Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: mechanic

37 Evaluation of Subsurface Drilling and Geo Mechanic Properties Based on Stratum Index Factor for Humanities Environment

Authors: Abdull Halim Abdul, Muhaimin Sulam


This paper is about a subsurface study of Taman Pudu Ulu, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur with emphasize of Geo mechanic properties based on stratum index factor in humanities environment. Subsurface drilling and seismic data were used to understand the subsurface condition of the study area such as the type and thickness of the strata. Borehole and soil samples were recovered Geo mechanic properties of the area by conducting number of experiments. Taman Pudu Ulu overlies the Kuala Lumpur Limestone formation that is known for its karstic features such as caves and cavities. Hence by knowing the Geo mechanic properties such as the normal strain and shear strain we can plan a safer and economics construction that is plan at the area in the future.

Keywords: stratum, index factor, geo mechanic properties, humanities environment

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36 Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis

Authors: David D. Adams, Ibrahim B. Bello


Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.

Keywords: spent engine oil, pollution, bacteria, enzyme, bioremediation, mechanic workshop

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35 Gradations in Concentration of Heavy and Mineral Elements with Distance and Depth of Soil in the Vicinity of Auto Mechanic Workshops in Sabon Gari, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, H. Otanwa, O. F. Paul, A. J. Salifu, J. E. Toryila, C. E. Gimba


The concentration levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and two mineral elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of two auto mechanic workshops in Sabon-Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), in order to compare the gradation of their concentrations with distance and depth of soil from the workshop sites. At site 1, concentrations of lead, chromium, iron, and zinc were generally found to be above the World Health Organization limits, while those of Nickel and Cadmium fell within the limits. Iron had the highest concentration with a range of 176.274 ppm to 489.127 ppm at depths of 5 cm to 15 cm and a distance range of 5 m to 15 m, while the concentration of cadmium was least with a range of 0.001 ppm to 0.008 ppm at similar depth and distance ranges. In addition, there was more of calcium (11.521 ppm to 121.709 ppm), in all the samples, than magnesium (11.293 ppm to 21.635 ppm). Similar results were obtained for site II. The concentrations of all the metals analyzed showed a downward gradient with an increase in depth and distance from both workshop sites except for iron and zinc at site 2. The immediate and remote implications of these findings on the biota are discussed.

Keywords: AAS, heavy metals, mechanic workshops, soil, variation

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34 Bioremediation Potentials of Some Indigenous Microorganisms Isolated from Auto Mechanic Workshops on Irrigation Water Used in Lokoja Kogi State of Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Ekpa, Adaji Andrew, Queen Opaluwa, Isreal Daraobong


Three (3) indigenous bacteria species (Bacillus spp, Acinectobacter spp and Moraxella spp) previously isolated from contaminated soil of some auto mechanic workshops were used for bioremediation studies on some irrigation water used at Sarkin-noma Fadama farms located in Lokoja Kogi State, Nigeria. This was done in order to investigate their bioremediation potentials using a simple pour plate method. The physicochemical parameters and heavy metal analysis (using AAS iCE 3000) of the irrigation water were performed before and after inoculation of the isolated organisms. Nitrate and phosphate concentration were found to be 10.56mg/L and 12.63mg/L prior to inoculation while iron and zinc were 0.9569mg/L and 0.2245mg/L respectively. Other physicochemical parameters were also observed to be high prior to inoculation. After the bioremediation test (inoculation with the isolated organisms), a nitrate and phosphate content of 2.53mg/L and 2.61mg/L were recorded respectively, iron and zinc gave 0.1694mg/L and 0.0174mg/L concentrations while other physicochemical parameters measured were also found to be lower in their respective values. The implication of this present study is that a number of carefully isolated indigenous bacteria species are capable of reducing the amount of heavy metal concentrations in water. Also, non-metallic contaminants like nitrate and phosphate are susceptible to bioremediation in the presence of such efficient system.

