex generators. The finiteelementmethodwasused to simulate the flow. To formulate the fluid structure interaction problem, the ALE formulation was used. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed insight into the generation and dissipation of longitudinal vortices over a wide range of flow regimes, including the laminar-turbulent transition. A wide range of parameters has been exploited to describe the inducedphenomenawithin the flow. Weexaminedvariousparametersdepending on the VG geometry, the flow regime, and the channel geometry. A detailed analysis of the turbulence and wall shear stress properties has been evaluated. The results affirm that there are still optimal values to obtain better performing vortices in order to improve the exchange performance.
Keywords: finte element method, deformable vortex generator, numerical analysis, fluid structure interaction, ALE formlation, turbulent flowProcedia PDF Downloads 40
4371 The Incompressible Preference of Turbulence
Authors: Samuel David Dunstan
Abstract:An elementary observation of a laminar cylindrical Poiseulle-Couette flow profile reveals no distinction in the parabolic streamwise profile from one without a cross-stream flow in whatever reference frame the observation is made. This is because the laminar flow is in solid-body rotation, and there is no intrinsic fluid rotation. Hence the main streamwise Poiseuille flow is unaffected. However, in turbulent (unsteady) cylindrical Poiseuille-Couette flow, the rotational reference frame must be considered, and any observation from an external inertial reference frame can give outright incorrect results. A common misconception in the study of fluid mechanics is the position of the observer does not matter. In this DNS (direct numerical simulation) study, firstly, turbulent flow in a pipe with axial rotation is established. Then in turbulent flow in the concentric pipe, with inner wall rotation, it is shown how the wall streak direction is oriented by the rotational reference frame. The Coriolis force here is not so fictitious after all!
Keywords: concentric pipe, rotational and inertial frames, frame invariance, wall streaks, flow orientationProcedia PDF Downloads 13
4370 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity
Authors: A. Khaleel, S. Gao
Abstract:Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k- models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k- model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown a good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.
Keywords: mixed convection, lid-driven cavity, turbulent flow, RANS model, large Eddy simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 150
4369 Turbulent Flow in Corrugated Pipes with Helical Grooves
Authors: P. Mendes, H. Stel, R. E. M. Morales
Abstract:This article presents a numerical and experimental study of turbulent flow in corrugated pipes with helically “d-type" grooves, for Reynolds numbers between 7500 and 100,000. The ANSYS-CFX software is used to solve the RANS equations with the BSL two equation turbulence model, through the element-based finite-volume method approach. Different groove widths and helix angles are considered. Numerical results are validated with experimental pressure drop measurements for the friction factor. A correlation for the friction factor is also proposed considering the geometric parameters and Reynolds numbers evaluated.
Keywords: turbulent flow, corrugated pipe, helical, numerical, experimental, friction factor, correlationProcedia PDF Downloads 308
4368 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies
Authors: Chinsuk Hong
Abstract:This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.
Keywords: wall pressure fluctuation, boundary layer flow, transition, turbulent flow, axisymmetric body, flow noiseProcedia PDF Downloads 284
4367 Heat Transfer Studies on CNT Nanofluids in a Turbulent Flow Heat Exchanger
Authors: W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, O. Seiksan, R. Saidur, A. F. Ismail
Abstract:Nanofluids have received much more attention since its discovery. They are believed to be promising coolants in heat transfer applications due to their enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer characteristics. In this study, the enhancement in heat transfer of CNT-nanofluids under turbulent flow conditions is investigated experimentally. Carbon nanotube (CNTs) concentration was varied between 0.051-0.085 wt%. The nanofluid suspension was stabilized by gum arabic (GA) through a process of homogenisation and sonication. The flow rates of cold fluid (water) is varied from 1.7-3 L/min and flow rates of the hot fluid is varied between 2-3.5 L/min. Thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of the nanofluids were also measured as a function of temperature and CNT concentration. The experimental results are validated with theoretical correlations for turbulent flow available in the literature. Results showed an enhancement in heat transfer range between 9-67% as a function of temperature and CNT concentration.
