Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 190

Search results for: ship squat

190 RANS Simulation of the LNG Ship Squat in Shallow Water

Authors: Mehdi Nakisa, Adi Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, Fatemeh Behrouzi


Squat is the reduction in under-keel clearance between a vessel at-rest and underway due to the increased flow of water past the moving body. The forward motion of the ship induces a relative velocity between the ship and the surrounding water that causes a water level depression in which the ship sinks. The problem of ship squat is one among the crucial factors affecting the navigation of ships in restricted waters. This article investigates the LNG ship squat, its effects on flow streamlines around the ship hull and ship behavior and motion using computational fluid dynamics which is applied by Ansys-Fluent.

Keywords: ship squat, CFD, confined, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
189 Structural and Microstructural Investigation into Causes of Rail Squat Defects and Their Correlation with White Etching Layers

Authors: A. Al-Juboori, D. Wexler, H. Li, H. Zhu, C. Lu, A. McCusker, J. McLeod, S. Pannila, Z. Wang


Squats are a type railhead defect related to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage and are considered serious problem affecting a wide range of railway networks across the world. Squats can lead to partial or complete rail failure. Formation mechanics of squats on the surface of rail steel is still a matter of debate. In this work, structural and microstructural observations from ex-service damaged rail both confirms the phases present in white etching layer (WEL) regions and relationship between cracking in WEL and squat defect formation. XRD synchrotron results obtained from the top surfaces of rail regions containing both WEL and squat defects reveal that these regions contain both martensite and retained austenite. Microstructural analysis of these regions revealed the occurrence cracks extending from WEL down into the rail through the squat region. These findings obtained from field rail specimen support the view that WEL contains regions of austenite and martensitic transformation product, and that cracks in this brittle surface layer propagate deeper into the rail as squats originate and grow.

Keywords: squat, white etching layer, rolling contact fatigue, synchrotron diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
188 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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187 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

Procedia PDF Downloads 578
186 Investigating Real Ship Accidents with Descriptive Analysis in Turkey

Authors: İsmail Karaca, Ömer Söner


The use of advanced methods has been increasing day by day in the maritime sector, which is one of the sectors least affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is aimed to minimize accidents, especially by using advanced methods in the investigation of marine accidents. This research aimed to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis of particular ship accidents in the Transport Safety Investigation Center of Turkey database. 46 ship accidents, which occurred between 2010-2018, have been selected from the database. In addition to the availability of a reliable and comprehensive database, taking advantage of the robust statistical models for investigation is critical to improving the safety of ships. Thus, descriptive analysis has been used in the research to identify causes and conditional factors related to different types of ship accidents. The research outcomes underline the fact that environmental factors and day and night ratio have great influence on ship safety.

Keywords: descriptive analysis, maritime industry, maritime safety, ship accident statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
185 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento


Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
184 Modeling and Simulation of Ship Structures Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Javid Iqbal, Zhu Shifan


The development in the construction of unconventional ships and the implementation of lightweight materials have shown a large impulse towards finite element (FE) method, making it a general tool for ship design. This paper briefly presents the modeling and analysis techniques of ship structures using FE method for complex boundary conditions which are difficult to analyze by existing Ship Classification Societies rules. During operation, all ships experience complex loading conditions. These loads are general categories into thermal loads, linear static, dynamic and non-linear loads. General strength of the ship structure is analyzed using static FE analysis. FE method is also suitable to consider the local loads generated by ballast tanks and cargo in addition to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. Vibration analysis of a ship structure and its components can be performed using FE method which helps in obtaining the dynamic stability of the ship. FE method has developed better techniques for calculation of natural frequencies and different mode shapes of ship structure to avoid resonance both globally and locally. There is a lot of development towards the ideal design in ship industry over the past few years for solving complex engineering problems by employing the data stored in the FE model. This paper provides an overview of ship modeling methodology for FE analysis and its general application. Historical background, the basic concept of FE, advantages, and disadvantages of FE analysis are also reported along with examples related to hull strength and structural components.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, finite element methods, ship structure, vibration analysis

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183 Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment

Authors: Chen Zhang, Bernhard Schwarz-Röhr, Alexander Härting


To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, nonlinear estimation, sea trial, ship motion estimation

