Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9510

Search results for: large Eddy simulation

9510 Far-Field Acoustic Prediction of a Supersonic Expanding Jet Using Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Asensi Oliva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic field generated by a jet expansion is computed via three dimensional compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Finite Volume Method (FVM) will be the discretization used during this simulation as well as hybrid schemes based on Kinetic Energy Preserving (KEP) schemes and up-winding Godunov based schemes with instabilities detectors. Velocity and pressure fields will be stored at different surfaces near the jet, but far enough to enclose all the fluctuations, in order to use them as input for the acoustic solver. The acoustic field is obtained in the far-field region at several locations by means of a hybrid method based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation. This equation will be formulated in the spectral domain, via Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources, which are modeled from the results of the initial simulation. The obtained results will allow the study of the broadband noise generated as well as sound directivities.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, jet noise

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9509 Far-Field Noise Prediction of Tandem Cylinders Using Incompressible Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Francesc Xavier Trias, Asensi Oliva

Abstract:

A three-dimensional incompressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed to compute the hydrodynamic field around a pair of tandem cylinders. Symmetry-preserving schemes will be used during this simulation in conjunction with Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain the hydrodynamic field around the selected geometry. A set of results consisting of pressure and velocity and the combination of them will be stored at different surfaces near the cylinders as the initial input for the second part of the study. A post-processing of the obtained results based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation with a Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources will be used to compute noise at several probes located far away from the region where the hydrodynamics are computed. Directivities as well as spectral profile of the obtained acoustic field will be analyzed.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, long-span bodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
9508 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao

Abstract:

Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
9507 Energy Budget Equation of Superfluid HVBK Model: LES Simulation

Authors: M. Bakhtaoui, L. Merahi

Abstract:

The reliability of the filtered HVBK model is now investigated via some large eddy simulations of freely decaying isotropic superfluid turbulence. For homogeneous turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, comparison of the terms in the spectral kinetic energy budget equation indicates, in the energy-containing range, that the production and energy transfer effects become significant except for dissipation. In the inertial range, where the two fluids are perfectly locked, the mutual friction maybe neglected with respect to other terms. Also the LES results for the other terms of the energy balance are presented.

Keywords: superfluid turbulence, HVBK, energy budget, Large Eddy Simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
9506 Large Eddy Simulation Approach for Unsteady Analysis of the Flow Behavior inside a Dual Counter Rotating Axial Swirler

Authors: Foad Vashahi, Shahnaz Rezaei, Jeekeun Lee

Abstract:

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was performed on a dual counter rotating axial swirler in a confined rectangular configuration. Grids were constructed based on a primary Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation and then were refined based on the Kolmogorov length scale. Water as cold flow condition was applied and results were compared via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The focus was to investigate the flow behavior within the region before the flare and very close to the exit of the swirler. This region contributes to a highly unsteady flow behavior and requires great attention to enhancing the flame stability in gas turbine combustor and swirl burners. The PVC formation within the central core flow is strongly related to the peaks of pressure or axial velocity spectrum and up to two distinct peaks at the swirler mouth could be observed. Here, spectra analysis in iso-thermal condition inside the swirler where the inner swirler dominates the flow, showed a higher potential of instabilities with three to four distinct peaks where moving forward to the exit of swirler the number of peaks is decreased. In addition to this, the central axis corresponds to no peaks of instabilities while further away in the radial direction, several peaks exist.

Keywords: axial counter rotating swirler, large eddy simulation (LES), precessing vortex core (PVC), power spectral density (PSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
9505 Large Eddy Simulation with Energy-Conserving Schemes: Understanding Wind Farm Aerodynamics

Authors: Dhruv Mehta, Alexander van Zuijlen, Hester Bijl

Abstract:

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) numerically resolves the large energy-containing eddies of a turbulent flow, while modelling the small dissipative eddies. On a wind farm, these large scales carry the energy wind turbines extracts and are also responsible for transporting the turbines’ wakes, which may interact with downstream turbines and certainly with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this situation, it is important to conserve the energy that these wake’s carry and which could be altered artificially through numerical dissipation brought about by the schemes used for the spatial discretisation and temporal integration. Numerical dissipation has been reported to cause the premature recovery of turbine wakes, leading to an over prediction in the power produced by wind farms.An energy-conserving scheme is free from numerical dissipation and ensures that the energy of the wakes is increased or decreased only by the action of molecular viscosity or the action of wind turbines (body forces). The aim is to create an LES package with energy-conserving schemes to simulate wind turbine wakes correctly to gain insight into power-production, wake meandering etc. Such knowledge will be useful in designing more efficient wind farms with minimal wake interaction, which if unchecked could lead to major losses in energy production per unit area of the wind farm. For their research, the authors intend to use the Energy-Conserving Navier-Stokes code developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.

