Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: mechatronic

27 The Methodology of System Modeling of Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Lakhoua Najeh

Abstract:

Aims of the work: After a presentation of the functionality of an example of a mechatronic system which is a paint mixer system, we present the concepts of modeling and safe operation. This paper briefly discusses how to model and protect the functioning of a mechatronic system relying mainly on functional analysis and safe operation techniques. Methods: For the study of an example of a mechatronic system, we use methods for external functional analysis that illustrate the relationships between a mechatronic system and its external environment. Thus, we present the Safe-Structured Analysis Design Technique method (Safe-SADT) which allows the representation of a mechatronic system. A model of operating safety and automation is proposed. This model enables us to use a functional analysis technique of the mechatronic system based on the GRAFCET (Graphe Fonctionnel de Commande des Etapes et Transitions: Step Transition Function Chart) method; study of the safe operation of the mechatronic system based on the Safe-SADT method; automation of the mechatronic system based on a software tool. Results: The expected results are to propose a model and safe operation of a mechatronic system. This methodology enables us to analyze the relevance of the different models based on Safe-SADT and GRAFCET in relation to the control and monitoring functions and to study the means allowing exploiting their synergy. Conclusion: In order to propose a general model of a mechatronic system, a model of analysis, safety operation and automation of a mechatronic system has been developed. This is how we propose to validate this methodology through a case study of a paint mixer system.

Keywords: mechatronic systems, system modeling, safe operation, Safe-SADT

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26 Design of a Low Cost Motion Data Acquisition Setup for Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Baris Can Yalcin

Abstract:

Motion sensors have been commonly used as a valuable component in mechatronic systems, however, many mechatronic designs and applications that need motion sensors cost enormous amount of money, especially high-tech systems. Design of a software for communication protocol between data acquisition card and motion sensor is another issue that has to be solved. This study presents how to design a low cost motion data acquisition setup consisting of MPU 6050 motion sensor (gyro and accelerometer in 3 axes) and Arduino Mega2560 microcontroller. Design parameters are calibration of the sensor, identification and communication between sensor and data acquisition card, interpretation of data collected by the sensor.

Keywords: design, mechatronics, motion sensor, data acquisition

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25 Tool for Analysing the Sensitivity and Tolerance of Mechatronic Systems in Matlab GUI

Authors: Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Renata Masarova, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

The article deals with the tool in Matlab GUI form that is designed to analyse a mechatronic system sensitivity and tolerance. In the analysed mechatronic system, a torque is transferred from the drive to the load through a coupling containing flexible elements. Different methods of control system design are used. The classic form of the feedback control is proposed using Naslin method, modulus optimum criterion and inverse dynamics method. The cascade form of the control is proposed based on combination of modulus optimum criterion and symmetric optimum criterion. The sensitivity is analysed on the basis of absolute and relative sensitivity of system function to the change of chosen parameter value of the mechatronic system, as well as the control subsystem. The tolerance is analysed in the form of determining the range of allowed relative changes of selected system parameters in the field of system stability. The tool allows to analyse an influence of torsion stiffness, torsion damping, inertia moments of the motor and the load and controller(s) parameters. The sensitivity and tolerance are monitored in terms of the impact of parameter change on the response in the form of system step response and system frequency-response logarithmic characteristics. The Symbolic Math Toolbox for expression of the final shape of analysed system functions was used. The sensitivity and tolerance are graphically represented as 2D graph of sensitivity or tolerance of the system function and 3D/2D static/interactive graph of step/frequency response.

Keywords: mechatronic systems, Matlab GUI, sensitivity, tolerance

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24 Low-Cost Mechatronic Design of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot

Authors: S. Cobos-Guzman

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a mechatronic design based on a 4-wheel omnidirectional mobile robot that can be used in indoor logistic applications. The low-level control has been selected using two open-source hardware (Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ and Arduino Mega 2560) that control four industrial motors, four ultrasound sensors, four optical encoders, a vision system of two cameras, and a Hokuyo URG-04LX-UG01 laser scanner. Moreover, the system is powered with a lithium battery that can supply 24 V DC and a maximum current-hour of 20Ah.The Robot Operating System (ROS) has been implemented in the Raspberry Pi and the performance is evaluated with the selection of the sensors and hardware selected. The mechatronic system is evaluated and proposed safe modes of power distribution for controlling all the electronic devices based on different tests. Therefore, based on different performance results, some recommendations are indicated for using the Raspberry Pi and Arduino in terms of power, communication, and distribution of control for different devices. According to these recommendations, the selection of sensors is distributed in both real-time controllers (Arduino and Raspberry Pi). On the other hand, the drivers of the cameras have been implemented in Linux and a python program has been implemented to access the cameras. These cameras will be used for implementing a deep learning algorithm to recognize people and objects. In this way, the level of intelligence can be increased in combination with the maps that can be obtained from the laser scanner.