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182 Analysis of Network Connectivity for Ship-To-Ship Maritime Communication Using IEEE 802.11 on Maritime Environment of Tanjung Perak, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Fauzi Makarim, Okkie Puspitorini, Hani'ah Mahmudah, Nur Adi Siswandari, Ari Wijayanti


As a maritime country, Indonesia needs a solution in maritime connectivity which can assist the maritime communication system which including communication from harbor to the ship or ship to ship. The needs of many application services for maritime communication, whether for safety reasons until voyage service to help the process of voyage activity needs connection with a high bandwith. To support the government efforts in handling that kind of problem, a research is conducted in maritime communication issue by applying the new developed technology in Indonesia, namely IEEE 802.11. In this research, 3 outdoor WiFi devices are used in which have a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Maritime of Tanjung Perak harbor in Surabaya until Karang Jamuang Island are used as the location of the research with defining permission of ship node spreading by Navigation District Class 1. That maritime area formed by state 1 and state 2 areas which are the narrow area with average wave height of 0.7 meter based on the data from BMKG S urabaya. After that, wave height used as one of the parameters which are used in analyzing characteristic of signal propagation at sea surface, so it can be determined on the coverage area of transmitter system. In this research has been used three samples of outdoor wifi, there is the coverage of device A can be determined about 2256 meter, device B 4000 meter, and device C 1174 meter. Then to analyze of network connectivity for the ship to ship is used AODV routing algorithm system based on the value of the power transmit was smallest of all nodes within the transmitter coverage.

Keywords: maritime of Indonesia, maritime communications, outdoor wifi, coverage, AODV

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
181 Simulation for Squat Exercise of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Ziraguen O. Williams, Shield B. Lin, Fouad N. Matari, Leslie J. Quiocho


In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, feedback delay, and signal noise were added to a simulation model of an active-controlled vibration isolation system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Previous simulation work was conducted primarily via MATLAB/Simulink. Two additional simulation tools used in this study were Trick and MBDyn, NASA co-developed software simulation environments. Simulation results obtained from these three tools were very similar. All simulation results support the hypothesis that an active-controlled vibration isolation system outperforms a passive-controlled system even with the addition of feedback delay and signal noise to the active-controlled system. In this paper, squat exercise was used in creating excited force to the simulation model. The exciter force from a squat exercise was calculated from the motion capture of an exerciser. The simulation results demonstrate much greater transmitted force reduction in the active-controlled system than the passive-controlled system.

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

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180 Dynamics of the Moving Ship at Complex and Sudden Impact of External Forces

Authors: Bo Liu, Liangtian Gao, Idrees Qasim


The impact of the storm leads to accidents even in the case of vessels that meet the computed safety criteria for stability. That is why, in order to clarify the causes of the accident and shipwreck, it is necessary to study the dynamics of the ship under the complex sudden impact of external forces. The task is to determine the movement and landing of the ship in the complex and sudden impact of external forces, i.e. when the ship's load changes over a relatively short period of time. For the solution, a technique was used to study the ship's dynamics, which is based on the compilation of a system of differential equations of motion. A coordinate system was adopted for the equation of motion of the hull and the determination of external forces. As a numerical method of integration, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method was chosen. The results of the calculation show that dynamic deviations were lower for high-altitude vessels. The study of the movement of the hull under a difficult situation is performed: receiving of cargo, impact of a flurry of wind and subsequent displacement of the cargo. The risk of overturning and flooding was assessed.

Keywords: dynamics, statics, roll, trim, vertical displacement, dynamic load, tilt

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
179 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data

Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan


Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.

Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefficient

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178 Simulation of the Evacuation of Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods from Tsunami

Authors: Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga


The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 on Friday, March 11, 2011. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 40.5 meters in height. We focus on the ship’s evacuation from tsunami. Then we analyze about ships evacuation from tsunami using multi-agent simulation and we want to prepare for a coming earthquake. We developed a simulation model of ships that set sail from the port in order to evacuate from the tsunami considering the ship carrying dangerous goods.

