Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2998

Search results for: velocity profile

2998 Static Simulation of Pressure and Velocity Behaviour for NACA 0006 Blade Profile of Well’s Turbine

Authors: Chetan Apurav


In this journal the behavioural analysis of pressure and velocity has been done over the blade profile of Well’s turbine. The blade profile that has been taken into consideration is NACA 0006. The analysis has been done in Ansys Workbench under CFX module. The CAD model of the blade profile with certain dimensions has been made in CREO, and then is imported to Ansys for further analysis. The turbine model has been enclosed under a cylindrical body and has been analysed under a constant velocity of air at 5 m/s and zero relative pressure in static condition of the turbine. Further the results are represented in tabular as well as graphical form. It has been observed that the relative pressure of the blade profile has been stable throughout the radial length and hence will be suitable for practical usage.

Keywords: Well's turbine, oscillating water column, ocean engineering, wave energy, NACA 0006

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2997 Investigation of Axisymmetric Bimetallic Tube Extrusion with Conic Die

Authors: A. Eghbali, M. Goodarzi, M. Hagh Panahi


In this article process of direct extrusion of axisymmetric bimetallic tube with conic die profile and constant Mandrel by upper bound method has been analyzed and finite element method is simulated. Deformation area is divided into six smaller deformation areas and are calculated by presenting two generalized velocity field and applicable input and output sections separately (velocity profile with logarithmic curve for input section and spherical velocity profile for materials output ) for each die profile in spherical coordinate system strain rate values in every deformation area. After internal power, shearing power and material friction power is obtained, extrusion force is calculated. The results of upper bound analysis method with given results from other researcher's experiments and simulation by finite parts method (Abaqus software) are compared for conic die.

Keywords: extrusion, upper bound, axisy metric, deformation velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
2996 Prediction of Flow Around a NACA 0015 Profile

Authors: Boukhadia Karima


The fluid mechanics is the study of fluid motion laws and their interaction with solid bodies, this project leads to illustrate this interaction with depth studies and approved by experiments on the wind tunnel TE44, ensuring the efficiency, accuracy and reliability of these tests on a NACA0015 profile. A symmetric NACA0015 was placed in a subsonic wind tunnel, and measurements were made of the pressure on the upper and lower surface of the wing and of the velocity across the vortex trailing downstream from the tip of the wing. The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the scattered pressure profile in a free airflow and the aerodynamic forces acting on this profile. The addition of around-lateral edge to the wing tip was found to eliminate the secondary vortex near the wing tip, but had little effect on the downstream characteristics of the trailing vortex. The increase in wing lift near the tip because of the presence of the trailing vortex was evident in the surface pressure, but was not captured by circulation-box measurements. The circumferential velocity within the vortex was found to reach free-stream values and produce core rotational speeds. Near the wing, the trailing vortex is asymmetric and contains definite zones where the stream wise velocity both exceeds and falls behind the free-stream value. When referenced to the free stream velocity, the maximum vertical velocity of the vortex is directly dependent on α and is independent of Re. A numerical study was conducted through a CFD code called FLUENT 6.0, and the results are compared with experimental.

Keywords: CFD code, NACA Profile, detachment, angle of incidence, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2995 Visco-Acoustic Full Wave Inversion in the Frequency Domain with Mixed Grids

Authors: Sheryl Avendaño, Miguel Ospina, Hebert Montegranario


Full Wave Inversion (FWI) is a variant of seismic tomography for obtaining velocity profiles by an optimization process that combine forward modelling (or solution of wave equation) with the misfit between synthetic and observed data. In this research we are modelling wave propagation in a visco-acoustic medium in the frequency domain. We apply finite differences for the numerical solution of the wave equation with a mix between usual and rotated grids, where density depends on velocity and there exists a damping function associated to a linear dissipative medium. The velocity profiles are obtained from an initial one and the data have been modeled for a frequency range 0-120 Hz. By an iterative procedure we obtain an estimated velocity profile in which are detailed the remarkable features of the velocity profile from which synthetic data were generated showing promising results for our method.