Keywords: nanofluids, carbon nanotubes (CNT), heat transfer enhancement, heat transferProcedia PDF Downloads 432
4366 Turbulence Measurement Over Rough and Smooth Bed in Open Channel Flow
Authors: Kirti Singh, Kesheo Prasad
Abstract:A 3D Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used in the current investigation to quantify the mean and turbulence characteristics in non-uniform open-channel flows. Results are obtained from studies done in the laboratory, analysing the behavior of sand particles under turbulent open channel flow conditions flowing through rough, porous beds. Data obtained from ADV is used to calculate turbulent flow characteristics, Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy. Theoretical formulations for the distribution of Reynolds stress and the vertical velocity have been constructed using the Reynolds equation and the continuity equation of 2D open-channel flow. The measured Reynolds stress profile and the vertical velocity are comparable with the derived expressions. This study uses the Navier-Stokes equations for analysing the behavior of the vertical velocity profile in the dominant region of full-fledged turbulent flows in open channels, and it gives a new origination of the profile. For both wide and narrow open channels, this origination can estimate the time-averaged primary velocity in the turbulent boundary layer's outer region.
Keywords: turbulence, bed roughness, logarithmic law, shear stress correlations, ADV, Reynolds shear stressProcedia PDF Downloads 26
4365 The Effect of Bottom Shape and Baffle Length on the Flow Field in Stirred Tanks in Turbulent and Transitional Flow
Authors: Jie Dong, Binjie Hu, Andrzej W Pacek, Xiaogang Yang, Nicholas J. Miles
Abstract:The effect of the shape of the vessel bottom and the length of baffles on the velocity distributions in a turbulent and in a transitional flow has been simulated. The turbulent flow was simulated using standard k-ε model and simulation was verified using LES whereas transitional flow was simulated using only LES. It has been found that both the shape of tank bottom and the baffles’ length has significant effect on the flow pattern and velocity distribution below the impeller. In the dished bottom tank with baffles reaching the edge of the dish, the large rotating volume of liquid was formed below the impeller. Liquid in this rotating region was not fully mixing. A dead zone was formed here. The size and the intensity of circulation within this zone calculated by k-ε model and LES were practically identical what reinforces the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Both types of simulations also show that employing full-length baffles can reduce the size of dead zone formed below the impeller. The LES was also used to simulate the velocity distribution below the impeller in transitional flow and it has been found that secondary circulation loops were formed near the tank bottom in all investigated geometries. However, in this case the length of baffles has smaller effect on the volume of rotating liquid than in the turbulent flow.
Keywords: baffles length, dished bottom, dead zone, flow fieldProcedia PDF Downloads 239
4364 CFD Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in a Free Surface Flow
Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec
Abstract:In this work, we determine the turbulent dynamic structure of pollutant dispersion in two-phase free surface flow. The numerical simulation was performed using ANSYS Fluent. The flow study is three-dimensional, unsteady and isothermal. The study area has been endowed with a rectangular obstacle to analyze its influence on the hydrodynamic variables and progression of the pollutant. The numerical results show that the hydrodynamic model provides prediction of the dispersion of a pollutant in an open channel flow and reproduces the recirculation and trapping the pollutant downstream near the obstacle.
Keywords: CFD, free surface, polluant dispersion, turbulent flowsProcedia PDF Downloads 471
4363 Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations
Authors: K. Noah, F.-S. Lien
Abstract:In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.
Keywords: compressible lattice Boltzmann method, multiple relaxation times, large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flowsProcedia PDF Downloads 168
4362 Oxygenation in Turbulent Flows over Block Ramps
Authors: Thendiyath Roshni, Stefano Pagliara
Abstract:Block ramps (BR) or rock chutes are eco-friendly natural river restoration structures. BR are made of ramp of rocks and flows over BR develop turbulence and helps in the entrainment of ambient air. These act as natural aerators in river flow and therefore leads to oxygenation of water. As many of the hydraulic structures in rivers, hinders the natural path for aquatic habitat. However, flows over BR ascertains a natural rocky flow and ensures safe and natural movement for aquatic habitat. Hence, BR is considered as a better alternative for drop structures. As water quality is concerned, turbulent and aerated flows over BR or macro-roughness conditions improves aeration and thereby oxygenation. Hence, the objective of this paper is to study the oxygenation in the turbulent flows over BR. Experimental data were taken for a slope (S) of 27.5% for three discharges (Q = 9, 15 and 21 lps) conditions. Air concentration were measured with the help of air concentration probe for three different discharges in the uniform flow region. Oxygen concentration is deduced from the air concentration as ambient air is entrained in the flows over BR. Air concentration profiles and oxygen profiles are plotted in the uniform flow region for three discharges and found that air concentration and oxygen concentration does not show any remarkable variation in properties in the longitudinal profile in uniform flow region. An empirical relation is developed for finding the average oxygen concentration (Oₘ) for S = 27.5% in the uniform flow region for 9 < Q < 21 lps. The results show that as the discharge increases over BR, there is a reduction of oxygen concentration in the uniform flow region.