Keywords: energy-conserving schemes, modelling turbulence, Large Eddy Simulation, atmospheric boundary layer

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9504 Modeling and Simulation for 3D Eddy Current Testing in Conducting Materials

Authors: S. Bennoud, M. Zergoug

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of electromagnetic interactions is still a challenging problem, especially in problems that result in fully three dimensional mathematical models. The goal of this work is to use mathematical modeling to characterize the reliability and capacity of eddy current technique to detect and characterize defects embedded in aeronautical in-service pieces. The finite element method is used for describing the eddy current technique in a mathematical model by the prediction of the eddy current interaction with defects. However, this model is an approximation of the full Maxwell equations. In this study, the analysis of the problem is based on a three dimensional finite element model that computes directly the electromagnetic field distortions due to defects.

Keywords: eddy current, finite element method, non destructive testing, numerical simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
9503 Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields

Authors: Lei Zhang, Wen-jun Ruan, Hao Wang, Peng-Xin Wang

Abstract:

The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.

Keywords: supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings(FW-H) equations, nozzle size

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
9502 Large Eddy Simulations for Flow Blurring Twin-Fluid Atomization Concept Using Volume of Fluid Method

Authors: Raju Murugan, Pankaj S. Kolhe

Abstract:

The present study is mainly focusing on the numerical simulation of Flow Blurring (FB) twin fluid injection concept was proposed by Ganan-Calvo, which involves back flow atomization based on global bifurcation of liquid and gas streams, thus creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The interesting feature of FB injector spray is an insignificant effect of variation in atomizing air to liquid ratio (ALR) on a spray cone angle. Besides, FB injectors produce a nearly uniform spatial distribution of mean droplet diameter and are least susceptible to variation in thermo-physical properties of fuels, making it a perfect candidate for fuel flexible combustor development. The FB injector working principle has been realized through experimental flow visualization techniques only. The present study explores potential of ANSYS Fluent based Large Eddy Simulation(LES) with volume of fluid (VOF) method to investigate two-phase flow just upstream of injector dump plane and spray quality immediate downstream of injector dump plane. Note that, water and air represent liquid and gas phase in all simulations and ALR is varied by changing the air mass flow rate alone. Preliminary results capture two phase flow just upstream of injector dump plane and qualitative agreement is observed with the available experimental literature.

Keywords: flow blurring twin fluid atomization, large eddy simulation, volume of fluid, air to liquid ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
9501 Three Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation of Blood Flow and Deformation in an Elastic Constricted Artery

Authors: Xi Gu, Guan Heng Yeoh, Victoria Timchenko

Abstract:

In the current work, a three-dimensional geometry of a 75% stenosed blood vessel is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) with the help of a dynamic subgrid scale Smagorinsky model is applied to model the turbulent pulsatile flow. The geometry, the transmural pressure and the properties of the blood and the elastic boundary were based on clinical measurement data. For the flexible wall model, a thin solid region is constructed around the 75% stenosed blood vessel. The deformation of this solid region was modelled as a deforming boundary to reduce the computational cost of the solid model. Fluid-structure interaction is realised via a two-way coupling between the blood flow modelled via LES and the deforming vessel. The information of the flow pressure and the wall motion was exchanged continually during the cycle by an arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian method. The boundary condition of current time step depended on previous solutions. The fluctuation of the velocity in the post-stenotic region was analysed in the study. The axial velocity at normalised position Z=0.5 shows a negative value near the vessel wall. The displacement of the elastic boundary was concerned in this study. In particular, the wall displacement at the systole and the diastole were compared. The negative displacement at the stenosis indicates a collapse at the maximum velocity and the deceleration phase.