Keywords: seismic inversion, full wave inversion, visco acoustic wave equation, finite diffrence methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2994 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-To-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1 m tall methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurement of axial levels was conducted in the full developed region. The effect of axial level on flow development was not obvious under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons between upward, downward and average particle velocity were conducted. The average particle velocity was close to upward velocity and higher than downward velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2993 Detailed Microzonation Studies around Denizli, Turkey

Authors: A. Aydin, E. Akyol, N. Soyatik


This study has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic microzonation of the city center. For seismic microzonation area of 225 km2 has been selected as the study area. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) and seismic refraction methods have been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at 250 locations and two-dimensional profile at 60 locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 60 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, liquefaction, land use management, seismic refraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2992 Experimental Investigation of S822 and S823 Wind Turbine Airfoils Wake

Authors: Amir B. Khoshnevis, Morteza Mirhosseini


The paper deals with a sub-part of an extensive research program on the wake survey method in various Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. This research experimentally investigates the wake flow characteristics behind S823 and S822 airfoils in which designed for small wind turbines. Velocity measurements determined by using hot-wire anemometer. Data acquired in the wake of the airfoil at locations(c is the chord length): 0.01c - 3c. Reynolds number increased due to increase of free stream velocity. Results showed that mean velocity profiles depend on the angle of attack and location of data collections. Data acquired at the low Reynolds numbers (smaller than 10^5). Effects of Reynolds numbers on the mean velocity profiles are more significant in near locations the trailing edge and these effects decrease by taking distance from trailing edge toward downstream. Mean velocity profiles region increased by increasing the angle of attack, except for 7°, and also the maximum velocity deficit (velocity defect) increased. The difference of mean velocity in and out of the wake decreased by taking distance from trailing edge, and mean velocity profile become wider and more uniform.

Keywords: angle of attack, Reynolds number, velocity deficit, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2991 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana


The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. An expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on velocity, shear stress, pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation and reattachment points are strongly effected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2990 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh


Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
2989 Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Control Using Input Shaping

Authors: Dongjoo Kim


Effective control of sloshing in a liquid container is an important issue to be resolved in many applications. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to design the velocity profile of rectangular container and investigate the effectiveness of input shaping for sloshing control. Trapezoidal profiles of container velocity are chosen to be reference commands and they are convolved with a series of impulses to generate shaped ones that induce minimal residual oscillations. The performances of several input shapers are compared from the viewpoint of transient peak and residual oscillations of sloshing. Results show that sloshing can be effectively controlled by input shaping (Supported by the NRF programs, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675, of Korean government).

Keywords: input shaping, rectangular container, sloshing, trapezoidal profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2988 Numerical Study of a Ventilation Principle Based on Flow Pulsations

Authors: Amir Sattari, Mac Panah, Naeim Rashidfarokhi


To enhance the mixing of fluid in a rectangular enclosure with a circular inlet and outlet, an energy-efficient approach is further investigated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements help confirm that the pulsation of the inflow velocity improves the mixing performance inside the enclosure considerably without increasing energy consumption. In this study, multiple CFD simulations with different turbulent models were performed. The results obtained were compared with experimental PIV results. This study investigates small-scale representations of flow patterns in a ventilated rectangular room. The objective is to validate the concept of an energy-efficient ventilation strategy with improved thermal comfort and reduction of stagnant air inside the room. Experimental and simulated results confirm that through pulsation of the inflow velocity, strong secondary vortices are generated downstream of the entrance wall-jet. The pulsatile inflow profile promotes a periodic generation of vortices with stronger eddies despite a relatively low inlet velocity, which leads to a larger boundary layer with increased kinetic energy in the occupied zone. A real-scale study was not conducted; however, it can be concluded that a constant velocity inflow profile can be replaced with a lower pulsated flow rate profile while preserving the mixing efficiency. Among the turbulent CFD models demonstrated in this study, SST-kω is most advantageous, exhibiting a similar global airflow pattern as in the experiments. The detailed near-wall velocity profile is utilized to identify the wall-jet instabilities that consist of mixing and boundary layers. The SAS method was later applied to predict the turbulent parameters in the center of the domain. In both cases, the predictions are in good agreement with the measured results.