Keywords: aeration, block ramps, oxygenation, turbulent flowsProcedia PDF Downloads 104
4361 Non-Linear Velocity Fields in Turbulent Wave Boundary Layer
Authors: Shamsul Chowdhury
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to present the detailed analysis of the turbulent wave boundary layer produced by progressive finite-amplitude waves theory. Most of the works have done for the mass transport in the turbulent boundary layer assuming the eddy viscosity is not time varying, where the sediment movement is induced by the mean velocity. Near the ocean bottom, the waves produce a thin turbulent boundary layer, where the flow is highly rotational, and shear stress associated with the fluid motion cannot be neglected. The magnitude and the predominant direction of the sediment transport near the bottom are known to be closely related to the flow in the wave induced boundary layer. The magnitude of water particle velocity at the Crest phase differs from the one of the Trough phases due to the non-linearity of the waves, which plays an important role to determine the sediment movement. The non-linearity of the waves become predominant in the surf zone area, where the sediment movement occurs vigorously. Therefore, in order to describe the flow near the bottom and relationship between the flow and the movement of the sediment, the analysis was done using the non-linear boundary layer equation and the finite amplitude wave theory was applied to represent the velocity fields in the turbulent wave boundary layer. At first, the calculation was done for turbulent wave boundary layer by two-dimensional model where throughout the calculation is non-linear. But Stokes second order wave profile is adopted at the upper boundary. The calculated profile was compared with the experimental data. Finally, the calculation is done based on various modes of the velocity and turbulent energy. The mean velocity is found to differ from condition of the relative depth and the roughness. It is also found that due to non-linearity, the absolute value for velocity and turbulent energy as well as Reynolds stress are asymmetric. The mean velocity of the laminar boundary layer is always positive but in the turbulent boundary layer plays a very complicated role.
Keywords: wave boundary, mass transport, mean velocity, shear stressProcedia PDF Downloads 201
4360 Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow around Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement
Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani, M. Ebrahimisabet
Abstract:In this paper, the 2-D unsteady viscous flow around two cam shaped cylinders in tandem arrangement is numerically simulated in order to study the characteristics of the flow in turbulent regimes. The investigation covers the effects of high subcritical and supercritical Reynolds numbers and L/D ratio on total drag coefficient. The equivalent diameter of cylinders is 27.6 mm The space between center to center of two cam shaped cylinders is define as longitudinal pitch ratio and it varies in range of 1.5 < L/D < 6. Reynolds number base on equivalent circular cylinder varies in range of 27×103 < Re < 166×103 Results show that drag coefficient of both cylinders depends on pitch ratio. However drag coefficient of downstream cylinder is more dependent on the pitch ratio.
Keywords: cam shaped, tandem, numerical, drag coefficient, turbulentProcedia PDF Downloads 409
4359 Energy Conservation in Heat Exchangers
Authors: Nadia Allouache
Abstract:Energy conservation is one of the major concerns in the modern high tech era due to the limited amount of energy resources and the increasing cost of energy. Predicting an efficient use of energy in thermal systems like heat exchangers can only be achieved if the second law of thermodynamics is accounted for. The performance of heat exchangers can be substantially improved by many passive heat transfer augmentation techniques. These letters permit to improve heat transfer rate and to increase exchange surface, but on the other side, they also increase the friction factor associated with the flow. This raises the question of how to employ these passive techniques in order to minimize the useful energy. The objective of this present study is to use a porous substrate attached to the walls as a passive enhancement technique in heat exchangers and to find the compromise between the hydrodynamic and thermal performances under turbulent flow conditions, by using a second law approach. A modified k- ε model is used to simulating the turbulent flow in the porous medium and the turbulent shear flow is accounted for in the entropy generation equation. A numerical modeling, based on the finite volume method is employed for discretizing the governing equations. Effects of several parameters are investigated such as the porous substrate properties and the flow conditions. Results show that under certain conditions of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and its effective thermal conductivity the minimum rate of entropy production is obtained.
Keywords: second law approach, annular heat exchanger, turbulent flow, porous medium, modified model, numerical analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 200
4358 Numerical Analysis of the Turbulent Flow around DTMB 4119 Marine Propeller
Authors: K. Boumediene, S. E. Belhenniche
Abstract:This article presents a numerical analysis of a turbulent flow past DTMB 4119 marine propeller by the means of RANS approach; the propeller designed at David Taylor Model Basin in USA. The purpose of this study is to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the marine propeller, it aims also to compare the results obtained with the experiment carried out in open water tests; a periodical computational domain was created to reduce the unstructured mesh size generated. The standard kw turbulence model for the simulation is selected; the results were in a good agreement. Therefore, the errors were estimated respectively to 1.3% and 5.9% for KT and KQ.