Keywords: Large Eddy Simulation, Fluid Structural Interaction, constricted artery, Computational Fluid Dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
9500 About Multi-Resolution Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Reactive Multi-Phase Flows

Authors: Giacomo Rossi, Bernardo Favini, Eugenio Giacomazzi, Franca Rita Picchia, Nunzio Maria Salvatore Arcidiacono

Abstract:

A numerical technique for mesh refinement in the HeaRT (Heat Release and Transfer) numerical code is presented. In the CFD framework, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is gaining in importance as a tool for simulating turbulent combustion processes, also if this approach has an high computational cost due to the complexity of the turbulent modeling and the high number of grid points necessary to obtain a good numerical solution. In particular, when a numerical simulation of a big domain is performed with a structured grid, the number of grid points can increase so much that the simulation becomes impossible: this problem can be overcame with a mesh refinement technique. Mesh refinement technique developed for HeaRT numerical code (a staggered finite difference code) is based on an high order reconstruction of the variables at the grid interfaces by means of a least square quasi-ENO interpolation: numerical code is written in modern Fortran (2003 standard of newer) and is parallelized using domain decomposition and message passing interface (MPI) standard.

Keywords: LES, multi-resolution, ENO, fortran

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9499 Numerical Study on Vortex-Driven Pressure Oscillation and Roll Torque Characteristics in a SRM with Two Inhibitors

Authors: Ji-Seok Hong, Hee-Jang Moon, Hong-Gye Sung

Abstract:

The details of flow structures and the coupling mechanism between vortex shedding and acoustic excitation in a solid rocket motor with two inhibitors have been investigated using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis. The oscillation frequencies and vortex shedding periods from two inhibitors compare reasonably well with the experimental data and numerical result. A total of four different locations of the rear inhibitor has been numerically tested to characterize the coupling relation of vortex shedding frequency and acoustic mode. The major source of triggering pressure oscillation in the combustor is the resonance with the acoustic longitudinal half mode. It was observed that the counter-rotating vortices in the nozzle flow produce roll torque.

Keywords: large eddy simulation, proper orthogonal decomposition, SRM instability, flow-acoustic coupling

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9498 Large Eddy Simulation of Hydrogen Deflagration in Open Space and Vented Enclosure

Authors: T. Nozu, K. Hibi, T. Nishiie

Abstract:

This paper discusses the applicability of the numerical model for a damage prediction method of the accidental hydrogen explosion occurring in a hydrogen facility. The numerical model was based on an unstructured finite volume method (FVM) code “NuFD/FrontFlowRed”. For simulating unsteady turbulent combustion of leaked hydrogen gas, a combination of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a combustion model were used. The combustion model was based on a two scalar flamelet approach, where a G-equation model and a conserved scalar model expressed a propagation of premixed flame surface and a diffusion combustion process, respectively. For validation of this numerical model, we have simulated the previous two types of hydrogen explosion tests. One is open-space explosion test, and the source was a prismatic 5.27 m3 volume with 30% of hydrogen-air mixture. A reinforced concrete wall was set 4 m away from the front surface of the source. The source was ignited at the bottom center by a spark. The other is vented enclosure explosion test, and the chamber was 4.6 m × 4.6 m × 3.0 m with a vent opening on one side. Vent area of 5.4 m2 was used. Test was performed with ignition at the center of the wall opposite the vent. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen concentrations close to 18% vol. were used in the tests. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with the previous experimental data for the accuracy of the numerical model, and we have verified that the simulated overpressures and flame time-of-arrival data were in good agreement with the results of the previous two explosion tests.

Keywords: deflagration, large eddy simulation, turbulent combustion, vented enclosure

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9497 Analysis of Vortical Structures Generated by the Swirler of Combustion Chamber

Authors: Vladislav A. Nazukin, Valery G. Avgustinovich, Vakhtang V. Tsatiashvili

Abstract:

The most important part of modern lean low NOx combustors is a premixer where swirlers are often used for intensification of mixing processes and further formation of required flow pattern in combustor liner. Swirling flow leads to formation of complex eddy structures causing flow perturbations. It is able to cause combustion instability. Therefore, at design phase, it is necessary to pay great attention to aerodynamics of premixers. Analysis based on unsteady CFD modeling of swirling flow in production combustor swirler showed presence of large number of different eddy structures that can be conditionally divided into three types relative to its location of origin and a propagation path. Further, features of each eddy type were subsequently defined. Comparison of calculated and experimental pressure fluctuations spectrums verified correctness of computations.