Keywords: CFD, PIV, pulsatile inflow, ventilation, wall-jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2987 Non-Linear Velocity Fields in Turbulent Wave Boundary Layer

Authors: Shamsul Chowdhury


The objective of this paper is to present the detailed analysis of the turbulent wave boundary layer produced by progressive finite-amplitude waves theory. Most of the works have done for the mass transport in the turbulent boundary layer assuming the eddy viscosity is not time varying, where the sediment movement is induced by the mean velocity. Near the ocean bottom, the waves produce a thin turbulent boundary layer, where the flow is highly rotational, and shear stress associated with the fluid motion cannot be neglected. The magnitude and the predominant direction of the sediment transport near the bottom are known to be closely related to the flow in the wave induced boundary layer. The magnitude of water particle velocity at the Crest phase differs from the one of the Trough phases due to the non-linearity of the waves, which plays an important role to determine the sediment movement. The non-linearity of the waves become predominant in the surf zone area, where the sediment movement occurs vigorously. Therefore, in order to describe the flow near the bottom and relationship between the flow and the movement of the sediment, the analysis was done using the non-linear boundary layer equation and the finite amplitude wave theory was applied to represent the velocity fields in the turbulent wave boundary layer. At first, the calculation was done for turbulent wave boundary layer by two-dimensional model where throughout the calculation is non-linear. But Stokes second order wave profile is adopted at the upper boundary. The calculated profile was compared with the experimental data. Finally, the calculation is done based on various modes of the velocity and turbulent energy. The mean velocity is found to differ from condition of the relative depth and the roughness. It is also found that due to non-linearity, the absolute value for velocity and turbulent energy as well as Reynolds stress are asymmetric. The mean velocity of the laminar boundary layer is always positive but in the turbulent boundary layer plays a very complicated role.

Keywords: wave boundary, mass transport, mean velocity, shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
2986 Unsteady MHD Thin Film Flow of a Third-Grade Fluid with Heat Transfer and Slip Boundary Condition Down an Inclined Plane

Authors: Y. M. Aiyesimi, G. T. Okedayo, O. W. Lawal


An investigation is made for unsteady MHD thin film flow of a third grade fluid down an inclined plane with slip boundary condition. The non-linear partial differential equation governing the flow and heat transfer are evaluated numerically using computer software called Maple to obtain velocity and temperature profile. The effect of slip and other various physical parameter on both velocity and temperature profile obtained are studied through several graphs.

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluid, MHD flow, third-grade fluid, Maple, slip boundary condition, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
2985 Rising Velocity of a Non-Newtonian Liquids in Capillary Tubes

Authors: Reza Sabbagh, Linda Hasanovich, Aleksey Baldygin, David S. Nobes, Prashant R. Waghmare


The capillary filling process is significantly important to study for numerous applications such as the under filling of the material in electronic packaging or liquid hydrocarbons seepage through porous structure. The approximation of the fluid being Newtonian, i.e., linear relationship between the shear stress and deformation rate cannot be justified in cases where the extent of non-Newtonian behavior of liquid governs the surface driven transport, i.e., capillarity action. In this study, the capillary action of a non-Newtonian fluid is not only analyzed, but also the modified generalized theoretical analysis for the capillary transport is proposed. The commonly observed three regimes: surface forces dominant (travelling air-liquid interface), developing flow (viscous force dominant), and developed regimes (interfacial, inertial and viscous forces are comparable) are identified. The velocity field along each regime is quantified with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid in square shaped vertically oriented channel. Theoretical understanding of capillary imbibition process, particularly in the case of Newtonian fluids, is relied on the simplified assumption of a fully developed velocity profile which has been revisited for developing a modified theory for the capillary transport of non-Newtonian fluids. Furthermore, the development of the velocity profile from the entrance regime to the developed regime, for different power law fluids, is also investigated theoretically and experimentally.

Keywords: capillary, non-Newtonian flow, shadowgraphy, rising velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2984 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying


High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV, Velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2983 A Comparison of Computational and Experimental Data to Investigate the Influence of the Tangential Velocity of Inner Rotating Wall on Axial Velocity Profile of Flow through Vertical Annular Pipe with Rotating Inner Surface

Authors: Abdusalam Sharf


In the oil and gas industries, one of the most important issues in drilling wells is understanding the behavior of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates. The main emphasis is placed on a comparison of experimental and computational investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The computational investigations were carried out by employing CFD software, and Gambit and Fluent. Three turbulence models were used: standard, RNG with enhanced wall treatment, and SST model. The profiles of the axial velocity had investigated at different rotation speeds of the inner pipe with three different volumetric flow rates. The comparison results showed that the calculations satisfactorily predict the qualitative features of the axial and swirl velocity profiles and the RNG model performs the best results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), SST k−ω shear-stress transport (k−ω mode variant), RNG k–ε renormalisation group (k−ε mode variant), y+ dimensionless distance from wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2982 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez


Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
2981 Highly Accurate Target Motion Compensation Using Entropy Function Minimization

Authors: Amin Aghatabar Roodbary, Mohammad Hassan Bastani


One of the defects of stepped frequency radar systems is their sensitivity to target motion. In such systems, target motion causes range cell shift, false peaks, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) reduction and range profile spreading because of power spectrum interference of each range cell in adjacent range cells which induces distortion in High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) and disrupt target recognition process. Thus Target Motion Parameters (TMPs) effects compensation should be employed. In this paper, such a method for estimating TMPs (velocity and acceleration) and consequently eliminating or suppressing the unwanted effects on HRRP based on entropy minimization has been proposed. This method is carried out in two major steps: in the first step, a discrete search method has been utilized over the whole acceleration-velocity lattice network, in a specific interval seeking to find a less-accurate minimum point of the entropy function. Then in the second step, a 1-D search over velocity is done in locus of the minimum for several constant acceleration lines, in order to enhance the accuracy of the minimum point found in the first step. The provided simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: automatic target recognition (ATR), high resolution range profile (HRRP), motion compensation, stepped frequency waveform technique (SFW), target motion parameters (TMPs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2980 Transient Modeling of Velocity Profile and Heat Transfer of Electrohydrodynamically Augmented Micro Heat Pipe

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, M. Tajerian


At this paper velocity profile modeling and heat transfer in the micro heat pipes by using electrohydrodynamic (EHD) field at the transient regime have been studied. In the transient flow, one dimensional and two phase fluid flow and heat transfer for micro heat pipes with square cross section, have been studied. At this model Coulomb and dielectrophoretic forces are considered. Coupled, non-linear equations governed on the model (continuity, momentum, and energy equations) have been solved simultaneously by numerical methods. Transient behavior of affecting parameters e.g. substrate temperature, velocity of coolant liquid, radius of curvature and coolant liquid pressure, has been verified. By obtaining and plotting the mentioned parameters, it has been shown that the EHD field enhances the heat transfer process. So, the time required to reach the steady state regime decreases from 16 seconds to 2.4 seconds after applying EHD field. Another result has been observed implicitly that by increasing the heat input the effect of EHD field became more significant. The numerical results of model predict the experimental results available in the literature successfully, and it has been observed there is a good agreement between them.

Keywords: micro heat pipe, transient modeling, electrohydrodynamics, capillary, meniscus

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2979 Modeling Study of Short Fiber Orientation in Simple Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Ihsane Modhaffar, Kamal Gueraoui, Abouelkacem Qais, Abderrahmane Maaouni, Samir Men-La-Yakhaf, Hamid Eltourroug


The main objective of this paper is to develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate and characterize the fiber suspension in flow in rectangular cavities. The model is intended to describe the velocity profile and to predict the fiber orientation. The flow was considered to be incompressible, and behave as Newtonian fluid containing suspensions of short-fibers. The numerical model for determination of velocity profile and fiber orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using finite volume method. The governing equations of this problem are: the continuity, the momentum and the energy. The obtained results were compared to available experimental findings. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.

Keywords: injection, composites, short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, fiber orientation, incompressible fluid, numerical simulation

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2978 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan


Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2977 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris


In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2976 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile

Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur


In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.

Keywords: Ahmed body, bi-stability, LES, near wake

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2975 Multichannel Analysis of the Surface Waves of Earth Materials in Some Parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: R. B. Adegbola, K. F. Oyedele, L. Adeoti


We present a method that utilizes Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, which was used to measure shear wave velocities with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. Multi channel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW) data were acquired using 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrates the accuracy and consistency of MASW derived-shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/very low velocity are reflective of organic clay/peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failed, subsidence/weakening of structures within the study areas.

Keywords: seismograph, road failure, rigidity modulus, N-value, subsidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2974 Effects of Variable Properties and Double Dispersion on Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convection in a Power-Law Fluid Saturated Non-Darcy Porous Medium

Authors: Pranitha Janapatla, Venkata Suman Gontla


The present paper investigates the effects of MHD, double dispersion and variable properties on mixed convection flow from a vertical surface in a power-law fluid saturated non-Darcy porous medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by using a special form of Lie group transformations viz. scaling group of transformations. These ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using Shooting technique. The influence of relevant parameters on the non-dimensional velocity, temperature, concentration for pseudo-plastic fluid, Newtonian and dilatant fluid are discussed and displayed graphically. The behavior of heat and mass transfer coefficients are shown in tabular form. Comparisons with the published works are performed and are found to be in very good agreement. From this analysis, it is observed that an increase in variable viscosity causes to decrease in velocity profile and increase the temperature and concentration distributions. It is also concluded that increase in the solutal dispersion decreases the velocity and concentration but raises the temperature profile.