Keywords: bioremediation, heavy metals, physicochemical parameters, Bacillus spp, Acinectobacter spp and Moraxella spp, AAS, spectrometer 3000

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
33 Optimization of the Numerical Fracture Mechanics

Authors: H. Hentati, R. Abdelmoula, Li Jia, A. Maalej


In this work, we present numerical simulations of the quasi-static crack propagation based on the variation approach. We perform numerical simulations of a piece of brittle material without initial crack. An alternate minimization algorithm is used. Based on these numerical results, we determine the influence of numerical parameters on the location of crack. We show the importance of trying to optimize the time of numerical computation and we present the first attempt to develop a simple numerical method to optimize this time.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, optimization, variation approach, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
32 RANS Simulation of the LNG Ship Squat in Shallow Water

Authors: Mehdi Nakisa, Adi Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, Fatemeh Behrouzi


Squat is the reduction in under-keel clearance between a vessel at-rest and underway due to the increased flow of water past the moving body. The forward motion of the ship induces a relative velocity between the ship and the surrounding water that causes a water level depression in which the ship sinks. The problem of ship squat is one among the crucial factors affecting the navigation of ships in restricted waters. This article investigates the LNG ship squat, its effects on flow streamlines around the ship hull and ship behavior and motion using computational fluid dynamics which is applied by Ansys-Fluent.

Keywords: ship squat, CFD, confined, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
31 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili


The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
30 A Review on Geomembrane Characteristics and Application in Geotechnical Engineering

Authors: Sandra Ghavam Shirazi, Komeil Valipourian, Mohammad Reza Golhashem


This paper represents the basic idea and mechanisms associated with the durability of geomembranes and discusses the factors influencing the service life and temperature of geomembrane liners. Geomembrane durability is stated as field performance and laboratory test outcomes under various conditions. Due to the high demand of geomembranes as landfill barriers and their crucial role in sensitive projects, sufficient service life of geomembranes is very important, therefore in this paper, the durability, the effect of temperature on geomembrane and the role of this type of reinforcement in different types of soil will be discussed. Also, the role of geomembrane in the earthquake will be considered in the last part of the paper.

Keywords: geomembrane, durability temperature soil mechanic, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
29 Optimization of Cutting Parameters during Machining of Fine Grained Cemented Carbides

Authors: Josef Brychta, Jiri Kratochvil, Marek Pagac


The group of progressive cutting materials can include non-traditional, emerging and less-used materials that can be an efficient use of cutting their lead to a quantum leap in the field of machining. This is essentially a “superhard” materials (STM) based on polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting performance ceramics and development is constantly "perfecting" fine coated cemented carbides. The latter cutting materials are broken down by two parameters, toughness and hardness. A variation of alloying elements is always possible to improve only one of each parameter. Reducing the size of the core on the other hand doing achieves "contradictory" properties, namely to increase both hardness and toughness.

Keywords: grained cutting materials difficult to machine materials, optimum utilization, mechanic, manufacturing

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28 Smart Speed Bump

Authors: Mohammad Rahmani Rezaiyeh, Mojtaba Rahmani Rezaiyeh, Mehrdad Rahmani Rezaiyeh


Smart speed bump is a new invention and I am invented it. Smart speed bump is a system that can change the position of speed bumps either active or passive in necessary situations. The basic system of smart speed bumps is based on a robotic system which includes mechanic, electronic and artificial intelligence. The smart speed bump is capable of smart decision making and can change its position by anticipating the peak of terrific hours. It can be noted to the advantages of this system such as preventing the waste of petrol while crossing speed bumps, traffic management, accelerating, flowing and securing traffic, reducing accidents and judicial records.

Keywords: invention, smart, robotic system, speed bump, traffic, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
27 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee


Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
26 Blast Resistance Enhancement of Structures Subjected to Improvised Explosive Devices Attack: A Numerical Study

Authors: Michael I. Okereke, Ambrose I. Akpoyomare


This paper presents a numerical study of the impact mechanic of metallic and sandwich structures incorporate with blast resistance enhancements. The study focuses on structures that have been exposed to improvised explosives devices (IEDs) attacks. The results show numerical conclusions on mechanisms to ensure blast resistance enhancement for the applications studied in this work. The work has identified optimal panel configuration both in geometry and configurations to ensure optimal blast resistance response to such IEDs discharges. Findings from this work will drive improvements in especially military and civilian vehicles in countries where blast attacks on vehicular occupants are quite rampant like Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Keywords: blast resistance, blast enhancement, explosives, material behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
25 Effect of Cr2O3 on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Produced Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Yasin Akgul, Fazil Husem, Memis Isik