Keywords: propeller flow, CFD simulation, RANS, hydrodynamic performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 396
4357 Turbulent Channel Flow Synthesis using Generative Adversarial Networks
Authors: John M. Lyne, K. Andrea Scott
Abstract:In fluid dynamics, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows require large amounts of nodes to appropriately resolve all scales of energy transfer. Due to the size of these databases, sharing these datasets amongst the academic community is a challenge. Recent work has been done to investigate the use of super-resolution to enable database sharing, where a low-resolution flow field is super-resolved to high resolutions using a neural network. Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have grown in popularity with impressive results in the generation of faces, landscapes, and more. This work investigates the generation of unique high-resolution channel flow velocity fields from a low-dimensional latent space using a GAN. The training objective of the GAN is to generate samples in which the distribution of the generated samplesis ideally indistinguishable from the distribution of the training data. In this study, the network is trained using samples drawn from a statistically stationary channel flow at a Reynolds number of 560. Results show that the turbulent statistics and energy spectra of the generated flow fields are within reasonable agreement with those of the DNS data, demonstrating that GANscan produce the intricate multi-scale phenomena of turbulence.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, channel flow, turbulence, generative adversarial networkProcedia PDF Downloads 123
4356 Modeling of the Heat and Mass Transfer in Fluids through Thermal Pollution in Pipelines
Authors: V. Radulescu, S. Dumitru
Abstract:Introduction: Determination of the temperature field inside a fluid in motion has many practical issues, especially in the case of turbulent flow. The phenomenon is greater when the solid walls have a different temperature than the fluid. The turbulent heat and mass transfer have an essential role in case of the thermal pollution, as it was the recorded during the damage of the Thermoelectric Power-plant Oradea (closed even today). Basic Methods: Solving the theoretical turbulent thermal pollution represents a particularly difficult problem. By using the semi-empirical theories or by simplifying the made assumptions, based on the experimental measurements may be assured the elaboration of the mathematical model for further numerical simulations. The three zones of flow are analyzed separately: the vicinity of the solid wall, the turbulent transition zone, and the turbulent core. For each area are determined the distribution law of temperature. It is determined the dependence of between the Stanton and Prandtl numbers with correction factors, based on measurements experimental. Major Findings/Results: The limitation of the laminar thermal substrate was determined based on the theory of Landau and Levice, using the assumption that the longitudinal component of the velocity pulsation and the pulsation’s frequency varies proportionally with the distance to the wall. For the calculation of the average temperature, the formula is used a similar solution as for the velocity, by an analogous mediation. On these assumptions, the numerical modeling was performed with a gradient of temperature for the turbulent flow in pipes (intact or damaged, with cracks) having 4 different diameters, between 200-500 mm, as there were in the Thermoelectric Power-plant Oradea. Conclusions: It was made a superposition between the molecular viscosity and the turbulent one, followed by addition between the molecular and the turbulent transfer coefficients, necessary to elaborate the theoretical and the numerical modeling. The concept of laminar boundary layer has a different thickness when it is compared the flow with heat transfer and that one without a temperature gradient. The obtained results are within the margin of error of 5%, between the semi-empirical classical theories and the developed model, based on the experimental data. Finally, it is obtained a general correlation between the Stanton number and the Prandtl number, for a specific flow (with associated Reynolds number).
Keywords: experimental measurements, numerical correlations, thermal pollution through pipelines, turbulent thermal flowProcedia PDF Downloads 100
4355 Data-Driven Analysis of Velocity Gradient Dynamics Using Neural Network
Authors: Nishant Parashar, Sawan S. Sinha, Balaji Srinivasan
Abstract:We perform an investigation of the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) in compressible decaying turbulent flow. Velocity gradients in a compressible turbulent flow field influence several important nonlinear turbulent processes like cascading and intermittency. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of the velocity gradients various researchers have tried to model the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the VGT. The existing models proposed for these unclosed terms have limited applicability. This is mainly attributable to the complex structure of the higher order gradient terms appearing in the evolution equation of VGT. We investigate these higher order gradients using the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible decaying isotropic turbulent flow. The gas kinetic method aided with weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO) based flow- reconstruction is employed to generate DNS data. By applying neural-network to the DNS data, we map the structure of the unclosed higher order gradient terms in the evolution of the equation of the VGT with VGT itself. We validate our findings by performing alignment based study of the unclosed higher order gradient terms obtained using the neural network with the strain rate eigenvectors.