Keywords: Ship’s evacuation, multi-agent simulation, tsunami

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
177 Passenger Movement Pattern during Ship Evacuation Considering the Combined Effect of Ship Heeling and Trim

Authors: Jinlu Sun, Shouxiang Lu, Siuming Lo


Large passenger ship, especially luxury cruise, is one of the most prevalent means of marine transportation and tourism nowadays. In case of an accident, an effective evacuation would be the ultimate way to minimize the consequence. Ship heeling and trim has a considerable influence on passenger walking speed and posture during ship evacuation. To investigate passenger movement pattern under the combined effect of ship heeling and trim, a ship corridor simulator was developed. Both fast and freely individual walking experiments by male and female experimental subjects under heeling and trim conditions were conducted and recorded therein. It is found that routes of experimental subjects would change due to the heeling and trim angles, although they always walk along the right side because of cultural factors. Experimental subjects would also change their posture to adapt the combined heeling and trim conditions, such as leaning forward, adopting larger arm swaying, shorter and more frequent steps. While for individual walking speed, the speed would decrease with the increasing heeling and trim angles. But the maximum individual walking speed is achieved at heeling angle of 0° with trim angle ranging from -15° to -5 °, instead of on level ground, which may be attributable to the effect of the gravitational acceleration. Female is approximately 10% slower than male due to the discrepancy in physical quality. Besides, individual walking speed shows similar trends in both fast and freely walking modes, and the speed value in freely walking mode is about 78% of that in fast walking mode under each experimental condition. Furthermore, to designate the movement pattern of passengers in heeling and trim conditions, a model of the walking speed reduction was proposed. This work would provide guidance on the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

Keywords: evacuation, heeling, individual walking speed, ship corridor simulator, trim

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
176 Numerical Study for the Estimation of Hydrodynamic Current Drag Coefficients for the Colombian Navy Frigates Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Mauricio Gracia, Luis Leal, Bharat Verma


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become nowadays an important tool in the process of hydrodynamic design of modern ships. CFD is used to model any phenomena related to fluid flow in a control volume like a ship or any offshore structure in the sea. In the present study, the current force drag coefficients for a Colombian Navy Frigate in deep and shallow water are estimated through the application of CFD. The study shows the process of simulating the ship current drag coefficients using the CFD simulations method, which is conducted using STAR-CCM+ software package. The Almirante Padilla class Frigate ship scale model is investigated. The results show the ship current drag coefficient calculated considering a current speed of 1 knot with a 90° drift angle for the full-scale ship. Predicted results were compared against the current drag coefficients published in the Lloyds register OCIMF report. It is shown that the simulation results agree fairly well with the published results and that STAR-CCM+ code can predict current drag coefficients.

Keywords: CFD, current draft coefficient, STAR-CCM+, OCIMF, Bollard pull

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175 The Key Factors in Shipping Company's Port Selection for Providing Their Supplies

Authors: Sedigheh Zarei


The aim of this research is to identify the key factors in shipping company’s port selection in order to providing their requirement. To identify and rank factors that are play the main role in selecting port for providing the ship supplies. At the first step, Data were collected via Semi-structured interviews, The aim was to generate knowledge on how shipping company select the port and suppliers for providing their needs. 37 port selection factors were chosen from the previous researches and field interviews and have been categorized into two groups of port's factor and the factors of services of suppliers companies. The current study adopts a questionnaire survey to the main shipping companies' operators in Iran. Their responses reveal that level of services of supplying companies and customs rules play the important role in selecting the ports. Our findings could affect decisions made by port authorities to consider that supporting the privet sections for ship chandelling business could have the best result in attracting ships.

Keywords: ship supplier, port selection, ship chandler, provision

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
174 Ship Detection Requirements Analysis for Different Sea States: Validation on Real SAR Data

Authors: Jaime Martín-de-Nicolás, David Mata-Moya, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores


Ship detection is nowadays quite an important issue in tasks related to sea traffic control, fishery management and ship search and rescue. Although it has traditionally been carried out by patrol ships or aircrafts, coverage and weather conditions and sea state can become a problem. Synthetic aperture radars can surpass these coverage limitations and work under any climatological condition. A fast CFAR ship detector based on a robust statistical modeling of sea clutter with respect to sea states in SAR images is used. In this paper, the minimum SNR required to obtain a given detection probability with a given false alarm rate for any sea state is determined. A Gaussian target model using real SAR data is considered. Results show that SNR does not depend heavily on the class considered. Provided there is some variation in the backscattering of targets in SAR imagery, the detection probability is limited and a post-processing stage based on morphology would be suitable.