Keywords: DES simulation, swirler, vortical structures, combustion chamber

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
9496 Numerical Analysis of Swirling Chamber Using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence Model

Authors: Hamad M. Alhajeri

Abstract:

Swirling chamber is a promising cooling method for heavily thermally loaded parts like turbine blades due to the additional circumferential velocity and therefore improved turbulent mixing of the fluid. This paper investigates numerically the effect of turbulence model on the heat convection of the swirling chamber. Grid independence analysis is conducted to obtain the proper grid dimension. The work validated with experimental data available in the literature. Flow analysis using improved delayed detached eddy simulation turbulence model and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes k-ɛ turbulence model is carried. The flow characteristic near the exit is reformed when improved delayed detached eddy simulation model used.

Keywords: gas turbine, Nusselt number, flow characteristics, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
9495 Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations

Authors: K. Noah, F.-S. Lien

Abstract:

In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.

Keywords: compressible lattice Boltzmann method, multiple relaxation times, large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
9494 Shear Layer Investigation through a High-Load Cascade in Low-Pressure Gas Turbine Conditions

Authors: Mehdi Habibnia Rami, Shidvash Vakilipour, Mohammad H. Sabour, Rouzbeh Riazi, Hossein Hassannia

Abstract:

This paper deals with the steady and unsteady flow behavior on the separation bubble occurring on the rear portion of the suction side of T106A blade. The first phase was to implement the steady condition capturing the separation bubble. To accurately predict the separated region, the effects of three different turbulence models and computational grids were separately investigated. The results of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model on the finest grid structure are acceptably in a good agreement with its relevant experimental results. The second phase is mainly to address the effects of wake entrance on bubble disappearance in unsteady situation. In the current simulations, from what was suggested in an experiment, simulating the flow unsteadiness, with concentrations on small scale disturbances instead of simulating a complete oncoming wake, is the key issue. Subsequently, the results from the current strategy to apply the effects of the wake and two other experimental work were compared to be in a good agreement. Between the two experiments, one of them deals with wake passing unsteady flow, and the other one implements experimentally the same approach as the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation.

Keywords: low-pressure turbine cascade, large-Eddy simulation (LES), RANS turbulence models, unsteady flow measurements, flow separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
9493 CFD Simulation of a Large Scale Unconfined Hydrogen Deflagration

Authors: I. C. Tolias, A. G. Venetsanos, N. Markatos

Abstract:

In the present work, CFD simulations of a large scale open deflagration experiment are performed. Stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture occupies a 20 m hemisphere. Two combustion models are compared and are evaluated against the experiment. The Eddy Dissipation Model and a Multi-physics combustion model which is based on Yakhot’s equation for the turbulent flame speed. The values of models’ critical parameters are investigated. The effect of the turbulence model is also examined. k-ε model and LES approach were tested.

Keywords: CFD, deflagration, hydrogen, combustion model

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
9492 Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Inflow Strategy in Wind Energy Applications

Authors: Arijit Saha, Hassan Kassem, Leo Hoening

Abstract:

Ongoing climate change demands the increasing use of renewable energies. Wind energy plays an important role in this context since it can be applied almost everywhere in the world. To reduce the costs of wind turbines and to make them more competitive, simulations are very important since experiments are often too costly if at all possible. The wind turbine on a vast open area experiences the turbulence generated due to the atmosphere, so it was of utmost interest from this research point of view to generate the turbulence through various Inlet Turbulence Generation methods like Precursor cyclic and Kaimal Spectrum Exponential Coherence (KSEC) in the computational simulation domain. To be able to validate computational fluid dynamic simulations of wind turbines with the experimental data, it is crucial to set up the conditions in the simulation as close to reality as possible. This present work, therefore, aims at investigating the turbulent inflow strategy and boundary conditions of KSEC and providing a comparative analysis alongside the Precursor cyclic method for Large Eddy Simulation within the context of wind energy applications. For the generation of the turbulent box through KSEC method, firstly, the constrained data were collected from an auxiliary channel flow, and later processing was performed with the open-source tool PyconTurb, whereas for the precursor cyclic, only the data from the auxiliary channel were sufficient. The functionality of these methods was studied through various statistical properties such as variance, turbulent intensity, etc with respect to different Bulk Reynolds numbers, and a conclusion was drawn on the feasibility of KSEC method. Furthermore, it was found necessary to verify the obtained data with DNS case setup for its applicability to use it as a real field CFD simulation.