Keywords: autonomous, indoor robot, mechatronic, omnidirectional robot

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23 Robust State feedback Controller for an Active Suspension System

Authors: Hussein Altartouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the active suspension system using robust state feedback controller implemented for a half car model. This system represents a mechatronic system which contains all the essential components to be considered a complete mechatronic system. This system must adapt different conditions which are difficult to compromise, such as disturbances, slippage, and motion on rough road (that contains rocks, stones, and other miscellanies). Some current automobile suspension systems use passive components only by utilizing spring and damping coefficient with fixed rates. Vehicle suspensions systems are used to provide good road handling and improve passenger comfort. Passive suspensions only offer compromise between these two conflicting criteria. Active suspension poses the ability to reduce the traditional design as a compromise between handling and comfort by directly controlling the suspensions force actuators. In this study, the robust state feedback controller implemented to the active suspensions system for half car model.

Keywords: half-car model, active suspension system, state feedback, road profile

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22 BEATRICE: A Low-Cost Manipulator Arm for an Educational Planetary Rover

Authors: T. Pakulski, L. Kryza, A. Linossier

Abstract:

The BEar Articulated TeleRobotic Inspection and Clasping Extremity is a lightweight, 5 DoF robotic manipulator for the Berlin Educational Assistant Rover (BEAR). BEAR is one of the educational planetary rovers developed under the Space Rover projects at the Chair of Space Technology of the Technische Universität Berlin. The projects serve to conduct research and train engineers by developing rovers for competitions like the European Rover Challenge and the DLR SpaceBot Cup. BEATRICE is the result of a cost-driven design process to deliver a simple but capable platform for a variety of competition tasks: object grasping and manipulation, inspection, instrument wielding and more. The manipulator’s simple mechatronic design, based on a combination of servomotors and stepper motors with planetary gearboxes, also makes it a practical tool for developing embedded control systems. The platform’s initial implementation relies on tele-operated control but is fully instrumented for future autonomous functionality. This paper describes BEATRICE’s development from its preliminary link model to its structural and mechatronic design, embedded control and AI and T. In parallel, it examines the influence of budget constraints and high personnel turnover commonly associated with student teams on the manipulator’s design. Finally, it comments on the utility of robot design projects for educating future engineers.

Keywords: education, low-cost, manipulator, robotics, rover

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21 Cost-Effective Mechatronic Gaming Device for Post-Stroke Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Raj Kumar, S. Bilaloglu

Abstract:

Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability worldwide. We depend on our hands for our activities of daily living(ADL). Although many patients regain the ability to walk, they continue to experience long-term hand motor impairments. As the number of individuals with young stroke is increasing, there is a critical need for effective approaches for rehabilitation of hand function post-stroke. Motor relearning for dexterity requires task-specific kinesthetic, tactile and visual feedback. However, when a stroke results in both sensory and motor impairment, it becomes difficult to ascertain when and what type of sensory substitutions can facilitate motor relearning. In an ideal situation, real-time task-specific data on the ability to learn and data-driven feedback to assist such learning will greatly assist rehabilitation for dexterity. We have found that kinesthetic and tactile information from the unaffected hand can assist patients re-learn the use of optimal fingertip forces during a grasp and lift task. Measurement of fingertip grip force (GF), load forces (LF), their corresponding rates (GFR and LFR), and other metrics can be used to gauge the impairment level and progress during learning. Currently ATI mini force-torque sensors are used in research settings to measure and compute the LF, GF, and their rates while grasping objects of different weights and textures. Use of the ATI sensor is cost prohibitive for deployment in clinical or at-home rehabilitation. A cost effective mechatronic device is developed to quantify GF, LF, and their rates for stroke rehabilitation purposes using off-the-shelf components such as load cells, flexi-force sensors, and an Arduino UNO microcontroller. A salient feature of the device is its integration with an interactive gaming environment to render a highly engaging user experience. This paper elaborates the integration of kinesthetic and tactile sensing through computation of LF, GF and their corresponding rates in real time, information processing, and interactive interfacing through augmented reality for visual feedback.