Keywords: SAR, generalized gamma distribution, detection curves, radar detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
173 A Geosynchronous Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar Simulator for Moving Ship Targets

Authors: Linjie Zhang, Baifen Ren, Xi Zhang, Genwang Liu


Ship detection is of great significance for both military and civilian applications. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with all-day, all-weather, ultra-long-range characteristics, has been used widely. In view of the low time resolution of low orbit SAR and the needs for high time resolution SAR data, GEO (Geosynchronous orbit) SAR is getting more and more attention. Since GEO SAR has short revisiting period and large coverage area, it is expected to be well utilized in marine ship targets monitoring. However, the height of the orbit increases the time of integration by almost two orders of magnitude. For moving marine vessels, the utility and efficacy of GEO SAR are still not sure. This paper attempts to find the feasibility of GEO SAR by giving a GEO SAR simulator of moving ships. This presented GEO SAR simulator is a kind of geometrical-based radar imaging simulator, which focus on geometrical quality rather than high radiometric. Inputs of this simulator are 3D ship model (.obj format, produced by most 3D design software, such as 3D Max), ship's velocity, and the parameters of satellite orbit and SAR platform. Its outputs are simulated GEO SAR raw signal data and SAR image. This simulating process is accomplished by the following four steps. (1) Reading 3D model, including the ship rotations (pitch, yaw, and roll) and velocity (speed and direction) parameters, extract information of those little primitives (triangles) which is visible from the SAR platform. (2) Computing the radar scattering from the ship with physical optics (PO) method. In this step, the vessel is sliced into many little rectangles primitives along the azimuth. The radiometric calculation of each primitive is carried out separately. Since this simulator only focuses on the complex structure of ships, only single-bounce reflection and double-bounce reflection are considered. (3) Generating the raw data with GEO SAR signal modeling. Since the normal ‘stop and go’ model is not available for GEO SAR, the range model should be reconsidered. (4) At last, generating GEO SAR image with improved Range Doppler method. Numerical simulation of fishing boat and cargo ship will be given. GEO SAR images of different posture, velocity, satellite orbit, and SAR platform will be simulated. By analyzing these simulated results, the effectiveness of GEO SAR for the detection of marine moving vessels is evaluated.

Keywords: GEO SAR, radar, simulation, ship

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
172 Ballast Water Management Triad: Administration, Ship Owner and the Seafarer

Authors: Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob


The Ballast Water Convention requires less than 5% of the world tonnage for ratification. Consequently, ships will have to comply with the requirements. Compliance evaluation and enforcement will become mandatory. Ship owners have to invest in treatment systems and shipboard personnel have to operate them and ensure compliance. The monitoring and enforcement will be the responsibilities of the Administrations. Herein, a review of the current status of the Ballast Water Management and the issues faced by these are projected. Issues range from efficacy and economics of the treatment systems to sampling and testing. Health issues of chemical systems, paucity of data for decision support etc., are other issues. It is emphasized that management of ballast water must be extended to ashore and sustainable solutions must be researched upon. An exemplar treatment system based on ship’s waste heat is also suggested.

Keywords: Ballast Water Management, compliance evaluation, compliance enforcement, sustainability

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171 Analytical Hierarchical Process for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

Authors: Luis Javier Serrano Tamayo


This research on technology makes a first approach to the selection of an amphibious landing ship with strategic capabilities, through the implementation of a multi-criteria model using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP), in which a significant group of alternatives of latest technology has been considered. The variables were grouped at different levels to match design and performance characteristics, which affect the lifecycle as well as the acquisition, maintenance and operational costs. The model yielded an overall measure of effectiveness and an overall measure of cost of each kind of ship that was compared each other inside the model and showed in a Pareto chart. The modeling was developed using the Expert Choice software, based on AHP method.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, multi-criteria decision-making, Pareto analysis, Colombian Marine Corps, projection operations, expert choice, amphibious landing ship

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170 Investigations of Bergy Bits and Ship Interactions in Extreme Waves Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Mohammed Islam, Jungyong Wang, Dong Cheol Seo