In this study, effect of content of chromium (III) oxide on production of Al/Cr203 alloys were investigated. Experimental procedure was started with mixturing of powders in the presence of absolute ethanol, vacuum distillation technique was used for evaporation, by ultrasonic bath and mechanic stirrer. Pressing procedure was achieved by hydrolic press that has 100 tons forcing for production of 25 mm diameter compact green billets. Green bodies were sintered at 600 °C in argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis for characterization of microstructure, compression test for determination of strength and Vickers test for measuring of hardness of sintered billets were done. End of the study is concluded that, enhancement of physical and mechanical properties is observed by increasing content of chromium (III) oxide.

Keywords: aluminium, chromium (III) oxide, powder metallurgy, sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
24 Review of Various Designs and Development in Hydropower Turbines

Authors: Fatemeh Behrouzi, Adi Maimun, Mehdi Nakisa


The growth of population, rising fossil fuel prices which the fossil fuels are limited and decreased day by day, pollution problem due to use of fossil fuels and electrical demand are important role to encourage of using the green energy and renewable technologies. Among different renewable energy technologies, hydro power generation (large and small scale) is the prime choice in terms of contribution to the world's electricity generation by using water current turbines. Nowadays, researchers focus on design and development of different kind of turbines to capture hydro-power electricity generation as clean and reliable energy. This article is review about statues of water current turbines carried out to generate electricity from hydro-kinetic energy especially places that they do not have electricity, but they have access to the current water.

Keywords: water current turbine, renewable energy, hydro-power, mechanic

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23 Investigating the Dose Effect of Electroacupuncture on Mice Inflammatory Pain Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Shen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin


Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported effective for many kinds of pain and is a common treatment for acute or chronic pain. However, to date, there are limited studies examining the effect of acupuncture dosage. In our experiment, after injecting mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain, two groups of mice were administered two different 15 min EA treatments at 2Hz. The first group received EA at a single acupuncture point (ST36, Zusanli) in both legs (two points), whereas the second group received two acupuncture points in both legs (four points) and the analgesic effect was compared. It was found that double points (ST36, Zusanli and SP6, Sanyinjiao) were significantly superior to single points (ST36, Zusanli) when evaluated using the electronic von Frey Test (mechanic) and Hargreaves’ Test (thermal). Through this study, it is expected more novel physiological mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia will be discovered.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, dose effect, electroacupuncture, pain control

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
22 Application of Double Side Approach Method on Super Elliptical Winkler Plate

Authors: Hsiang-Wen Tang, Cheng-Ying Lo


In this study, the static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate is analyzed by applying the double side approach method. The lack of information about super elliptical Winkler plates is the motivation of this study and we use the double side approach method to solve this problem because of its superior ability on efficiently treating problems with complex boundary shape. The double side approach method has the advantages of high accuracy, easy calculation procedure and less calculation load required. Most important of all, it can give the error bound of the approximate solution. The numerical results not only show that the double side approach method works well on this problem but also provide us the knowledge of static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate in practical use.

Keywords: super elliptical winkler plate, double side approach method, error bound, mechanic

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21 A Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) Experiment on Simplified Bottom Hole Flow Field

Authors: Heqian Zhao, Huaizhong Shi, Zhongwei Huang, Zhengliang Chen, Ziang Gu, Fei Gao


Hydraulics mechanics is significantly important in the drilling process of oil or gas exploration, especially for the drill bit. The fluid flows through the nozzles on the bit and generates a water jet to remove the cutting at the bottom hole. In this paper, a simplified bottom hole model is established. The Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) is used to capture the flow field of the single nozzle. Due to the limitation of the bottom and wellbore, the potential core is shorter than that of the free water jet. The velocity magnitude rapidly attenuates when fluid close to the bottom is lower than about 5 mm. Besides, a vortex zone appears near the middle of the bottom beside the water jet zone. A modified exponential function can be used to fit the centerline velocity well. On the one hand, the results of this paper can provide verification for the numerical simulation of the bottom hole flow field. On the other hand, it also can provide an experimental basis for the hydraulic design of the drill bit.