Keywords: Inlet Turbulence Generation, CFD, precursor cyclic, KSEC, large Eddy simulation, PyconTurb

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9491 Numerical Approach for Characterization of Flow Field in Pump Intake Using Two Phase Model: Detached Eddy Simulation

Authors: Rahul Paliwal, Gulshan Maheshwari, Anant S. Jhaveri, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati

Abstract:

Large pumping facility is the necessary requirement of the cooling water systems for power plants, process and manufacturing facilities, flood control and water or waste water treatment plant. With a large capacity of few hundred to 50,000 m3/hr, cares must be taken to ensure the uniform flow to the pump to limit vibration, flow induced cavitation and performance problems due to formation of air entrained vortex and swirl flow. Successful prediction of these phenomena requires numerical method and turbulence model to characterize the dynamics of these flows. In the past years, single phase shear stress transport (SST) Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes Models (like k-ε, k-ω and RSM) were used to predict the behavior of flow. Literature study showed that two phase model will be more accurate over single phase model. In this paper, a 3D geometries simulated using detached eddy simulation (LES) is used to predict the behavior of the fluid and the results are compared with experimental results. Effect of different grid structure and boundary condition is also studied. It is observed that two phase flow model can more accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence statistics compared to the steady SST model. These validate model will be used for further analysis of vortex structure in lab scale model to generate their frequency-plot and intensity at different location in the set-up. This study will help in minimizing the ill effect of vortex on pump performance.

Keywords: grid structure, pump intake, simulation, vibration, vortex

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9490 CFD simulation of Near Wall Turbulence and Heat Transfer of Molten Salts

Authors: C. S. Sona, Makrand A. Khanwale, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati

Abstract:

New generation nuclear power plants are currently being developed to be highly economical, to be passive safe, to produce hydrogen. An important feature of these reactors will be the use of coolants at temperature higher than that being used in current nuclear reactors. The molten fluoride salt with a eutectic composition of 46.5% LiF - 11.5% NaF - 42% KF (mol %) commonly known as FLiNaK is a leading candidate for heat transfer coolant for these nuclear reactors. CFD simulations were carried out using large eddy simulations to investigate the flow characteristics of molten FLiNaK at 850°C at a Reynolds number of 10,500 in a cylindrical pipe. Simulation results have been validated with the help of mean velocity profile using direct numerical simulation data. Transient velocity information was used to identify and characterise turbulent structures which are important for transfer of heat across solid-fluid interface. A wavelet transform based methodology called wavelet transform modulus maxima was used to identify and characterise the singularities. This analysis was also used for flow visualisation, and also to calculate the heat transfer coefficient using small eddy model. The predicted Nusselt number showed good agreement with the available experimental data.

Keywords: FLiNaK, heat transfer, molten salt, turbulent structures

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9489 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu

Abstract:

This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping, finite element model, shake table test

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9488 Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM

Authors: Zhuoneng Li, Zeeshan A. Rana, Karl W. Jenkins

Abstract:

In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.

Keywords: mesh sensitivity, turbulence models, OpenFOAM, RANS

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9487 Large Eddy Simulation of Particle Clouds Using Open-Source CFD

Authors: Ruo-Qian Wang

Abstract:

Open-source CFD has become increasingly popular and promising. The recent progress in multiphase flow enables new CFD applications, which provides an economic and flexible research tool for complex flow problems. Our numerical study using four-way coupling Euler-Lagrangian Large-Eddy Simulations to resolve particle cloud dynamics with OpenFOAM and CFDEM will be introduced: The fractioned Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved for fluid phase motion, solid phase motion is addressed by Lagrangian tracking for every single particle, and total momentum is conserved by fluid-solid inter-phase coupling. The grid convergence test was performed, which proves the current resolution of the mesh is appropriate. Then, we validated the code by comparing numerical results with experiments in terms of particle cloud settlement and growth. A good comparison was obtained showing reliability of the present numerical schemes. The time and height at phase separations were defined and analyzed for a variety of initial release conditions. Empirical formulas were drawn to fit the results.

Keywords: four-way coupling, dredging, land reclamation, multiphase flows, oil spill

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9486 Large-Eddy Simulations for Aeronautical Systems

Authors: R. R. Mankbadi

Abstract:

There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is embedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating, and cooling, etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include Airfoil Noise Suppression: Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) is used to simulate the effect of synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In vertical takeoff of Aircrafts or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protecting the structure and payload from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, flow control, aerodynamics, large eddy simulations

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9485 Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition

Authors: A. Benyahia, M. Zergoug, M. Amir, M. Fodil

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.