The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is a novel, meshless, and Lagrangian technique based numerical method that has shown promises to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of water and structure interactions in violent flow conditions. The main goal of this study is to build confidence on the versatility of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) based tool, to use it as a complementary tool to the physical model testing capabilities and support research need for the performance evaluation of ships and offshore platforms exposed to an extreme and harsh environment. In the current endeavor, an open-sourced SPH-based tool was used and validated for modeling and predictions of the hydrodynamic interactions of a 6-DOF ship and bergy bits. The study involved the modeling of a modern generic drillship and simplified bergy bits in floating and towing scenarios and in regular and irregular wave conditions. The predictions were validated using the model-scale measurements on a moored ship towed at multiple oblique angles approaching a floating bergy bit in waves. Overall, this study results in a thorough comparison between the model scale measurements and the prediction outcomes from the SPH tool for performance and accuracy. The SPH predicted ship motions and forces were primarily within ±5% of the measurements. The velocity and pressure distribution and wave characteristics over the free surface depicts realistic interactions of the wave, ship, and the bergy bit. This work identifies and presents several challenges in preparing the input file, particularly while defining the mass properties of complex geometry, the computational requirements, and the post-processing of the outcomes.

Keywords: SPH, ship and bergy bit, hydrodynamic interactions, model validation, physical model testing

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169 Fuzzy Inference System for Determining Collision Risk of Ship in Madura Strait Using Automatic Identification System

Authors: Emmy Pratiwi, Ketut B. Artana, A. A. B. Dinariyana


Madura Strait is considered as one of the busiest shipping channels in Indonesia. High vessel traffic density in Madura Strait gives serious threat due to navigational safety in this area, i.e. ship collision. This study is necessary as an attempt to enhance the safety of marine traffic. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) is proposed to calculate risk collision of ships. Collision risk is evaluated based on ship domain, Distance to Closest Point of Approach (DCPA), and Time to Closest Point of Approach (TCPA). Data were collected by utilizing Automatic Identification System (AIS). This study considers several ships’ domain models to give the characteristic of marine traffic in the waterways. Each encounter in the ship domain is analyzed to obtain the level of collision risk. Risk level of ships, as the result in this study, can be used as guidance to avoid the accident, providing brief description about safety traffic in Madura Strait and improving the navigational safety in the area.

Keywords: automatic identification system, collision risk, DCPA, fuzzy inference system, TCPA

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168 Minimizing Ship’S Breakdown Maintenance Due to Rope Entangled In Propeller With “Si Kuman” On Mooring Boat PSC I in Surabaya

Authors: Jogi Prayogo, Dwi Qaqa Prasetyatama, Rahmad Dwi Afandi, Kunto Arief Prasetyo, Viorel Herniza Leksono


PT. Pertamina Trans Kontinental managed a fleet of 364 ships in 2018 - 2020. In that period, there were 8 incidents of ship damage, causing breakdown maintenance on 6 ships belonging to PT Pertamina Trans Kontinental throughout Indonesia's operational areas due to ropes entangled in propellers. The company's losses that were caused by the fouled propellers amounted to 306.35 Million Rupiah. Of the 8 incidents, Mooring Boat PSC I was taken as a pilot project for further analysis considering the location of the ship which is in Surabaya and Mooring Boat PSC I has experienced 2 incidents of rope entanglement that caused the company's losses due to the largest Breakdown Maintenance amounted to 200.99 Million Rupiah. After analyzing the rope entanglement in the ship's propeller based on the data of Mooring Boat PSC I related to the location of propellers that are often fouled in the conventional propulsion system, it was found that there is a suitable location for the implementation of SI KUMAN tool that serves to cut ropes to prevent the occurrence of rope entangled in ship propellers. The determination of SI KUMAN tool is based on the strength of the ship's material to be installed and a suitable design to prevent the occurrence of ropes being entangled in propellers. After the installation of the "SI KUMAN" tool and monitoring carried out for 1 year period (August 2020 - August 2021), it was found that SI KUMAN tool can eliminate the risk of fouled propeller incidents which previously occurred twice in one year so that the company's loss amounted to 200.99 Million Rupiah can be eliminated and SI KUMAN tool can still operate optimally.