Keywords: oil and gas, hydraulic mechanic of drilling, PIV, bottom hole

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20 Remote Electroacupuncture Analgesia at Contralateral LI4 Acupoint in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Hindpaw Pain

Authors: Tong-Chien Wu, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin


There are accumulating evidences surrounding the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA). Local EA can reliably attenuate inflammatory pain in mouse with unclear mechanisms. However, the effect of EA on distal and contralateral acupoint for pain control has been rarely studied and the result was controversial. Here in our study, we found that inflammatory hindpaw pain in mouth, which was induced by injecting the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) 2 days ago can be alleviated immediately after 2Hz 15mins EA treatment at contralateral forefoot acupoint LI4 through both mechanic and thermal behavior test, while sham acupoint group is not. The efficacy was observed to be more obvious after the second round of EA treatment on the following day. This analgesic effect is produced by applying EA to a site remote from the painful area. The present study provides a powerful experimental animal model that can be used for investigating the unique physiological mechanisms involved in acupuncture analgesia.

Keywords: remote electroacupuncture, distal EA, pain control, anti-inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
19 Integration GIS–SCADA Power Systems to Enclosure Air Dispersion Model

Authors: Ibrahim Shaker, Amr El Hossany, Moustafa Osman, Mohamed El Raey


This paper will explore integration model between GIS–SCADA system and enclosure quantification model to approach the impact of failure-safe event. There are real demands to identify spatial objects and improve control system performance. Nevertheless, the employed methodology is predicting electro-mechanic operations and corresponding time to environmental incident variations. Open processing, as object systems technology, is presented for integration enclosure database with minimal memory size and computation time via connectivity drivers such as ODBC:JDBC during main stages of GIS–SCADA connection. The function of Geographic Information System is manipulating power distribution in contrast to developing issues. In other ward, GIS-SCADA systems integration will require numerical objects of process to enable system model calibration and estimation demands, determine of past events for analysis and prediction of emergency situations for response training.

Keywords: air dispersion model, environmental management, SCADA systems, GIS system, integration power system

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18 Multisymplectic Geometry and Noether Symmetries for the Field Theories and the Relativistic Mechanics

Authors: H. Loumi-Fergane, A. Belaidi


The problem of symmetries in field theory has been analyzed using geometric frameworks, such as the multisymplectic models by using in particular the multivector field formalism. In this paper, we expand the vector fields associated to infinitesimal symmetries which give rise to invariant quantities as Noether currents for classical field theories and relativistic mechanic using the multisymplectic geometry where the Poincaré-Cartan form has thus been greatly simplified using the Second Order Partial Differential Equation (SOPDE) for multi-vector fields verifying Euler equations. These symmetries have been classified naturally according to the construction of the fiber bundle used.  In this work, unlike other works using the analytical method, our geometric model has allowed us firstly to distinguish the angular moments of the gauge field obtained during different transformations while these moments are gathered in a single expression and are obtained during a rotation in the Minkowsky space. Secondly, no conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian of the mechanics with respect to its dependence in time and in qi, the currents obtained naturally from the transformations are respectively the energy and the momentum of the system.

Keywords: conservation laws, field theories, multisymplectic geometry, relativistic mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
17 Examining the Modular End of Line Control Unit Design Criteria for Vehicle Sliding Door System Slide Profile

Authors: Orhan Kurtuluş, Cüneyt Yavuz


The end of the line controls of the finished products in the automotive industry is important. The control that has been conducted with the manual methods for the sliding doors tracks is not sufficient and faulty products cannot be identified. As a result, the customer has the faulty products. In the scope of this study, the design criteria of the PLC integrated modular end of line control unit has been examined, designed and manufactured to make the control of the 10 different track profile to 2 different vehicles with an objective to minimize the salvage costs by obtaining more sensitive, certain and accurate measurement results. In the study that started with literature and patent review, the design inputs have been specified, the technical concept has been developed, computer supported mechanic design, control system and automation design, design review and design improvement have been made. Laser analog sensors at high sensitivity, probes and modular blocks have been used in the unit. The measurement has been conducted in the system and it is observed that measurement results are more sensitive than the previous methods.