Keywords: DT, pulsed eddy current, continuous wavelet transform, Mexican hat wavelet mother, defect detection, power spectral density.

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9484 Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes for Computations of Flow Around Three-Dimensional Ahmed Bodies

Authors: Maryam Mirzaei, Sinisa Krajnovic´

Abstract:

The paper reports a study about the prediction of flows around simplified vehicles using Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS). Numerical simulations are performed for two simplified vehicles: A slanted-back Ahmed body at Re=30 000 and a square back Ahmed body at Re=300 000. A comparison of the resolved and modeled physical flow scales is made with corresponding LES and experimental data for a better understanding of the performance of the PANS model. The PANS model is compared for coarse and fine grid resolutions and it is indicated that even a coarse-grid PANS simulation is able to produce fairly close flow predictions to those from a well-resolved LES simulation. The results indicate the possibility of improvement of the predictions by employing a finer grid resolution.

Keywords: partially-averaged Navier-Stokes, large eddy simulation, PANS, LES, Ahmed body

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9483 Investigation of Effects and Hazards of Wind Flow on Buildings in Multiple Arrangements Using CFD

Authors: S. C. Gupta

Abstract:

The wind flow over several buildings lying in close vicinity in urban areas generates flow interference effects causing problems related to pedestrian comfort and ventilation within the buildings. This promoted a lot of research interest in the recent years. Airflow over a building creates a positive pressure zone on the upstream side and negative pressure zones (cavities or eddy zones) on the roof and all other sides. Large eddy simulation model is used along with sub-grid-scale model to numerically simulate turbulence for this purpose. The basis of flow outside the building is the pressure difference (between the wind and building interior). Wind Tunnel models are fabricated and tested in the subsonic wind tunnel. Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data. Newer configuration is tried for favorable effects in recovering static pressure values. Results obtained are seen very encouraging. The proposed exhaustive research investigation through numerical simulations and the experimental work are described and some interesting findings are brought out.

Keywords: wind flow, buildings, static pressure wind tunnel testing, CFD

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9482 Control of a Plane Jet Spread by Tabs at the Nozzle Exit

Authors: Makito Sakai, Takahiro Kiwata, Takumi Awa, Hiroshi Teramoto, Takaaki Kono, Kuniaki Toyoda

Abstract:

Using experimental and numerical results, this paper describes the effects of tabs on the flow characteristics of a plane jet at comparatively low Reynolds numbers while focusing on the velocity field and the vortical structure. The flow visualization and velocity measurements were respectively carried out using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). In addition, three-dimensional (3D) plane jet numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS Fluent, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software application. We found that the spreads of jets perturbed by large delta tabs and round tabs were larger than those produced by the other tabs tested. Additionally, it was determined that a plane jet with square tabs had the smallest jet spread downstream, and the jet’s centerline velocity was larger than those of jets perturbed by the other tabs tested. It was also observed that the spanwise vortical structure of a plane jet with tabs disappeared completely. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical simulation velocity profiles in the area near the nozzle exit when the laminar flow model was used. However, we also found that large eddy simulation (LES) is better at predicting the developing flow field of a plane jet than the laminar and the standard k-ε turbulent models.

Keywords: plane jet, flow control, tab, flow measurement, numerical simulation

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9481 Effect of Eddy Irrigant Activation on Cleanliness of the Root Canal Wall during Pulpectomy of Primary Teeth

Authors: Rasha Sharaf, Nehal Sharaf

Abstract:

Pulpectomy of primary teeth aims to remove the necrotic pulp tissue from the infected root canal and clean the root canal walls from any remnant of pulp tissue. Different irrigant activation systems have been recently used, and one of these devices is the Eddy which helps in removal of smear layer and improves the intimate contact between the filling material and the root canal wall. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Eddy in cleanliness of the root canal during pulpectomy of primary teeth. Materials and methods: 45 freshly extracted primary anterior teeth were divided into 3 equal groups, in the 1st group sodium hypochlorite only was used during pulpectomy, in the 2nd group irrigation using sodium hypochlorite with file agitation was performed and in the 3rd group sodium hypochlorite was used with Eddy for irrigant activation. All samples were sectioned longitudinally and scanned using scanning electron microscope to evaluate the cleanliness of the root canals. Results: It was found that Eddy showed high efficacy in removal of smear layer during pulpectomy of primary teeth.

Keywords: Eddy, irrigant activation, irrigation, pulpectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 58