Keywords: feedback, gaming, kinesthetic, rehabilitation, tactile

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20 Application of Fourier Series Based Learning Control on Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Sandra Baßler, Peter Dünow, Mathias Marquardt

Abstract:

A Fourier series based learning control (FSBLC) algorithm for tracking trajectories of mechanical systems with unknown nonlinearities is presented. Two processes are introduced to which the FSBLC with PD controller is applied. One is a simplified service robot capable of climbing stairs due to special wheels and the other is a propeller driven pendulum with nearly the same requirements on control. Additionally to the investigation of learning the feed forward for the desired trajectories some considerations on the implementation of such an algorithm on low cost microcontroller hardware are made. Simulations of the service robot as well as practical experiments on the pendulum show the capability of the used FSBLC algorithm to perform the task of improving control behavior for repetitive task of such mechanical systems.

Keywords: climbing stairs, FSBLC, ILC, service robot

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19 Increase of Energy Efficiency by Means of Application of Active Bearings

Authors: Alexander Babin, Leonid Savin

Abstract:

In the present paper, increasing of energy efficiency of a thrust hybrid bearing with a central feeding chamber is considered. The mathematical model was developed to determine the pressure distribution and the reaction forces, based on the Reynolds equation and static characteristics’ equations. The boundary problem of pressure distribution calculation was solved using the method of finite differences. For various types of lubricants, geometry and operational characteristics, axial gaps can be determined, where the minimal friction coefficient is provided. The next part of the study considers the application of servovalves in order to maintain the desired position of the rotor. The report features the calculation results and the analysis of the influence of the operational and geometric parameters on the energy efficiency of mechatronic fluid-film bearings.

Keywords: active bearings, energy efficiency, mathematical model, mechatronics, thrust multipad bearing

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18 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion- mechatronics

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17 Robust Diagnosis of an Electro-Mechanical Actuators, Bond Graph LFT Approach

Authors: A. Boulanoir, B. Ould Bouamama, A. Debiane, N. Achour

Abstract:

The paper deals with robust Fault Detection and isolation with respect to parameter uncertainties based on linear fractional transformation form (LFT) Bond graph. The innovative interest of the proposed methodology is the use only one representation for systematic generation of robust analytical redundancy relations and adaptive residual thresholds for sensibility analysis. Furthermore, the parameter uncertainties are introduced graphically in the bond graph model. The methodology applied to the nonlinear industrial Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA) used in avionic systems, has determined first the structural monitorability analysis (which component can be monitored) with given instrumentation architecture with any need of complex calculation and secondly robust fault indicators for online supervision.

Keywords: bond graph (BG), electro mechanical actuators (EMA), fault detection and isolation (FDI), linear fractional transformation (LFT), mechatronic systems, parameter uncertainties, avionic system

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16 Dynamic Model of Automatic Loom on SimulationX

Authors: A. Jomartov, A. Tuleshov, B. Tultaev

Abstract:

One of the main tasks in the development of textile machinery is to increase the rapidity of automatic looms, and consequently, their productivity. With increasing automatic loom speeds, the dynamic loads on their separate mechanisms and moving joints sharply increase. Dynamic research allows us to determine the weakest mechanisms of the automatic loom. The modern automatic loom consists of a large number of structurally different mechanisms. These are cam, lever, gear, friction and combined cyclic mechanisms. The modern automatic loom contains various mechatronic devices: A device for the automatic removal of faulty weft, electromechanical drive warp yarns, electronic controllers, servos, etc. In the paper, we consider the multibody dynamic model of the automatic loom on the software complex SimulationX. SimulationX is multidisciplinary software for modeling complex physical and technical facilities and systems. The multibody dynamic model of the automatic loom allows consideration of: The transition processes, backlash at the joints and nodes, the force of resistance and electric motor performance.

Keywords: automatic loom, dynamics, model, multibody, SimulationX

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15 Knowledge-Based Virtual Community System (KBVCS) for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in Mechatronics System Diagnostic and Repair: A Case of Automobile

Authors: Adedeji W. Oyediran, Yekini N. Asafe

Abstract:

Mechatronics is synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacturing of industrial products and processes. Automobile (auto car, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor) is a mechatronic system which served as major means of transportation around the world. Virtually all community has a need for automobile. This makes automobile issues as related to diagnostic and repair interesting to all communities. Consequent to the diversification of skill in diagnosing automobile faults and approaches in solving some problems and innovation in automobile industry. It is appropriate to say that repair and diagnostic of automobile will be better enhanced if community has opportunity of sharing knowledge and idea globally. This paper discussed the desirable elements in automobile as mechatronics system and present conceptual framework of virtual community model for automobile users.