Keywords: compressible turbulence, neural network, velocity gradient tensor, direct numerical simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 94
4354 Virtual Modelling of Turbulent Fibre Flow in a Low Consistency Refiner for a Sustainable and Energy Efficient Process
Authors: Simon Ingelsten, Anton Lundberg, Vijay Shankar, Lars-Olof Landström, Örjan Johansson
Abstract:The flow in a low consistency disc refiner is simulated with the aim of identifying flow structures possibly being of importance for a future study to optimise the energy efficiency in refining processes. A simplified flow geometry is used, where a single groove of a refiner disc is modelled. Two different fibre models are used to simulate turbulent fibre suspension flow in the groove. The first model is a Bingham viscoplastic fluid model where the fibre suspension is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The second model is a new model proposed in a recent study where the suspended fibres effect on flow is accounted for through a modelled orientation distribution function (ODF). Both models yielded similar results with small differences. Certain flow characteristics that were expected and that was found in the literature were identified. Some of these flow characteristics may be of importance in a future process to optimise the refiner geometry to increase the energy efficiency. Further study and a more detailed flow model is; however, needed in order for the simulations to yield results valid for quantitative use in such an optimisation study. An outline of the next steps in such a study is proposed.
Keywords: disc refiner, fibre flow, sustainability, turbulence modellingProcedia PDF Downloads 342
4353 Analyzing the Effect of Design of Pipe in Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger by Measuring Its Heat Transfer Rate by Computation Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Approach
Authors: Dhawal Ladani
Abstract:Shell and tube type heat exchangers are predominantly used in heat exchange between two fluids and other applications. This paper projects the optimal design of the pipe used in the heat exchanger in such a way to minimize the vibration occurring in the pipe. Paper also consists of the comparison of the different design of the pipe to get the maximize the heat transfer rate by converting laminar flow into the turbulent flow. By the updated design the vibration in the pipe due to the flow is also decreased. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Heat Transfer analysis are done to justifying the result. Currently, the straight pipe is used in the shell and tube type of heat exchanger where as per the paper the pipe consists of the curvature along with the pipe. Hence, the heat transfer area is also increased and result in the increasing in heat transfer rate. Curvature type design is useful to create turbulence and minimizing the vibration, also. The result will give the output comparison of the effect of laminar flow and the turbulent flow in the heat exchange mechanism, as well as, inverse effect of the boundary layer in heat exchanger is also justified.
Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, laminar and turbulent effect, shell and tubeProcedia PDF Downloads 236
4352 Numerical Investigation of Incompressible Turbulent Flows by Method of Characteristics
Authors: Ali Atashbar Orang, Carlo Massimo Casciola
Abstract:A novel numerical approach for the steady incompressible turbulent flows is presented in this paper. The artificial compressibility method (ACM) is applied to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. A new Characteristic-Based Turbulent (CBT) scheme is developed for the convective fluxes. The well-known Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model is employed to check the effectiveness of this new scheme. Comparing the proposed scheme with previous studies, it is found that the present CBT scheme demonstrates accurate results, high stability and faster convergence. In addition, the local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing are applied as the convergence acceleration techniques. The turbulent flows past a backward facing step, circular cylinder, and NACA0012 hydrofoil are studied as benchmarks. Results compare favorably with those of other available schemes.
Keywords: incompressible turbulent flow, method of characteristics, finite volume, Spalart–Allmaras turbulence modelProcedia PDF Downloads 343
4351 Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow
Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar
Abstract:The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.
Keywords: bed roughness, ejection and sweep, open channel flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulent boundary layer, velocity triple productProcedia PDF Downloads 203
4350 Computational Study of Passive Scalar Diffusion of a Counterflowing round Jet
Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Georges Le Palec
Abstract:Round jets have been widely studied due to their important application in industry. Many configurations of round jet were encountered in literature as free jet, co-flow jet, couterflowing jet and cross flow jet. In this paper, we are concerned with turbulent round jet in uniform counterflow stream which is known to enhance mixing and dispersion efficiency owing to flow reversal. This type of flow configuration is a typical application in environmental engineering such as the disposal of wastewater into seas or rivers. A computational study of a turbulent circular jet discharging into a uniform counterflow is conducted in order to investigate the characteristics of the diffusion field of the jet effluent. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of jet-to-current velocity ratios; low, medium and high velocity ratios. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is used in the comparison with available experimental measurements. The decay of the center line velocity and the dynamic proprieties of the flow together with the centerline dilution of the passive scalar and the other characteristics of the concentration field are computationally analyzed in this paper.