Keywords: power-law fluid, thermal conductivity, thermal dispersion, solutal dispersion, variable viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2973 An Experimental (Wind Tunnel) and Numerical (CFD) Study on the Flow over Hills

Authors: Tanit Daniel Jodar Vecina, Adriane Prisco Petry


The shape of the wind velocity profile changes according to local features of terrain shape and roughness, which are parameters responsible for defining the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) profile. Air flow characteristics over and around landforms, such as hills, are of considerable importance for applications related to Wind Farm and Turbine Engineering. The air flow is accelerated on top of hills, which can represent a decisive factor for Wind Turbine placement choices. The present work focuses on the study of ABL behavior as a function of slope and surface roughness of hill-shaped landforms, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to build wind velocity and turbulent intensity profiles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are closed using the SST k-ω turbulence model; numerical results are compared to experimental data measured in wind tunnel over scale models of the hills under consideration. Eight hill models with slopes varying from 25° to 68° were tested for two types of terrain categories in 2D and 3D, and two analytical codes are used to represent the inlet velocity profiles. Numerical results for the velocity profiles show differences under 4% when compared to their respective experimental data. Turbulent intensity profiles show maximum differences around 7% when compared to experimental data; this can be explained by not being possible to insert inlet turbulent intensity profiles in the simulations. Alternatively, constant values based on the averages of the turbulent intensity at the wind tunnel inlet were used.

Keywords: Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD), Numerical Modeling, Wind Tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2972 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad


Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2971 Numerical Study of Two Mechanical Stirring Systems for Yield Stress Fluid

Authors: Amine Benmoussa, Mebrouk Rebhi, Rahmani Lakhdar


Mechanically agitated vessels are commonly used for various operations within a wide range process in chemical, pharmaceutical, polymer, biochemical, mineral, petroleum industries. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. In this paper, the laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with straight and circular gate impellers in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), where the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power consumption was analyzed.

Keywords: CFD, mechanical stirring, power consumption, yield stress fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2970 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das


The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: acoustic doppler velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2969 Towards Accurate Velocity Profile Models in Turbulent Open-Channel Flows: Improved Eddy Viscosity Formulation

Authors: W. Meron Mebrahtu, R. Absi


Velocity distribution in turbulent open-channel flows is organized in a complex manner. This is due to the large spatial and temporal variability of fluid motion resulting from the free-surface turbulent flow condition. This phenomenon is complicated further due to the complex geometry of channels and the presence of solids transported. Thus, several efforts were made to understand the phenomenon and obtain accurate mathematical models that are suitable for engineering applications. However, predictions are inaccurate because oversimplified assumptions are involved in modeling this complex phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study velocity distribution profiles and obtain simple, more accurate, and predictive mathematical models. Particular focus will be made on the acceptable simplification of the general transport equations and an accurate representation of eddy viscosity. Wide rectangular open-channel seems suitable to begin the study; other assumptions are smooth-wall, and sediment-free flow under steady and uniform flow conditions. These assumptions will allow examining the effect of the bottom wall and the free surface only, which is a necessary step before dealing with more complex flow scenarios. For this flow condition, two ordinary differential equations are obtained for velocity profiles; from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation and equilibrium consideration between turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and dissipation. Then different analytic models for eddy viscosity, TKE, and mixing length were assessed. Computation results for velocity profiles were compared to experimental data for different flow conditions and the well-known linear, log, and log-wake laws. Results show that the model based on the RANS equation provides more accurate velocity profiles. In the viscous sublayer and buffer layer, the method based on Prandtl’s eddy viscosity model and Van Driest mixing length give a more precise result. For the log layer and outer region, a mixing length equation derived from Von Karman’s similarity hypothesis provides the best agreement with measured data except near the free surface where an additional correction based on a damping function for eddy viscosity is used. This method allows more accurate velocity profiles with the same value of the damping coefficient that is valid under different flow conditions. This work continues with investigating narrow channels, complex geometries, and the effect of solids transported in sewers.

Keywords: accuracy, eddy viscosity, sewers, velocity profile

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