Keywords: automobile, automobile users, knowledge sharing, mechatronics system, virtual community

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14 Proposal for Knowledge-Based Virtual Community System (KBVCS) for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in Mechatronics System Diagnostic and Repair

Authors: Adetoba B. Tiwalola, Adedeji W. Oyediran, Yekini N. Asafe, Akinwole A. Kikelomo

Abstract:

Mechatronics is synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacturing of industrial products and processes. Automobile (auto car, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor) is a mechatronic system which served as major means of transportation around the world. Virtually all community has a need for automobile. This makes automobile issues as related to diagnostic and repair interesting to all communities. Consequent to the diversification of skill in diagnosing automobile faults and approaches in solving some problems and innovation in automobile industry. It is appropriate to say that repair and diagnostic of automobile will be better enhanced if community has opportunity of sharing knowledge and idea globally. This paper discussed the desirable elements in automobile as mechatronics system and present conceptual framework of virtual community model for knowledge sharing among automobile users.

Keywords: automobile, automobile users, knowledge sharing, mechatronics system, virtual community

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13 Advanced Mechatronic Design of Robot Manipulator Using Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation

Authors: Reza Karami, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi

Abstract:

This paper discusses concurrent engineering of robot manipulators, based on the Holistic Concurrent Design (HCD) methodology and by using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform. The methodology allows for considering numerous design variables with different natures concurrently. It redefines the ultimate goal of design based on the notion of satisfaction, resulting in the simplification of the multi-objective constrained optimization process. It also formalizes the effect of designer’s subjective attitude in the process. To enhance modeling efficiency for both computation and accuracy, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform is used, which involves physical joint modules and the control unit in addition to the software modules. This platform is implemented in the HCD design architecture to reliably evaluate the design attributes and performance super criterion during the design process. The resulting overall architecture is applied to redesigning kinematic, dynamic and control parameters of an industrial robot manipulator.

Keywords: concurrent engineering, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, robot manipulator, multidisciplinary systems, mechatronics

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12 RANS Simulation of Viscous Flow around Hull of Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: M. Nakisa, A. Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, F. Behrouzi, A. Tarmizi

Abstract:

The practical application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), for predicting the flow pattern around Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle (MAV) hull has made much progress over the last decade. Today, several of the CFD tools play an important role in the land and water going vehicle hull form design. CFD has been used for analysis of MAV hull resistance, sea-keeping, maneuvering and investigating its variation when changing the hull form due to varying its parameters, which represents a very important task in the principal and final design stages. Resistance analysis based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has become a decisive factor in the development of new, economically efficient and environmentally friendly hull forms. Three-dimensional finite volume method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) has been used to simulate incompressible flow around three types of MAV hull bow models in steady-state condition. Finally, the flow structure and streamlines, friction and pressure resistance and velocity contours of each type of hull bow will be compared and discussed.

Keywords: RANS simulation, multipurpose amphibious vehicle, viscous flow structure, mechatronic

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11 Development of an NIR Sorting Machine, an Experimental Study in Detecting Internal Disorder and Quality of Apple Fruitpple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The quality level for fresh fruits is very important for the fruit industries. In presents study, an automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic conveyer belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology, mechatronic design

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10 Control of Single Axis Magnetic Levitation System Using Fuzzy Logic Control

Authors: A. M. Benomair, M. O. Tokhi

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation on a system model for the stabilization of a Magnetic Levitation System (Maglev’s). The magnetic levitation system is a challenging nonlinear mechatronic system in which an electromagnetic force is required to suspend an object (metal sphere) in air space. The electromagnetic force is very sensitive to the noise which can create acceleration forces on the metal sphere, causing the sphere to move into the unbalanced region. Maglev’s give the contribution in industry and this system has reduce the power consumption, has increase the power efficiency and reduce the cost maintenance. The common applications for Maglev’s Power Generation (e.g. wind turbine), Maglev’s trains and Medical Device (e.g. Magnetically suspended Artificial Heart Pump). This paper presents the comparison between dynamic response and robust characteristic for both conventional PD and Fuzzy PD controller. The main contribution of this paper is the proof of fuzzy PD type stabilization and robustness. By use of a method to tune the scaling factors of the linear PD type fuzzy controller from an equivalent tuned conventional PD.