Keywords: control unit design, end of line, modular design, sliding door system

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
16 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari


Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
15 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı


Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber

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14 A Study on Thermodynamic Prototype for Vernacular Dwellings in Perspective of Bioclimatic Architecture

Authors: Zhenzhen Zhang


As major human activity places, buildings consume a large amount of energy, and residential buildings are very important part of it. An extensive research work had been conducted to research how to achieve low energy goals, vernacular dwellings and contemporary technologies are two prime parameters among them. On one hand, some researchers concentrated on vernacular dwellings which were climate-response design and could offer a better living condition without mechanic application. On the other hand, a series concepts appeared based on modern technologies, surplus energy house, bioclimatic architecture, etc. especially thermodynamic architecture which integrates the micro-climate, human activity, thermal comfort, and energy efficiency into design. How to blend the two parameters is the key research topic now, which would act as the key to how to integrate the ancient design wise and contemporary new technologies. By several cases study, this paper will represent the evolution of thermodynamic architecture and then try to develop one methodology about how to produce a typical thermodynamic prototype for one area by blending the ancient building wise and contemporary concepts to achieve both low energy consumption and surplus energy.

Keywords: vernacular dwelling, thermodynamic architecture, bioclimatic architecture, thermodynamic prototype, surplus energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
13 Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. M. Malagon Escandon, J. A. Arenas Alatorre, C. P. Chaires Rosas, N. A. Vazquez Torres, B. Hernandez Tellez, G. Pinon Zarate, M. Herrera Enriquez, A. E. Castell Rodriguez


The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.

Keywords: bioactive, biodegradable, bone, extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds, stem cells, tissue engineering

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12 Adsorption of Heavy Metals Using Chemically-Modified Tea Leaves

Authors: Phillip Ahn, Bryan Kim


Copper is perhaps the most prevalent heavy metal used in the manufacturing industries, from food additives to metal-mechanic factories. Common methodologies to remove copper are expensive and produce undesired by-products. A good decontaminating candidate should be environment-friendly, inexpensive, and capable of eliminating low concentrations of the metal. This work suggests chemically modified spent tea leaves of chamomile, peppermint and green tea in their thiolated, sulfonated and carboxylated forms as candidates for the removal of copper from solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to maximize the adsorption of copper (II) ions. Effects such as acidity, salinity, adsorbent dose, metal concentration, and presence of surfactant were explored. Experimental data show that maximum adsorption is reached at neutral pH. The results indicate that Cu(II) can be removed up to 53%, 22% and 19% with the thiolated, carboxylated and sulfonated adsorbents, respectively. Maximum adsorption of copper on TPM (53%) is achieved with 150 mg and decreases with the presence of salts and surfactants. Conversely, sulfonated and carboxylated adsorbents show better adsorption in the presence of surfactants. Time-dependent experiments show that adsorption is reached in less than 25 min for TCM and 5 min for SCM. Instrumental analyses determined the presence of active functional groups, thermal resistance, and scanning electron microscopy, indicating that both adsorbents are promising materials for the selective recovery and treatment of metal ions from wastewaters. Finally, columns were prepared with these adsorbents to explore their application in scaled-up processes, with very positive results. A long-term goal involves the recycling of the exhausted adsorbent and/or their use in the preparation of biofuels due to changes in materials’ structures.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, adsorption, wastewaters, water remediation

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11 Modeling the Reliability of a Fuel Cell and the Influence of Mechanical Aspects on the Production of Electrical Energy

Authors: Raed Kouta


A fuel cell is a multi-physical system. Its electrical performance depends on chemical, electrochemical, fluid, and mechanical parameters. Many studies focus on physical and chemical aspects. Our study contributes to the evaluation of the influence of mechanical aspects on the performance of a fuel cell. This study is carried out as part of a reliability approach. Reliability modeling allows to consider the uncertainties of the incoming parameters and the probabilistic modeling of the outgoing parameters. The fuel cell studied is the one often used in land, sea, or air transport. This is the Low-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This battery can provide the required power level. One of the main scientific and technical challenges in mastering the design and production of a fuel cell is to know its behavior in its actual operating environment. The study proposes to highlight the influence on the production of electrical energy: Mechanical design and manufacturing parameters and their uncertainties (Young module, GDL porosity, permeability, etc.). The influence of the geometry of the bipolar plates is also considered. An experimental design is proposed with two types of materials as well as three geometric shapes for three joining pressures. Other experimental designs are also proposed for studying the influence of uncertainties of mechanical parameters on cell performance. - Mechanical (static, dynamic) and thermal (tightening - compression, vibrations (road rolling and tests on vibration-climatic bench, etc.) loads. This study is also carried out according to an experimental scheme on a fuel cell system for vibration loads recorded on a vehicle test track with three temperatures and three expected performance levels. The work will improve the coupling between mechanical, physical, and chemical phenomena.