Keywords: breakdown maintenance, mooring boat, fleet, fouled propeller, rope entangled, cut

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
167 Human Error Analysis in the USA Marine Accidents Reports

Authors: J. Sánchez-Beaskoetxea


The analysis of accidents, such as marine accidents, is one of the most useful instruments to avoid future accidents. In the case of marine accidents, from a simple collision of a small boat in a port to the wreck of a gigantic tanker ship, the study of the causes of the accidents is the basis of a great part of the marine international legislation. Some countries have official institutions who investigate all the accidents in which a ship with their flag is involved. In the case of the USA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is responsible for these researches. The NTSB, after a deep investigation into each accident, publishes a Marine Accident Report with the possible cause of the accident. This paper analyses all the Marine Accident Reports published by the NTBS and focuses its attention especially in the Human Errors that led to reported accidents. In this research, the different Human Errors made by crew members are cataloged in 10 different groups. After a complete analysis of all the reports, the statistical analysis on the Human Errors typology in marine accidents is presented in order to use it as a tool to avoid the same errors in the future.

Keywords: human error, marine accidents, ship crew, USA

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
166 Waste Heat Recovery System

Authors: A. Ramkumar, Anvesh Sagar, Preetham P. Karkera


Globalization in the modern era is dependent on the International logistics, the economic and reliable means is provided by the ocean going merchant vessel. The propulsion system which drives this massive vessels has gone through leaps and bounds of evolution. Most reliable system of propulsion adopted by the majority of vessels is by marine diesel engine. Since the first oil crisis of 1973, there is demand in increment of efficiency of main engine. Due to increase in the oil prices ship-operators explores for reduction in the operational cost of ship. And newly adopted IMO’s EEDI & SEEMP rules calls for the effective measures taken in this regard. The main engine of a ship suffers a lot of thermal losses, they mainly occur due to exhaust gas waste heat, radiation and cooling. So to increase the overall efficiency of system, we have to look into the solution to harnessing this waste energy of main engine to increase the fuel economy. During the course of research, engine manufacturers have developed many waste heat recovery systems. In our paper we see about additional options to harness this waste heat. The exhaust gas of engine coming out from the turbocharger still holds enough heat to go to the exhaust gas economiser to produce steam. This heat of exhaust gas can be used to heat a liquid of less boiling point after coming out from the turbocharger. The vapour of this secondary liquid can be superheated by a bypass exhaust or exhaust of turbocharger. This vapour can be utilized to rotate the turbine which is coupled to a generator. And the electric power for ship service can be produced with proper configuration of system. This can be included in PMS of ship. In this paper we seek to concentrate on power generation with use of exhaust gas. Thereby taking out the load on the main generator and increasing the efficiency of the system. This will help us to comply with the new rules of IMO. Our method helps to develop clean energy.

Keywords: EEDI–energy efficiency design index, IMO–international maritime organization PMS-power management system, SEEMP–ship energy efficiency management plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
165 The Impact of Ship Traffic and Harbor Activities on the Atmospheric Pollution in Two Northern Adriatic Ports: Venice and Rijeka

Authors: Elena Barbaro, Elena Gregoris, Rossano Piazza, Boris Mifka, Tatjana Ivošević, Ivo Orlić, Ana Alebić-Juretić, Andrea Gambaro, Daniele Contini


The aim of the POSEIDON project is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbor activities to atmospheric pollutants concentration in four port-cities of the Adriatic Sea. This study focuses on the harbors of Venice and Rijeka. In order to investigate the main pollution sources, emission inventories were used as input for receptor models: PMF (positive matrix factorization) and PCA (principal components analysis); moreover source identification was also conducted using PAHs diagnostic ratios. The ship traffic impact was quantified: i) on gaseous and particulate PAHs, collected using a new method which consisted in a double simultaneous sampling, in different wind sectors; ii) applying PMF to data of metals, PAHs and ions in PM10; iii) using the vanadium concentration according to the Agrawal methodology.