Keywords: magnetic levitation system, PD controller, Fuzzy Logic Control, Fuzzy PD

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9 Rotor Concepts for the Counter Flow Heat Recovery Fan

Authors: Christoph Speer

Abstract:

Decentralized ventilation systems should combine a small and economical design with high aerodynamic and thermal efficiency. The Counter Flow Heat Recovery Fan (CHRF) provides the ability to meet these requirements by using only one cross flow fan with a large number of blades to generate both airflows and which simultaneously acts as a regenerative counter flow heat exchanger. The successful development of the first laboratory prototype has shown the potential of this ventilation system. Occurring condensate on the surfaces of the fan blades during the cold and dry season can be recovered through the characteristic mode of operation. Hence the CHRF provides the possibility to avoid the need for frost protection and condensate drain. Through the implementation of system-specific solutions for flow balancing and summer bypass the required functionality is assured. The scalability of the CHRF concept allows the use in renovation as well as in new buildings from single-room devices through to systems for office buildings. High aerodynamic and thermal efficiency and the lower number of required mechatronic components should enable a reduction in investment as well as operating costs. The rotor is the key component of the system, the requirements and possible implementation variants are presented.

Keywords: CHRF, counter flow heat recovery fan, decentralized ventilation system, renovation

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8 Application of Modal Analysis for Commissioning of a Ball Screw System

Authors: T. D. Tran, H. Schlegel, R. Neugebauer

Abstract:

Ball screws are an important component in machine tools. In mechatronic systems and machine tools, a ball screw has to work usually at a high speed. Otherwise the axial compliance of the ball screw, in combination with the inertia of the slide, the motor, the coupling and the screw, will cause an oscillation resonance, which limits the systems bandwidth and consequently influences performance of the motion controller. In this paper, the modal analysis method by measuring and analysing the vibrating parameters of the ball screw system to determine the dynamic characteristic of existing structures is used. On the one hand, the results of this study were obtained by the theoretical analysis and the modal testing of a ball screw system test station with the help of an impact hammer, respectively using excitation by motor. The experimental study showed oscillating forms of the ball screw for each frequency and obtained eigenfrequencies of the ball screw system. On the other hand, in this research a simulation with the help of the numerical modal analysis in order to analyse the oscillation and to find the eigenfrequencies of the ball screw system is used. Furthermore, the model order reduction by modal reduction and also according to Guyan is carried out. On the basis of these results a secure and also rapid commissioning of the control loops with regard to operating in their optimal function is targeted.

Keywords: modal analysis, ball screw, controller system, machine tools

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7 Developing Problem Solving Skills Through A Project-Based Course As Part Of A Lifelong Learning for Engineering Students

Authors: Robin Lok Wang Ma

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how engineering students’ motivation and interests are maintained in their journeys. In recent years, different pedagogies of teaching, including entrepreneurship, experiential and lifelong learnings as well as dream builder, etc., have been widely used for education purpose. University advocates hands-on practice, learning by experiencing and experimenting throughout different courses. Students are not limited to gain knowledges via traditional lectures, laboratory demonstration, tutorial, and so on. The capabilities to identify both complex problems and its corresponding solutions in daily lives is one of the criteria/skill sets required for graduates to obtain their careers at professional organizations and companies. A project-based course, namely Mechatronic Design and Prototyping, was developed for students to design and build a physical prototype for solving existing problems in their daily lives, thereby encouraging them as an entrepreneur to explore further possibilities to commercialize their designed prototypes and launch it to the market. Feedbacks from students show that they are keen to propose their own ideas freely with guidance from the instructor instead of using either suggested or assigned topics. Proposed ideas of the prototypes reflect that if students’ interests are maintained, they acquire the knowledges and skills they need, including essential communication, logical thinking, and, more importantly, problem solving for their lifelong learning journey.