Keywords: Counterflow stream, jet, velocity, concentrationProcedia PDF Downloads 325
4349 Effect of Swirling Mixer on the Exhaust Flow in a Diesel SCR Aftertreatment System
Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim, In Jae Song
Abstract:The widespread utilization of mixer in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system marks a remarkable advantage in diesel engines. In the automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, the de-NOX efficiency can be improved by highly uniform flow with effective turbulent mixing. In this paper, the exhaust pipe is complemented with the swirling mixers of three different vane angles installed at the upstream of the SCR reactor. The attributes of the mixer are established by the variation in flow behavior followed by the drawback owing to the absence of mixer. In particular, the information pertaining to the selection of proper static mixer is provided based on the correlation between the uniformity index (UI) and the pressure drop. The uniform distribution of the flow at the entrance of the SCR reactor aids to determine the configuration which gives high mixing performance and comprehend the function of the mixer.
Keywords: pressure drop, selective catalytic reduction, static mixer, turbulent mixing, uniformity indexProcedia PDF Downloads 595
4348 A Rotating Facility with High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry System to Investigate the Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow
Authors: Ruquan You, Haiwang Li, Zhi Tao
Abstract:A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the boundary layer flow with the effect of rotating Coriolis and buoyancy force. This time-resolved PIV system consists of a 10 Watts continuous laser diode and a high-speed camera. The laser diode is able to provide a less than 1mm thickness sheet light, and the high-speed camera can capture the 6400 frames per second with 1024×1024 pixels. The whole laser and the camera are fixed on the rotating facility with 1 radius meters and up to 500 revolutions per minute, which can measure the boundary flow velocity in the rotating channel with and without ribs directly at rotating conditions. To investigate the effect of buoyancy force, transparent heater glasses are used to provide the constant thermal heat flux, and then the density differences are generated near the channel wall, and the buoyancy force can be simulated when the channel is rotating. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution of the system, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) can be developed to analyze the characteristic of the turbulent boundary layer flow at rotating conditions. With this rotating facility and PIV system, the velocity profile, Reynolds shear stress, spatial and temporal correlation, and the POD modes of the turbulent boundary layer flow can be discussed.
Keywords: rotating facility, PIV, boundary layer flow, spatial and temporal resolutionProcedia PDF Downloads 111
4347 Dynamic and Thermal Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Offset Jet
Authors: Ali Assoudi, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Philippe Bournot, Georges Le Palec
Abstract:Studying the flow characteristics of a turbulent offset jet is an important topic among researchers across the world because of its various engineering applications. Some of the common examples include: injection and carburetor systems, entrainment and mixing process in gas turbine and boiler combustion chambers, Thrust-augmenting ejectors for V/STOL aircrafts and HVAC systems, environmental dischargers, film cooling and many others. An offset jet is formed when a jet discharges into a medium above a horizontal solid wall parallel to the axis of the jet exit but which is offset by a certain distance. The structure of a turbulent offset-jet can be described by three main regions. Close to the nozzle exit, an offset jet possesses characteristic features similar to those of free jets. Then, the entrainment of fluid between the jet, the offset wall and the bottom wall creates a low pressure zone, forcing the jet to deflect towards the wall and eventually attaches to it at the impingement point. This is referred to as the Coanda effect. Further downstream after the reattachment point, the offset jet has the characteristics of a wall jet flow. Therefore, the offset jet has characteristics of free, impingement and wall jets, and it is relatively more complex compared to these types of flows. The present study examines the dynamic and thermal evolution of a 3D turbulent offset jet with different offset height ratio (the ratio of the distance from the jet exit to the impingement bottom wall and the jet nozzle diameter). To achieve this purpose a numerical study was conducted to investigate a three-dimensional offset jet flow through the resolution of the different governing Navier–Stokes’ equations by means of the finite volume method and the RSM second-order turbulent closure model. A detailed discussion has been provided on the flow and thermal characteristics in the form of streamlines, mean velocity vector, pressure field and Reynolds stresses.
Keywords: offset jet, offset ratio, numerical simulation, RSMProcedia PDF Downloads 244
4346 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows
Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar
Abstract:We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.
Keywords: direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 104