Keywords: fuel cell, mechanic, reliability, uncertainties

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10 Extension and Closure of a Field for Engineering Purpose

Authors: Shouji Yujiro, Memei Dukovic, Mist Yakubu


Fields are important objects of study in algebra since they provide a useful generalization of many number systems, such as the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. In particular, the usual rules of associativity, commutativity and distributivity hold. Fields also appear in many other areas of mathematics; see the examples below. When abstract algebra was first being developed, the definition of a field usually did not include commutativity of multiplication, and what we today call a field would have been called either a commutative field or a rational domain. In contemporary usage, a field is always commutative. A structure which satisfies all the properties of a field except possibly for commutativity, is today called a division ring ordivision algebra or sometimes a skew field. Also non-commutative field is still widely used. In French, fields are called corps (literally, body), generally regardless of their commutativity. When necessary, a (commutative) field is called corps commutative and a skew field-corps gauche. The German word for body is Körper and this word is used to denote fields; hence the use of the blackboard bold to denote a field. The concept of fields was first (implicitly) used to prove that there is no general formula expressing in terms of radicals the roots of a polynomial with rational coefficients of degree 5 or higher. An extension of a field k is just a field K containing k as a subfield. One distinguishes between extensions having various qualities. For example, an extension K of a field k is called algebraic, if every element of K is a root of some polynomial with coefficients in k. Otherwise, the extension is called transcendental. The aim of Galois Theory is the study of algebraic extensions of a field. Given a field k, various kinds of closures of k may be introduced. For example, the algebraic closure, the separable closure, the cyclic closure et cetera. The idea is always the same: If P is a property of fields, then a P-closure of k is a field K containing k, having property, and which is minimal in the sense that no proper subfield of K that contains k has property P. For example if we take P (K) to be the property ‘every non-constant polynomial f in K[t] has a root in K’, then a P-closure of k is just an algebraic closure of k. In general, if P-closures exist for some property P and field k, they are all isomorphic. However, there is in general no preferable isomorphism between two closures.

Keywords: field theory, mechanic maths, supertech, rolltech

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9 Sociological Enquiry into Occupational Risks and Its Consequences among Informal Automobile Artisans in Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo Juliana Afolabi, Joke Haafkens, Paul De Beer


Globally, there is a growing concern on reducing workplace accidents in the informal sector. However, there is a dearth of study on the perception of the informal workers on occupational risks they are exposed to. The way a worker perceives the workplace risk will influence his/her risk tolerance and risk behavior. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to have an in-depth understanding of the way the artisans perceive the risks at their workplace and how it influences their risk tolerance and risk behavior. This will help in designing meaningful intervention for the artisans and it will assist the policy makers in formulating a policy that will help them. Methods: Forty-three artisans were purposely selected for the study; data were generated through observation of the workplace and work practices of the artisans and in-depth interview from automobile artisans (Panel beater, Mechanic, Vulcanizer, and Painters) in Osun State, Nigeria. The transcriptions were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA software. Results: The perceived occupational risks among the study groups are a danger of being run over by oncoming vehicles while working by the roadside, a risk of vehicle falling on workers while working under the vehicle, cuts, and burns, fire explosion, falls from height and injuries from bursting of tires. The identified risk factors are carelessness of the workers, pressure from customers, inadequate tools, preternatural forces, God’s will and lack of apprentices that will assist them in the workplace. Furthermore, the study revealed that artisans engage in risky behavior like siphoning fuel with mouth because of perception that fuel is good for expelling worms and will make them free from any stomach upset. Conclusions: The study concluded that risky behaviors are influenced by culture, beliefs, and perception of the artisans. The study, therefore, suggested proper health and safety education for the artisans.

Keywords: automobile artisans, informal, occupational risks, Nigeria, sociological enquiry

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8 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method

Authors: Murat Demir Aydin, Elanur Celebi


Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.

Keywords: structural adhesive, adhesively bonded joints, digital image correlation, thick adhered shear test (TAST)

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