Keywords: ship traffic, PMF, harbor, POSEIDON

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
164 Meteorological Risk Assessment for Ships with Fuzzy Logic Designer

Authors: Ismail Karaca, Ridvan Saracoglu, Omer Soner


Fuzzy Logic, an advanced method to support decision-making, is used by various scientists in many disciplines. Fuzzy programming is a product of fuzzy logic, fuzzy rules, and implication. In marine science, fuzzy programming for ships is dramatically increasing together with autonomous ship studies. In this paper, a program to support the decision-making process for ship navigation has been designed. The program is produced in fuzzy logic and rules, by taking the marine accidents and expert opinions into account. After the program was designed, the program was tested by 46 ship accidents reported by the Transportation Safety Investigation Center of Turkey. Wind speed, sea condition, visibility, day/night ratio have been used as input data. They have been converted into a risk factor within the Fuzzy Logic Designer application and fuzzy rules set by marine experts. Finally, the expert's meteorological risk factor for each accident is compared with the program's risk factor, and the error rate was calculated. The main objective of this study is to improve the navigational safety of ships, by using the advance decision support model. According to the study result, fuzzy programming is a robust model that supports safe navigation.

Keywords: calculation of risk factor, fuzzy logic, fuzzy programming for ship, safety navigation of ships

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163 Influence of Transportation Mode to the Deterioration Rate: Case Study of Food Transport by Ship

Authors: Danijela Tuljak-Suban, Valter Suban


Food as perishable goods represents a specific and sensitive part in the supply chain theory, since changing of its physical or chemical characteristics considerably influences the approach to stock management. The most delicate phase of this process is transportation, where it becomes difficult to ensure stability conditions that limit the deterioration, since the value of the deterioration rate could be easily influenced by the transportation mode. Fuzzy definition of variables allows taking into account these variations. Furthermore an appropriate choice of the defuzzification method permits to adapt results, as much as possible, to real conditions. In the article will be applied the those methods to the relationship between the deterioration rate of perishable goods and transportation by ship, with the aim: (a) to minimize the total costs function, defined as the sum of the ordering cost, holding cost, disposing cost and transportation costs, and (b) to improve supply chain sustainability by reducing the environmental impact and waste disposal costs.

Keywords: perishable goods, fuzzy reasoning, transport by ship, supply chain sustainability

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162 Fault Analysis of Ship Power System Comprising of Parallel Generators and Variable Frequency Drive

Authors: Umair Ashraf, Kjetil Uhlen, Sverre Eriksen, Nadeem Jelani


Although advancement in technology has increased the reliability and ease of work in ship power system, but these advancements are also adding complexities. Ever increasing non linear loads, like power electronics (PE) devices effect the stability of the system. Frequent load variations and complex load dynamics are due to the frequency converters and motor drives, these problem are more prominent when system is connected with the weak grid. In the ship power system major consumers are thruster motors for the propulsion. For the control operation of these motors variable frequency drives (VFD) are used, mostly VFDs operate on nominal voltage of the system. Some of the consumers in ship operate on lower voltage than nominal, these consumers got supply through step down transformers. In this paper the vector control scheme is used for the control of both rectifier and inverter, parallel operation of the synchronous generators is also demonstrated. The simulation have been performed with induction motor as load on VFD and parallel RLC load. Fault analysis has been performed first for the system which do not have VFD and then for the system with VFD. Three phase to the ground, single phase to the ground fault were implemented and behavior of the system in both the cases was observed.

Keywords: non-linear load, power electronics, parallel operating generators, pulse width modulation, variable frequency drives, voltage source converters, weak grid

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161 Simplified Ultimate Strength Assessment of Ship Structures Based on Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia Rules for Hull

Authors: Sukron Makmun, Topan Firmandha, Siswanto


Ultimate Strength Assessment on ship cross section in accordance with Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia (BKI) Rules for Hull, follows step by step incremental iterative approach. In this approach, ship cross section is divided into plate-stiffener combinations and hard corners element. The average stress-strain relationship (σ-ε) for all structural elements will be defined, where the subscript k refers to the modes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. These results would be verified with a commercial software calculation in similar cases. The numerical calculations of buckling strength are in accordance with the commercial software (GL Rules ND). Then the comparison of failure behaviours of stiffened panels and hard corners are presented. Where failure modes 3 are likely to occur first follows the failure mode 4 and the last one is the failure mode 1.

Keywords: ultimate strength assessment, BKI rules, incremental, plate-stiffener combination and hard corner, commercial software

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