Keywords: problem solving, lifelong learning, entrepreneurship, engineering

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6 Knowledge Based Behaviour Modelling and Execution in Service Robotics

Authors: Suraj Nair, Aravindkumar Vijayalingam, Alexander Perzylo, Alois Knoll

Abstract:

In the last decade robotics research and development activities have grown rapidly, especially in the domain of service robotics. Integrating service robots into human occupied spaces such as homes, offices, hospitals, etc. has become increasingly worked upon. The primary motive is to ease daily lives of humans by taking over some of the household/office chores. However, several challenges remain in systematically integrating such systems in human shared work-spaces. In addition to sensing and indoor-navigation challenges, programmability of such systems is a major hurdle due to the fact that the potential user cannot be expected to have knowledge in robotics or similar mechatronic systems. In this paper, we propose a cognitive system for service robotics which allows non-expert users to easily model system behaviour in an underspecified manner through abstract tasks and objects associated with them. The system uses domain knowledge expressed in the form of an ontology along with logical reasoning mechanisms to infer all the missing pieces of information required for executing the tasks. Furthermore, the system is also capable of recovering from failed tasks arising due to on-line disturbances by using the knowledge base and inferring alternate methods to execute the same tasks. The system is demonstrated through a coffee fetching scenario in an office environment using a mobile robot equipped with sensors and software capabilities for autonomous navigation and human-interaction through natural language.

Keywords: cognitive robotics, reasoning, service robotics, task based systems

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5 Advanced Deployable/Retractable Solar Panel System for Satellite Applications

Authors: Zane Brough, Claudio Paoloni

Abstract:

Modern low earth orbit (LEO) satellites that require multi-mission flexibility are highly likely to be repositioned between different operational orbits. While executing this process the satellite may experience high levels of vibration and environmental hazards, exposing the deployed solar panel to dangerous stress levels, fatigue and space debris, hence it is desirable to retract the solar array before satellite repositioning to avoid damage or failure. Furthermore, to accommodate for today's technological world, the power demand of a modern LEO satellite is rapidly increasing, which consequently provides pressure upon the design of the satellites solar array system to conform to the strict volume and mass limitations. A novel concept of deployable/retractable hybrid solar array system, aimed to provide a greater power to volume ratio while dramatically reducing the disadvantages of system mass and cost is proposed. Taking advantage of the new lightweight technology in solar panels, a mechanical system composed of both rigid and flexible solar panels arranged within a petal formation is proposed to yield a stowed to deployment area ratio up to at least 1:7, which improves the power density dramatically. The system consists of five subsystems, the outer ones based on a novel eight-petal configuration that provides a large surface and supports the flexible solar panels. A single cable and spool based hinge mechanism were designed to synchronously deploy/retract the panels in a safe, simple and efficient manner while the mass compared to the previous systems is considerably reduced. The relevant challenge to assure a smooth movement is resolved by a proper minimization of the gearing system and the use of a micro-controller system. A prototype was designed by 3D simulators and successfully constructed and tested. Further design works are in progress to implement an epicyclical gear hinge mechanism, which will further reduce the volume, mass and complexity of the system significantly. The proposed system due to an effective and reliable mechanism provides a large active surface, whilst being very compact. It could be extremely advantageous for use as ground portable solar panel system.

Keywords: mechatronic engineering, satellite, solar panel, deployable/retractable mechanism

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4 Systematic Mapping Study of Digitization and Analysis of Manufacturing Data

Authors: R. Clancy, M. Ahern, D. O’Sullivan, K. Bruton

Abstract:

The manufacturing industry is currently undergoing a digital transformation as part of the mega-trend Industry 4.0. As part of this phase of the industrial revolution, traditional manufacturing processes are being combined with digital technologies to achieve smarter and more efficient production. To successfully digitally transform a manufacturing facility, the processes must first be digitized. This is the conversion of information from an analogue format to a digital format. The objective of this study was to explore the research area of digitizing manufacturing data as part of the worldwide paradigm, Industry 4.0. The formal methodology of a systematic mapping study was utilized to capture a representative sample of the research area and assess its current state. Specific research questions were defined to assess the key benefits and limitations associated with the digitization of manufacturing data. Research papers were classified according to the type of research and type of contribution to the research area. Upon analyzing 54 papers identified in this area, it was noted that 23 of the papers originated in Germany. This is an unsurprising finding as Industry 4.0 is originally a German strategy with supporting strong policy instruments being utilized in Germany to support its implementation. It was also found that the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechatronic Systems Design, in collaboration with the University of Paderborn in Germany, was the most frequent contributing Institution of the research papers with three papers published. The literature suggested future research directions and highlighted one specific gap in the area. There exists an unresolved gap between the data science experts and the manufacturing process experts in the industry. The data analytics expertise is not useful unless the manufacturing process information is utilized. A legitimate understanding of the data is crucial to perform accurate analytics and gain true, valuable insights into the manufacturing process. There lies a gap between the manufacturing operations and the information technology/data analytics departments within enterprises, which was borne out by the results of many of the case studies reviewed as part of this work. To test the concept of this gap existing, the researcher initiated an industrial case study in which they embedded themselves between the subject matter expert of the manufacturing process and the data scientist. Of the papers resulting from the systematic mapping study, 12 of the papers contributed a framework, another 12 of the papers were based on a case study, and 11 of the papers focused on theory. However, there were only three papers that contributed a methodology. This provides further evidence for the need for an industry-focused methodology for digitizing and analyzing manufacturing data, which will be developed in future research.

Keywords: analytics, digitization, industry 4.0, manufacturing

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3 Light, Restorativeness and Performance in the Workplace: A Pilot Study

Authors: D. Scarpanti, M. Brondino, M. Pasini

Abstract:

Background: the present study explores the role of light and restorativeness on work. According with the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) and a Model of Work Environment, the main idea is that some features of environment, i.e., lighting, influences the direct attention, and so, the performance. Restorativeness refers to the presence/absence level of all the characteristics of physical environment that help to regenerate direct attention. Specifically, lighting can affect level of fascination and attention in one hand; and in other hand promotes several biological functions via pineal gland. Different reviews on this topic show controversial results. In order to bring light on this topic, the hypotheses of this study are that lighting can affect the construct of restorativeness and, in the second time, the restorativeness can affect the performance. Method: the participants are 30 workers of a mechatronic company in the North Italy. Every subject answered to a questionnaire valuing their subjective perceptions of environment in a different way: some objective features of environment, like lighting, temperature and air quality; some subjective perceptions of this environment; finally, the participants answered about their perceived performance. The main attention is on the features of light and his components: visual comfort, general preferences and pleasantness; and the dimensions of the construct of restorativeness; fascination, coherence and being away. The construct of performance per se is conceptualized in three level: individual, team membership and organizational membership; and in three different components: proficiency, adaptability, and proactivity, for a total of 9 subcomponents. Findings: path analysis showed that some characteristics of lighting respectively affected the dimension of fascination; and, as expected, the dimension of fascination affected work performance. Conclusions: The present study is a first pilot step of a wide research. These first results can be summarized with the statement that lighting and restorativeness contribute to explain work performance variability: in details perceptions of visual comfort, satisfaction and pleasantness, and fascination respectively. Results related to fascination are particularly interesting because fascination is conceptualized as the opposite of the construct of direct attention. The main idea is, in order to regenerate attentional capacity, it’s necessary to provide a lacking of attention (fascination). The sample size did not permit to test simultaneously the role of the perceived characteristics of light to see how they differently contribute to predict fascination of the work environment. However, the results highlighted the important role that light could have in predicting restorativeness dimensions and probably with a larger sample we could find larger effects also on work performance. Furthermore, longitudinal data will contribute to better analyze the causal model along time. Applicative implications: the present pilot study highlights the relevant role of lighting and perceived restorativeness in the work environment and the importance to focus attention on light features and the restorative characteristics in the design of work environments.

Keywords: lighting, performance, restorativeness, workplace

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2 Analytical Track Surface Modelling for Multi-Body Analyses of Rail Vehicles in MATLAB SIMULINK

Authors: Stefan Heinrich, Tom Morris

Abstract:

Wheel-rail contact simulation behavior is generally determined using external Multi-Physics libraries, such as Vtech CMCC CONTACT or perhaps self-developed solutions, when establishing and modeling rail track networks for vehicle dynamic and safety analysis. Commercial software such as SIMPACK or VAMPIRE Pro rely upon such external libraries for example. To date however there is no integration of a CONTACT library into MATLAB SIMULINK that would serve to accurately perform Multi-Body analysis of rail vehicles within this particular software environment. Since MATLAB SIMULINK holds an advantage over the aforementioned commercial software regarding topics such as hardware in the loop (HIL), control design and multi-physical system analysis, this study focuses on the analytical description of the track profile. By meshing this profile as a surface for use in the SIMULINK SIMSCAPE Multi-Body environment, it supports the simulation of a hydraulic-mechatronic active steering system with individually suspended single-driven wheels, integrated into a modified tram designed for the Zurich network. Starting with a 60R2 profile, an analytical description of the profile is created using trigonometric functions and tangential radius transitions as boundary conditions. The description provides a one-dimensional, closed-curve which can be evaluated in the Cartesian y-z coordinate system by specifying a point density. The exact analytical description in combination with a line-point density allows the geometry of the profile to be easily varied. In the next step, the considered track section is modeled using the shape-preserving piecewise cubic spline interpolation. The support points for the spline are also calculated analytically combining straight lines, circular arcs and clothoids. The spline and its normal and binormal vectors enable the first step of the track profile generation before being extruded along the given track points. A three-dimensional point cloud of the track is then transformed into a surface model according to the surface meshing available in MATLAB. A current limitation here is that the orthogonal mesh generation leads to a certain number of unused points depending on the chosen combinations of curves in the track model. Therefore, a segmentation of the track is performed before the actual meshing. This optimization approach fits these segments into rectangles of the smallest possible area. Created in this way, the mesh segments are then passed to SIMULINK SIMSCAPE and used for the rail-wheel contact description in the Multi-Body Simulation. In addition, information such as spatial features and positioning can be stored using this analytical approach. This allows for incorporating any track profile changes, such as in switches, crossings or shallow parts, and to use linear or non-linear profile transitions as a function of the position on the track. This analytical, twice differentiable mesh description is shown to result in significantly lower computation times (factor 5 to 10) compared to earlier contact modeling options associated with multiple contact bodies. The improved contact approach and the integration of external libraries now allow for an increased complexity of modeling towards the HIL and Co-Simulation architecture, and thus support the design of bogie concepts with more detailed statements of the tram system behavior.

Keywords: analytical track description, wheel-rail contact, SIMULINK SIMSCAPE, track modelling

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1 Black-Box-Optimization Approach for High Precision Multi-Axes Forward-Feed Design

Authors: Sebastian Kehne, Alexander Epple, Werner Herfs

Abstract:

A new method for optimal selection of components for multi-axes forward-feed drive systems is proposed in which the choice of motors, gear boxes and ball screw drives is optimized. Essential is here the synchronization of electrical and mechanical frequency behavior of all axes because even advanced controls (like H∞-controls) can only control a small part of the mechanical modes – namely only those of observable and controllable states whose value can be derived from the positions of extern linear length measurement systems and/or rotary encoders on the motor or gear box shafts. Further problems are the unknown processing forces like cutting forces in machine tools during normal operation which make the estimation and control via an observer even more difficult. To start with, the open source Modelica Feed Drive Library which was developed at the Laboratory for Machine Tools, and Production Engineering (WZL) is extended from one axis design to the multi axes design. It is capable to simulate the mechanical, electrical and thermal behavior of permanent magnet synchronous machines with inverters, different gear boxes and ball screw drives in a mechanical system. To keep the calculation time down analytical equations are used for field and torque producing equivalent circuit, heat dissipation and mechanical torque at the shaft. As a first step, a small machine tool with a working area of 635 x 315 x 420 mm is taken apart, and the mechanical transfer behavior is measured with an impulse hammer and acceleration sensors. With the frequency transfer functions, a mechanical finite element model is built up which is reduced with substructure coupling to a mass-damper system which models the most important modes of the axes. The model is modelled with Modelica Feed Drive Library and validated by further relative measurements between machine table and spindle holder with a piezo actor and acceleration sensors. In a next step, the choice of possible components in motor catalogues is limited by derived analytical formulas which are based on well-known metrics to gain effective power and torque of the components. The simulation in Modelica is run with different permanent magnet synchronous motors, gear boxes and ball screw drives from different suppliers. To speed up the optimization different black-box optimization methods (Surrogate-based, gradient-based and evolutionary) are tested on the case. The objective that was chosen is to minimize the integral of the deviations if a step is given on the position controls of the different axes. Small values are good measures for a high dynamic axes. In each iteration (evaluation of one set of components) the control variables are adjusted automatically to have an overshoot less than 1%. It is obtained that the order of the components in optimization problem has a deep impact on the speed of the black-box optimization. An approach to do efficient black-box optimization for multi-axes design is presented in the last part. The authors would like to thank the German Research Foundation DFG for financial support of the project “Optimierung des mechatronischen Entwurfs von mehrachsigen Antriebssystemen (HE 5386/14-1 | 6954/4-1)” (English: Optimization of the Mechatronic Design of Multi-Axes Drive Systems).

Keywords: ball screw drive design, discrete optimization, forward feed drives, gear box design, linear drives, machine tools, motor design, multi-axes design

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